The notorious King Henry VIII has long ruled the history books along with public imagination .
:Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority and appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings.Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign’s supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry’s administration. He was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money that was formerly paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars, particularly with Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, as he sought to enforce his claim to the Kingdom of France. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English Monarch to rule as King of Ireland.His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated, and accomplished king, and he has been described as “one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne”. He was an author and composer. As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.
Six Wives of King Henery VIII : For the new PBS Series : Secrets of the six Wives
‘Secrets of the Six Wives’ of Henry VIII
Cathherine of Aragon
Bron in Spain she was married to Henry almost 24 years and was arguably best -suited amomg all his wives to royal life. Only one child ,Mary survied infancy.
Anne of Cleves
Records indicate that Palace counties peered into Anne’s bedchamber as Henery struggled to Consumate their union .She become the richest woman in England after negotiating her divorce settment and she outlived all his other wives.
She was extremely bewitched , sexy ,excited , and she appeals to modern people because she appeared to create her own destiny Their daughter Elizabeth become one of the world’s best – know monarch’s Eliazbeth 1 .She was wrongly accuseded of adultery she was beheaded in 1539.
In their year of marrige she got Henery to lose weight by takeing hom out riding.He would say My new wife has rejuvened me . But her affairs left Henty who once called her his rose without a thorn hurt angry . And ,She was executed for adultry in 1542 . She asked to reharse with the chopped block before her execution so she would know what to expect.
She became in the 16th ceuntry the first woman England ever to publish books .She was stepdaughter Elizabeth and Mary both of whom would become formidable queen she train them up .She outlived Henry who died at 55 in 1547 and married for love Jane Seymours’s brother Thomas dut died a few days’s after giving bith at age 36.
She is buried beside Henry of Windsor Castle leading many to think she was his true love. Wed just one year before she died Wed just one year before she died of postnatal issues the couple’s closenes is because Henry didn’t have time to tire of her .Their died after giving birth to the thing that he wanted.
Wives of Henry VIII
The wives of Henry VIII were the six queens consort wedded to Henry VIII, King of England between 1509 and 1547.
The six women who were married to King Henry VIII were, in chronological order:
- Catherine of Aragon (divorced, died while detained under guard at Kimbolton Castle, mother of Mary I)
- Anne Boleyn (annulled, then beheaded, mother of Elizabeth I)
- Jane Seymour (died days after giving birth to Edward VI, believed to be caused by birth complications)
- Anne of Cleves (marriage annulled, outlived the rest of the wives)
- Katherine Howard (beheaded)
- Catherine Parr (widowed after Henry VIII died-however by only a short amount)
Henry’s first marriage lasted nearly 24 years, while the remaining five totaled less than 10 years combined.
A common mnemonic device to remember the fates of Henry’s consorts is “Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived”. There is also a rhyme:
King Henry VIII,
To six wives he was wedded.
One died, one survived,
Two divorced, two beheaded.
However, Henry did not “divorce” two wives, but rather had the marriages annulled. At the time, the laws relating to marriage were under the jurisdiction of canon law, and there was no divorce under canon law. Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn was also annulled before her death. So if one accepts the courts’ finding that the annulled marriages had never existed, Henry only had three wives—Seymour, Howard and Parr. So the rhyme would be more like this:
King Henry VIII,
To six wives he was wedded.
One died, one survived,
Two annulled, two beheaded.
It is often noted that Catherine Parr “survived him.” In fact, Anne of Cleves also survived the king, and was the last of his queens to die. Of the six queens, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, and Jane Seymour each gave Henry one child who survived infancy: two daughters and one son. All three of these children would eventually ascend to the throne: King Edward VI, Queen Mary I, and Queen Elizabeth I, respectively.
Catherine Howard and Anne Boleyn, the two of Henry’s queens who were beheaded, were first cousins. Several of Henry’s wives worked in at least one of his other wives’ service, typically as ladies-in-waiting: Anne Boleyn worked in Catherine of Aragon’s service, Jane Seymour worked in Catherine of Aragon’s and Anne Boleyn’s, and Catherine Howard worked in Anne of Cleves’s.
Henry was distantly related to all six of his wives through their common ancestor, King Edward I of England.
Henry and at least four of his wives (Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, and Catherine Parr) were portrayed in opera.
Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536; Spanish: Catalina de Aragón) was Henry’s first wife.After the death of Arthur, her first husband and Henry’s brother, a papal dispensation was obtained to enable her to marry Henry, though the marriage did not take place until after he came to the throne in 1509. Prospects were looking good when Catherine became pregnant in 1510, just 4 months after their marriage, but the girl was stillborn. Catherine became pregnant again in 1511, and gave birth to a boy who died almost two months later. In 1513, Catherine gave birth to a stillborn boy, and gave birth to a boy who died within a month in 1514. Finally, Catherine bore him a healthy daughter in 1516, Mary. It took her two years to conceive again. This pregnancy ended in a short-lived girl. It is said that Henry truly loved Catherine of Aragon, as he himself professed it many times in declarations etc.
Henry, at the time a Roman Catholic, sought the Pope’s approval for an annulment on the grounds that his marriage was invalid because Catherine had first been his brother’s wife, using a passage from the Old Testament (Leviticus Chapter 20 Verse 16) to justify his stance: “If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an impurity; he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.” Henry had begun an affair with Anne Boleyn, who is said[by whom?] to have refused to become his mistress (Henry had already consummated an affair then dismissed Anne’s sister, Mary Boleyn, and most historians believe that Anne wanted to avoid the same treatment). Despite the pope’s refusal, Henry separated from Catherine in 1531. In the face of the Pope’s continuing refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine, Henry ordered the highest church official in England, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, to convene a court to rule on the status of his marriage to Catherine. On 23 May 1533, Cranmer ruled the marriage to Catherine null and void. On 28 May 1533, he pronounced the King legally married to Anne (with whom Henry had already secretly exchanged wedding vows, probably in late January 1533). This led to the break from the Roman Catholic Church and the later establishment of the Church of England.
Shakespeare called Catherine “The Queen of Earthly Queens.”
Marriage to Henry VIII: 11 June 1509 – 23 May 1533 (23 years, 11 months, 19 days); marriage annulled.
Anne Boleyn (c.1501/1507 – 19 May 1536) was Henry’s second wife and the mother of Elizabeth I. Henry’s marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation. The daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Boleyn (born Lady Elizabeth Howard), Anne was of nobler birth than Jane Seymour, Henry’s later wife. She was dark-haired, with beautiful features and lively manners; she was educated in Europe, largely as a lady-in-waiting to Queen Claude of France.
Anne resisted the King’s attempts to seduce her in 1526 and she refused to become his mistress, as her sister, Mary Boleyn, had been. It soon became the one absorbing object of the King’s desires to secure a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, so he could marry Anne. Evidence of intimacy between the King and Anne is found in a love letter written by the King, in which he expressed admiration for her “pretty duckies” (breasts). When it became clear that Pope Clement VII was unlikely to give the king an annulment, the breaking of the power of the Roman Catholic Church in England began.
Henry had Thomas Wolsey dismissed from public office and later had the Boleyn family’s chaplain, Thomas Cranmer, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1533, Henry and Anne went through a secret wedding service. She soon became pregnant and there was a second, public wedding service, which took place in London on 25 January 1533. On 23 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. Five days later, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be good and valid. Soon after, the Pope launched sentences of excommunication against the King and the Archbishop. As a result of Anne’s marriage to the King, the Church of England was forced to break with Rome and was brought under the king’s control.Anne was crowned Queen Consort of England on 1 June 1533. Later that year, on 7 September, Anne gave birth to Henry’s second daughter, Elizabeth. When Anne failed to quickly produce a male heir, her only son being stillborn, the King grew tired of her, divorced her, and a plot was hatched by Thomas Cromwell to execute her.Although the evidence against her was unconvincing, Anne was beheaded on charges of adultery, incest, and high treason on 19 May 1536. Following her daughter Elizabeth’s coronation as queen, Anne was venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation, particularly through the works of John Foxe. Over the centuries, Anne has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works.Marriage to Henry VIII: 28 May 1533 – 17 May 1536 (2 years, 11 months, 19 days); annulled, then beheaded.
Jane Seymour (c.roughly 1508 – 24 October 1537) was Henry’s third wife. She served Catherine of Aragon and was one of Anne Boleyn’s ladies-in-waiting. It is strongly believed[who?] that she is the mistress who disposed of Anne, who was executed just 10–11 days before Jane’s marriage to the king. The daughter of a knight, she was of lower birth than most of Henry’s wives. Finally, a year later, Jane gave birth to a healthy, legitimate male heir, Edward, but she died twelve days later, presumably because of post-natal complications. This apparently caused her husband genuine grief, as she was the only queen to receive a proper Queen’s burial; when the King died in 1547, he was buried next to her.
Marriage to Henry VIII: 30 May 1536 – 24 October 1537 (1 year, 4 months, 24 days); death from complications of childbirth.
Anne of Cleves
Anne of Cleves (22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was Henry’s fourth wife, for only six months in 1540, from 6 January to 9 July. Anne of Cleves was a German princess. It has been stated that Henry referred to her as “A Flanders Mare“, which may or may not be true; nevertheless, the label has stuck with Anne.Her pre-contract of marriage with Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, was cited as grounds for an annulment. Anne agreed to this, claiming that the marriage had not been consummated, and because she hadn’t resisted the annulment, was given a generous settlement, including Hever Castle, former home of Henry’s former in-laws, the Boleyns. She was given the name “The King’s Sister”, and became a friend to him and his children until his death. She outlived both the King and his last two wives, making her the last of the six wives to die.
Marriage to Henry VIII: 6 January 1540 – 9 July 1540 (6 months, 3 days); annulled.
Catherine Howard (c.1521 – 13 February 1542) was Henry’s fifth wife between 1540–1541, sometimes known as “the rose without a thorn”. Henry was informed of her alleged adultery with Thomas Culpeper on 1 November 1541.
Marriage to Henry VIII: 28 July 1540 – 23 November 1541 (1 year, 3 months, 26 days); beheaded.
Catherine Parr (1512 – 5 September 1548), also spelled Kateryn, was the sixth and last wife of Henry VIII, 1543–1547. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal and his wife Maud Green. Through her father, Catherine was a descendant of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III. Through John of Gaunt’s daughter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland (Henry’s great-great grandmother), she was Henry’s third cousin, once removed. By Henry’s paternal descent from another of John of Gaunt’s children, John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, the two were also fourth cousins once removed.Catherine showed herself to be the restorer of Henry’s court as a family home for his children. Catherine was determined to present the royal household as a close-knit one in order to demonstrate strength through unity to Henry’s opposers. Perhaps Catherine’s most significant achievement was Henry’s passing of an act that confirmed both Mary’s and Elizabeth’s line in succession for the throne, despite the fact that they had both been made illegitimate by divorce or remarriage. Such was Henry’s trust in Catherine that he chose her to rule as Regent while he was attending to the war in France and in the unlikely event of the loss of his life, she was to rule as Regent until nine-year-old Edward came of age.Catherine also has a special place in history as she was the most married queen of England, having had four husbands in all; Henry was her third. She had been widowed twice before marrying Henry. After Henry’s death, she married Thomas Seymour, uncle of Edward VI of England, to whom she had formed an attachment prior to her marriage with Henry. She had one child by Seymour, Mary, and died shortly after childbirth. Mary’s history is unknown, but she is believed to have died as a toddler.Marriage to Henry VIII: 12 July 1543 – 28 January 1547 (3 years, 6 months, 16 days); his death at the age of 55.
The Rise of Teen Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria who ascended shorthly after her 18th birthday and overnight become the most powerful woman in world. Her passionate marriage to Prince Albert would become a love story for the ages with specailly insalled bedroom door locks.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her father’s three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet “the grandmother of Europe”. After Albert’s death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Victoria’s family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria
|Name||Birth||Death||Spouse and children|
|Victoria, Princess Royal,
later German Empress and Queen of Prussia
|21 November 1840||5 August 1901||Married 1858, Frederick, Crown Prince of Germany and Prussia later Frederick III, German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888);
4 sons, 4 daughters (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor and King of Prussia and Sophia, Queen of the Hellenes)
|Albert Edward, Prince of Wales,
later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom
|9 November 1841||6 May 1910||Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925);
3 sons, 3 daughters (including King George V of the United Kingdom and Maud, Queen of Norway)
later Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine
|25 April 1843||14 December 1878||Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892);
2 sons, 5 daughters (including Alix, Empress of Russia)
|Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh
later Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
|6 August 1844||31 July 1900||Married 1874, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920);
2 sons (1 still-born), 4 daughters (including Marie, Queen of Romania)
|Princess Helena later Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein||25 May 1846||9 June 1923||Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917);
4 sons (1 still-born), 2 daughters
later Duchess of Argyll
|18 March 1848||3 December 1939||Married 1871, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914);
later Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
|1 May 1850||16 January 1942||Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917);
1 son, 2 daughters
later Duke of Albany
|7 April 1853||28 March 1884||Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922);
1 son, 1 daughter
|Princess Beatrice later Princess Henry of Battenberg||14 April 1857||26 October 1944||Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896);
3 sons, 1 daughter (including Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain)