Spring Recipe 2021

30 Best Spring Recipes 2021 - Spring Foods in Season Right Now
What food is eaten in spring season? Enjoy these  delicious spring foods!
What fruits are in season in spring?
Spring Fruits:

Here are the following seasonal fruits and vegetables fit for your spring diet:

Spring Fruits:

  1. Apricots

Apricots are very nutritious and contain many essential vitamins and minerals. High in antioxidants May promote eye health.


Avocados are a great source of vitamins C, E, K, and B-6, as well as riboflavin, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. They also provide lutein, beta-carotene, and omega-3 fatty acids

 2 Carrots

The fiber in carrots can help keep blood sugar levels under control. And they’re loaded with¬†vitamin A¬†and beta-carotene, which there’s evidence to suggest can lower your diabetes risk. They can strengthen your bones. Carrots have calcium and¬†vitamin K, both of which are important for bone health


Cherries contain a good amount of potassium, and thus, help in removing excess sodium content from the body and balances the amount of both potassium and sodium which automatically helps in maintaining your blood pressure levels.

The antioxidants present in cherries called anthocyanins help in reducing bad cholesterol levels, regulate the blood pressure and fight free radicals that may cause inflammation.

Cherries are rich in antioxidants and as we know antioxidants fight the free radicals which make the skin look dull. 

Cherries are alkaline in nature. Whenever there is an increase in the acidic content of the body, cherries can come in handy to balance the Ph levels by neutralizing it and preventing stomach problems like acidity or indigestion. 

Cherries are believed to be one of the most energy boosting fruits. They can help in building blood cells which automatically eases circulation and boosts our energy levels.

Cherries contain a good amount of potassium, and thus, help in removing excess sodium content from the body and balances the amount of both potassium and sodium which automatically helps in maintaining your blood pressure levels. 

Cherries contain a hormone called melatonin which facilitates good, peaceful sleep. Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It is known to regulate your sleep and wake cycles and control the internal body clock.



Grapefruit and other citrus fruits are full of antioxidants, vitamin C, and folic acid all support sexual reproduction among men.It Has Been Shown to Aid Weight Loss. .

Eating Grapefruit May Improve Heart Health.

Grapefruit May Help Prevent Insulin Resistance and Diabetes.


It’s thought that the high amount of vitamin C and antioxidants that kiwis contain can actually help treat people with asthma.

Fresh fruit like kiwi may reduce wheezing in susceptible children.

Kiwis have plenty of fiber, which is already good for digestion. 

Kiwis are nutrient-dense and full of vitamin C. In fact, just 1 cup of kiwi provides about 273 percent of your daily recommended value. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient when it comes to boosting your immune system to ward off disease.

Not only can kiwi fruits provide an extra boost to our immune system, they can also help us to manage our blood pressure

. They were also found to reduce the amount of fat in the blood. Researchers said that these effects were similar to those of a daily dose of aspirin to improve heart health.

Macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, and kiwis might help protect your eyes from it. 


Vitamin C:¬†Since your body doesn‚Äôt make it naturally, you have to get vitamin C from food — like kumquats — or tablets. It‚Äôs important for:

  • Blood vessels, which carry¬†blood¬†to your tissues and organs
  • Cartilage, a tough but flexible tissue in your body
  • Muscle
  • Collagen, a protein in bones that plays a role in¬†bone¬†health
  • Healing

Vitamin A: Kumquats help you get this nutrient that’s critical to many of your body’s tasks, like:

  • Vision
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Immunity

Vitamin A is also an antioxidant. That means it protects your cells from the effects of free radicals. Those are molecules your body makes that could play a role in heart disease, cancer, and other diseases.

Fiber: You may already know that eating fiber helps you poop more easily. That type of fiber is called insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water and is in citrus fruits like kumquats, can lower your cholesterol and blood sugar.


Lemons contain a high amount of vitamin C, soluble fiber, and plant compounds that give them a number of health benefits. Lemons may aid weight loss and reduce your risk of heart disease, anemia, kidney stones, digestive issues, and cancer.

As a rich source of vitamin C, lemon juice protects the body from Immune system deficiencies. Drinking lemon juice with warm water every morning helps in maintaining the pH balance of the body. Acts as a detoxifying agent. Helps with maintaining digestive health.

*List originally published by the Edison Institute of Nutrition here

  1. As a rich source of vitamin C, lemon juice protects the body from Immune system deficiencies.
  2. Drinking lemon juice with warm water every morning helps in maintaining the pH balance of the body.
  3. With its powerful antibacterial properties, lemon juice helps fight infections
  4. Acts as a detoxifying agent.
  5. Helps with maintaining digestive health.
  6. Along with vitamin C, lemons are also a rich source of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium etc.
  7. Helps fight common cold
  8. Lemon water is also a popular remedy for many kinds of skin problems ranging from acne, rashes and wrinkles to dark spots.
  9. Lemon juice with warm water helps in quick weight loss as it promotes digestion and increases the metabolic rate.
  10. Lemon juice is also very effective at cleansing the liver as it promotes the liver to flush out toxins
  11. Lemon’s anti-inflammatory properties help in fighting respiratory tract infections, sore throat and inflammation of tonsils.
  12. Lemon juice with warm water helps keep the body hydrated as it provides electrolytes to the body.
  13. Drinking lemon juice with warm water also helps reduce joint and muscle pain.
  14. Lemon juice with warm water is also good for your dental health as it helps with toothache and prevents gingivitis.
  15. Lemon juice with warm water helps with digestion and hence, helps regulate natural bowel movement.


Mango is packed with polyphenols ‚ÄĒ plant compounds that function as antioxidants.Mango is a good source of immune-boosting nutrients.

Mango also contains folate, vitamin K, vitamin E and several B vitamins, which aid immunity as well.

Mango is a good source of folate, several B vitamins, as well as vitamins A, C, K and E ‚ÄĒ all of which help boost immunity.

Mango contains nutrients that support a healthy heart.

Mango has several qualities that make it excellent for digestive health.

Mango has digestive enzymes, water, dietary fiber and other compounds that aid different aspects of digestive health.

Mango contains vitamin C, which gives your skin its elasticity and prevents sagging and wrinkling. It also provides vitamin A, which promotes healthy hair.

Mango is high in polyphenols, which may have anticancer properties.


Pineapples also contain trace amounts of vitamins A and K, phosphorus, zinc and calcium.Vitamin C is essential for growth and development, a healthy immune system and aiding the absorption of iron from the diet.

Pineapples are especially rich in antioxidants known as flavonoids and phenolic acids .

Pineapples are a good source of antioxidants, which may reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Many of the antioxidants in pineapple are bound, so they may have longer lasting effects.

Pineapples contain bromelain, a group of digestive enzymes that breaks down proteins. This may aid digestion, especially in those with pancreatic insufficiency.

Pineapple contains compounds that reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which are linked to cancer. One of these compounds is the enzyme bromelain, which may stimulate cell death in certain cancer cells and aid white blood cell function.

Children who ate pineapples had a significantly lower risk of both viral and bacterial infections. Also, children who ate the most pineapple had close to four times more disease-fighting white blood cells (granulocytes) than the other two groups .

Pineapples have anti-inflammatory properties that may boost the immune system.

The anti-inflammatory properties of pineapple may provide short-term symptom relief for people with common types of arthritis.

Navel oranges

Navel oranges are one of the healthiest fruits you can eat, filled with Vitamin C, fiber, potassium and low in calories. Consuming navel oranges more often may protect against heart disease, cancer and diabetes while also helping to improve memory, blood pressure, immune system and overall health


Strawberries’ carbs consists mainly of fibers and simple sugars. They have a relatively low GI and should not cause big spikes in blood sugar levels.

Eating strawberries is associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases 

Strawberries may also:

  • improve blood antioxidant status
  • decrease oxidative stress
  • reduce inflammation
  • improve vascular function
  • improve your blood lipid profile
  • reduce the harmful oxidation of LDL (bad) cholesterol

Strawberries may decrease your risk of heart disease and cancer, as well as help regulate blood sugar.

Spring Vegetables:


Artichokes are low in fat while rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Particularly high in folate and vitamins C and K, they also supply important minerals, such as magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and iron.

Artichoke leaf extract may have a positive effect on cholesterol levels 

Artichoke extract may aid people with high blood pressure.

Artichoke extract may help lower blood pressure in people with already elevated levels.

Artichoke leaf extract may maintain digestive health by boosting friendly gut bacteria and alleviating symptoms of indigestion.

Artichoke leaf extract may help treat IBS symptoms by reducing muscle spasms, balancing gut bacteria, and reduce inflammation. However, more research is necessary.


Arugula is high in several key nutrients for bone health, including calcium and vitamin K.


This giant veggie is one of the most nutritionally well-balanced vegetables — high in¬†folic acid¬†and a good source of¬†potassium,¬†fiber, thiamin, and¬†vitamins¬†A, B6, and C. A 5-ounce serving provides 60% of the RDA for¬†folic acid¬†and is low in calories.


Beets are loaded with vitamins and minerals and low in calories and fat. They also contain inorganic nitrates and pigments, both of which have a number of health benefits.

Eating beets may also improve cycling and athletic performance and increase oxygen use by up to 20%.

Eating beets may enhance athletic performance by improving oxygen use and time to exhaustion. To maximize their effects, beets should be consumed 2‚Äď3 hours prior to training or competing.

Beetroot juice and beetroot extract have been shown to reduce kidney inflammation in rats injected with toxic chemicals known to induce serious injury.

Beets are a good source of fiber, which is beneficial for digestive health, as well as reducing the risk of a number of chronic health conditions.

Beets contain nitrates, which may help increase blood flow to the brain, improve cognitive function and possibly reduce the risk of dementia. However, more research in this area is needed.

Fava beans

Fava beans are incredibly nutritious and an excellent source of soluble fiber, protein, folate, manganese, copper and several other micronutrients.

Fava beans are incredibly nutritious and an excellent source of soluble fiber, protein, folate, manganese, copper and several other micronutrients.

Fava beans are rich in L-dopa, which your body converts to dopamine. Since Parkinson’s disease is characterized by low dopamine levels, eating fava beans may help with symptoms. Still, more research on this topic is needed.

Fava beans are loaded with folate, a nutrient that promotes proper brain and spinal cord development in infants. Adequate folate intake in pregnant women can help prevent neural tube defects.

Fava beans are rich in¬†manganese and copper ‚ÄĒ two nutrients that may prevent bone loss.

Fava beans are loaded with magnesium and potassium that may help relax blood vessels and decrease high blood pressure.

Fava beans may be good for your waistline.

Fava beans are high in soluble fiber that can bind to and remove cholesterol from your body. This type of fiber has also been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels.

Fava beans should be removed from their pods and outer coatings before eating. Steamed or roasted fava beans can be added to a variety of meals and snacks.


Fennel is super high in dietary fiber, covering more than 25 percent of your daily value, as well as potassium, which is crucial in maintaining low blood pressure. It’s got vitamins A, C, B6, and a host of others, reining in those free radicals that lead to premature aging.


Nutritionally speaking, fiddleheads contain about 22 calories, 3 grams of carbohydrates, 2.8 grams of protein and 0.2 grams of fat per half cup serving. They owe their beta-carotene content to their deep green color. Fiddleheads also provide a good amount of vitamin C, niacin and potassium


Kale is rich in minerals, antioxidants and vitamins, particularly vitamins A, C and K. To reap the most benefits, it’s best eaten raw, as cooking reduces the nutritional profile of the vegetable.

Vitamin K is known for its role in blood clotting. In addition, more research is being done regarding its ability to improve bone health 

Collard greens have thick leaves and are bitter in taste. They’re one of the best sources of vitamin K, may reduce blood clots and promote healthy bones.

Cabbage has thick leaves and comes in various colors. It has cancer-protective properties and can be turned into sauerkraut, which offers additional health benefits.

Beet greens are edible green leaves found on the tip of beets. They’re full of nutrients, including antioxidants that may support eye health.

Watercress has been used in herbal medicine for centuries. A few test-tube studies suggest it may be beneficial in cancer treatment, but no human studies have confirmed these effects.

Romaine lettuce is a popular lettuce found in many salads. It’s rich in vitamins A and K, and a study in rats suggests it may improve blood lipid levels.

Swiss chard also contains a unique flavonoid called syringic acid ‚ÄĒ a compound that may be beneficial for lowering blood sugar levels¬†

Swiss chard also contains a unique flavonoid called syringic acid ‚ÄĒ a compound that may be beneficial for lowering blood sugar levels¬†


Leeks are rich in Vitamin K, which may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Some studies show a relationship between a higher intake of Vitamin K and denser bones, which lead to a reduced risk of hip fractures.

Leeks contain lutein and zeaxanthin, two substances that protect the eyes. These substances, known as carotenoids, reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration.



Lettuce is one of the most widely consumed vegetables worldwide, but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories, fat and sodium. It is a good source of fiber, iron, folate, and vitamin C. Lettuce is also a good source of various other health-beneficial bioactive compounds.


The morel contains high amounts of potassium, vitamins and copper which all contribute to a healthy heart. Some of these benefactors contribute to help protect the body and the morel is a wonderful source of Vitamin D. “Morels are known to contain one of the highest amounts of Vitamin D among all edible mushrooms.


Stinging nettle offers a variety of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids, polyphenols and pigments ‚ÄĒ many of which also act as antioxidants inside your body.

Stinging nettle may help reduce prostate size and treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate gland in men with BPH.

Stinging nettle may help lower blood pressure by allowing your blood vessels to relax and reducing the force of your heart’s contractions. Yet, more human studies are needed to confirm these effects.

Stinging nettle’s other potential health benefits include lessened bleeding, boosted liver health and wound healing.

Spring onions

Spring onions are a great source of Vitamin C and Calcium. They are also an excellent source of dietary fibre, vitamin A and B6, and various minerals. Whereas, onions contain antioxidants and compounds that fight inflammation, reduce cholesterol levels which helps lower risks of heart diseases.


Rich in antioxidants and nutrients like¬†vitamins A, K, and C, parsley may improve blood sugar and support heart, kidney, and¬†bone health. What’s more, this herb can easily be added to many tasty dishes. Parsley stays fresh for up to two weeks, whereas dried parsley may last up to a year.

Another important factor that parsley helps with is in maintaining blood sugar balance, and the chlorophyll content can aid weight loss. It also contains enzymes that improve digestion and play a role in losing weight.

Vitamin C also has strong antioxidant effects and plays an important role in supporting immune health and protecting against chronic disease.

Parsley contains many powerful antioxidants, which may help prevent cell damage and lower your risk of certain diseases.

Vitamin K helps build stronger bones by supporting bone-building cells called osteoblasts. This vitamin also activates certain proteins that increase bone mineral density ‚ÄĒ a measure of the amount of minerals present in your bones .

Parsley is rich in vitamin K, which is an essential nutrient for optimal bone health. Eating foods high in this nutrient has been linked to a reduced risk of fractures and improved bone mineral density.


Peas are a good source of vitamins C and E, zinc, and other antioxidants that strengthen your immune system. Other nutrients, such as vitamins A and B and coumestrol, help reduce inflammation and lower your risk of chronic conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis.


Radishes are rich in antioxidants and minerals like calcium and potassium. Together, these nutrients help lower high blood pressure and reduce your risks for heart disease. The radish is also a good source of natural nitrates that improve blood flow.

Radishes are a good source of antioxidants like catechin, pyrogallol, vanillic acid, and other phenolic compounds. These root vegetables also have a good amount of vitamin C, which acts as an antioxidant to protect your cells from damage. 

Radishes are rich in antioxidants and minerals like calcium and potassium


Rhubarb is rich in antioxidants, particularly anthocyanins (which give it its red color) and proanthocyanidins. These antioxidants have anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties, which help protect you from many health-related issues such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.


Twice the daily recommended amount for adults of vitamin K, which helps your blood clot and keeps your bones strong

About 25% of your daily value for vitamin C, an antioxidant that helps protect your cells from damage

About 16% of your daily requirement for folate, a vitamin your body needs to make DNA and which is especially important for women who are pregnant

Scallions are high in vitamin K, which works against blood thinning medication. If you’re taking warfarin to prevent strokes, heart attacks, or blood clots, ask your doctor if green onions are safe for you.


Spinach¬†(Spinacia oleracea) is a leafy green vegetable that originated in Persia. It belongs to the amaranth family and is related to beets and quinoa. What’s more, it’s considered very healthy, as it’s loaded with nutrients and antioxidants.

Most of the carbs in spinach consist of fiber, which is incredibly healthy.

Spinach also contains small amounts of sugar, mostly in the form of glucose and fructose.

Spinach is high in insoluble fiber, which may boost your health in several ways

Spinach is rich in zeaxanthin and lutein, which are the carotenoids responsible for color in some vegetables.

Human eyes also contain high quantities of these pigments, which protect your eyes from the damage caused by sunlight 

Spinach boasts many plant compounds that can improve health, such as lutein, kaempferol, nitrates, quercetin, and zeaxanthin.

Spinach contains high amounts of nitrates, which have been shown to help moderate blood pressure levels and decrease your risk of heart disease .

Spinach is high in vitamin K1, which serves several functions in your body but is best known for its role in blood clotting.

Spinach may decrease oxidative stress, improve eye health, and help prevent heart disease and cancer.

Spinach is an excellent source of many vitamins and minerals, including :

  • Vitamin A.¬†Spinach is high in carotenoids, which your body can turn into¬†vitamin A.
  • Vitamin C.¬†This vitamin is a powerful antioxidant that promotes skin health and immune function.
  • Vitamin K1.¬†This vitamin is essential for blood clotting. Notably, one spinach leaf contains over half of your daily needs.
  • Folic acid.¬†Also known as folate or vitamin B9, this compound is vital for¬†pregnant women¬†and essential for normal cellular function and tissue growth.
  • Iron.¬†Spinach is an excellent source of this essential mineral. Iron helps create hemoglobin, which brings oxygen to your body‚Äôs tissues.
  • Calcium.¬†This mineral is essential for bone health and a crucial signaling molecule for your nervous system, heart, and muscles.

Spinach also contains several other vitamins and minerals, including potassium, magnesium, and vitamins B6, B9, and E.

Swiss chard

Swiss chard is a low-calorie vegetable that is high in magnesium, iron, potassium and vitamins A, C and K.

Swiss chard is also high in antioxidants, which fight free radicals in your body that may lead to certain diseases 

Swiss chard is high in fiber, an important nutrient that can help maintain weight, lower your risk of certain cancers and promote heart health.

Vitamin K is involved in many important processes in your body.

Swiss chard may help lower blood pressure and cholesterol, which may prevent heart disease.

Swiss chard is high in fiber and antioxidants, which may improve blood sugar control and lower your risk of diabetes.

Swiss chard is high in fiber and low in calories, making it a weight-loss-friendly food.


They are a good source of vitamin B6, folate, calcium, potassium, and copper. A very good source of dietary fiber, vitamin C, and manganese. The turnip greens are a super food and packed with nutrients. They are a good source of protein, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, iron, and phosphorus.

¬†Really Good Recipes You’ll Absolutely Want To Make This March
  • Avocado Deviled Eggs.¬†

yield: 12 SERVINGS

prep time: 30 MINUTES

cook time: 15 MINUTES

total time: 45 MINUTES
  • 2 slices bacon, diced
  • 6 large eggs
  • 1 avocado, halved, seeded and peeled
  • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro leaves
  • 1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice
  • Zest of 1 lemon
  • Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
  • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh chives
  • 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
  1. Heat a large skillet over medium high heat. Add bacon and cook until brown and crispy, about 6-8 minutes. Transfer to a paper towel-lined plate; set aside.
  2. Place eggs in a large saucepan and cover with cold water by 1 inch. Bring to a boil and cook for 1 minute. Cover eggs with a tight-fitting lid and remove from heat; set aside for 8-10 minutes.
  3. Drain well and let cool before peeling and cutting the eggs in half lengthwise, reserving the yolks.
  4. In a small bowl, mash the yolks and avocado with a fork until chunky. Stir in cilantro, lemon juice and lemon zest; season with salt and pepper, to taste.
  5. Use a pastry bag fitted with decorative tip #1M to pipe into the eggs, topped with bacon and garnished with chives and cayenne pepper, if desired.*
  • Citrus and Ricotta Breakfast Bowl.¬†
TIME 5 mins
  • 1/2¬†cup¬†full-fat ricotta cheese
  • 1/2¬†cup¬†full-fat Greek yogurt
  • zest from half an orange¬†clementine, mandarin, blood, cara cara, etc
  • 2¬†small or 1 large orange¬†or other citrus fruit of choice
  • 1¬†Tablespoon¬†shelled hemp seeds¬†aka hemp hearts
  • a drizzle each of extra virgin olive oil and raw honey
  • 1. Scoop yogurt and ricotta into a serving bowl, and stir them together with the orange zest. If using a larger citrus fruit like cara cara or navel oranges, grapefruit, or pomelo, only use the zest of about a quarter of the fruit (to yield 1/2 teaspoon, at most).
  • 2. Peel and segment the citrus, and slice into bite sized pieces. Top ricotta mixture with citrus slices, hemp seeds, olive oil, and honey. Eat immediately.
  • Sweet Potato and Brussels Sprouts Hash With Bacon. .
  • 2¬†tbsp¬†cooking fat of choice, EVOO or coconut oil.
  • 1¬†sweet potato,¬†2 cups, diced
  • 3¬†strips of bacon,¬†diced, Wellshire Turkey Bacon.
  • 1¬†lb¬†fresh brussels sprouts,¬†halved
  • 1/2¬†tsp¬†salt
  • 1/2¬†tsp¬†pepper
  • 1/2¬†tsp¬†dried rosemary
  • 1/2¬†tsp¬†dried thyme
  • Heat cooking fat of choice (I use EVOO usually) in a cast iron skillet or favorite non stick frying pan.
  • Add diced sweet potato, diced bacon, and halved brussels sprouts to the skillet. Sprinkle with salt, pepper, dried rosemary, and dried thyme. Stir.¬†
  • Saute on medium high heat, stirring occasionally until sides of potatoes have browned. This usually takes about 5 minutes.
  • Once potatoes and brussels sprouts have some browning, cover the pan with a lid and reduce heat to medium for 5 to 10 minutes. This will quickly soften them up.
  • Hash is done when potatoes are tender. Taste and add more salt and pepper if you like. Serve immediately.
  • Mushroom and Asparagus Frittata.
Prep Time:10 minutes
Cook Time:20 minutes
5 minutes
Total Time:30 minutes
Course: Brunch
Cuisine: gluten-free, Italian, Special Occasion, vegetarian
Keyword: asparagus,, breakfast, brunch, dairy, easy recipes, eggs, lunch, mushrooms, spring recipes
Servings: 6  Author: Daniela Miranda
  • 8¬†large¬†eggs
  • 1/4¬†cup¬†heavy cream
  • 1¬†cup¬†cheddar cheese¬†grated
  • 1/2¬†pound¬†cremini mushrooms¬†sliced
  • 1/4¬†pound¬†asparagus¬†trimmed and sliced into 1 in chunks
  • 2¬†scallions¬†thinly sliced
  • 1¬†tbsp¬†vegetable oil
  • 4¬†thin asparagus spears (optional)¬†trimmed
  • kosher salt
  • freshly ground black pepper
  • Preheat your oven to 400 ‚ĄČ.
  • Crack the eggs into a medium-sized bowl. Add the heavy cream and salt and pepper to taste and whisk until just combined (be careful not to over beat or your frittata will be too dry).
  • Add the scallions and cheddar cheese and mix until just combined. Set aside.
  • Heat vegetable oil in a cast iron skillet or oven-safe non-stick skillet over medium high heat. Add the mushrooms and asparagus and cook until the asparagus just start to soften and the mushrooms give up all of their moisture, 6-10 min. Season with a pinch of salt and pepper.
  • Lower the heat to medium and add the egg mixture to the skillet with the vegetables. Gently spread out the vegetables to make sure that they are evenly distributed.
  • If decorating the top with the asparagus spears, gently place them on top of the frittata in a decorative fashion. This step is optional.
  • Cook for two minutes and then transfer the skillet to the oven.
  • Cook for 8-11 min or until the edges are set and starting to brown and the center of the frittata is still a bit wiggly. If you would like a nice browned top, turn the broiler on and cook for an additional minute.
  • Remove skillet from the oven and let the frittata set in the skillet for 5 min. Cut and serve. This frittata can be served warm or at room temperature.

Tandoori Roast Cauliflower With Garlic Cilantro Yogurt Sauce.

 CourseBigger Bites, Entrée
 Cuisine Gluten-Free, Grain-Free, plant-based, Vegan
 Prep Time 15 minutes
 Cook Time 1 hour 15 minutes
 Total Time 1 hour 30 minutes
 Servings 2
Tandoori Cauliflower Roast
    • 2/3¬†cup¬†unsweetened plain coconut yogurt
    • 3¬†cloves¬†garlic, smashed and peeled
    • 2¬†tablespoons¬†fresh lemon juice
    • 1¬†tablespoon¬†extra-virgin olive oil
    • 1¬†teaspoon¬†smoked paprika
    • 1¬†teaspoon¬†sea salt
    • 1/2¬†teaspoon¬†ground cumin
    • 1/2¬†teaspoon¬†ground coriander
    • 1/4¬†teaspoon¬†ground turmeric
    • 1/4¬†teaspoon¬†ground cinnamon
    • 1/4¬†teaspoon¬†ground ginger
    • 1/8¬†teaspoon¬†cayenne pepper
  • 1/8¬†teaspoon¬†ground cloves
  • 1¬†medium-large head cauliflower (about 2 pounds), outer leaves removed
  • Chopped fresh cilantro¬†(optional garnish)

Green Garlic-Cilantro Yogurt Sauce

  • 1¬†cup¬†unsweetened plain coconut yogurt
  • 1¬†cup¬†stemmed cilantro leaves, divided
  • 1/4¬†cup¬†raw cashews*
  • 2¬†scallions, trimmed and roughly chopped
  • 2¬†cloves¬†garlic, smashed and peeled
  • 1¬†tablespoon¬†fresh lemon juice
  • 2¬†teaspoons¬†apple cider vinegar
  • 1/2¬†teaspoon¬†sea salt or to taste

For the Tandoori Cauliflower Roast

  • Preheat the oven to 350 F.
  • To a blender, add the coconut yogurt, garlic, lemon juice, olive oil, paprika, sea salt, cumin, coriander, turmeric, cinnamon, ginger, cayenne pepper, and cloves. Blend on high for 2 minutes, or until smooth and emulsified. Set aside.
  • Carefully trim away the knobby end of the stalk from the cauliflower and discard.
  • Place the cauliflower in a dutch oven, pour the yogurt mixture over top, and use your hands to spread it evenly over the surface of the cauliflower‚ÄĒbe sure to coat the bottom, too!
  • Cover and roast for 45 minutes. Then, remove the lid and spoon any sauce drippings back over the cauliflower to coat. Continue roasting for another 20 to 30 minutes, or until tender and golden, spooning the sauce over the cauliflower again at the halfway point.
  • Remove from the oven and let cool slightly. Sprinkle with the chopped cilantro (if using).

For the Green Garlic-Cilantro Yogurt Sauce

  • Meanwhile, make the sauce. To a high-speed blender, add the yogurt, 1/2 cup of the cilantro as well as the cashews, scallions, garlic, lemon juice, apple cider vinegar, and sea salt, and blend on high until smooth and creamy.¬†
  • Transfer to a jar or bowl. Roughly chop the remaining 1/2 cup cilantro leaves and stir into the sauce.¬†
  • Refrigerate until ready to serve. It will continue to thicken as it chills, so keep that in mind if you prefer a thicker sauce.

To Serve

  • Slice the cauliflower and serve with the yogurt sauce.
  • This dish is best enjoyed fresh from the oven, but leftovers will keep for up to 3 days in the refrigerator. Just be sure to store the cauliflower and sauce separately.
  • Cauliflower and Parsnip Soup with Onions and Apples.
Epic Baja Fish Tacos with Avocado Crema
  • Author:¬†Krista
  • ¬†Prep Time:¬†20 minutes
  • ¬†Cook Time:¬†10 minutes
  • ¬†Total Time:¬†30 minutes
  • ¬†Yield:¬†14-16¬†tacos¬†1x
  • ¬†Category:¬†Seafood
  • ¬†Method:¬†Stove
  • ¬†Cuisine:¬†Mexican
  • Diet:¬†Gluten Free

Baja Fish Tacos:

  • 6¬†lbs. cod filets
  • 6 tablespoon¬†avocado oil
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon¬†garlic powder
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon¬†smoked paprika
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon¬†ground cumin
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon¬†sea salt
  • 3/4 teaspoon¬†ancho chili powder
  • 3/8 teaspoon¬†ground black pepper
  • 48¬†corn tortillas
  • cooking spray
  • optional: fresh¬†pico de gallo

Cabbage Slaw:

  • 6 cup¬†green cabbage, thinly sliced
  • 6 cup¬†purple cabbage, thinly sliced
  • 6 tablespoon¬†lime juice
  • 3/4 cup¬†chopped fresh cilantro
  • 3 teaspoon¬†honey
  • salt & pepper to taste

Avocado Crema:

  • 6¬†avocados
  • 3¬†garlic clove
  • 3/4 cup¬†fresh cilantro
  • 3/4 teaspoon¬†cumin
  • 3/8 teaspoon¬†red pepper flakes
  • 4 1/2 tablespoon¬†lime juice
  • 6 tablespoons red wine vinegar
  • 3 tablespoon¬†olive oil
  • salt to taste

Cilantro Lime Cabbage Slaw:

  1. To a large bowl, add green cabbage, purple cabbage, 2 tablespoons of lime juice, cilantro, honey, salt and pepper. Gently toss to coat and set aside.

Avocado Crema:

  1. To a food processor add, avocado, garlic, 1/4 cup cilantro, cumin, red pepper flakes, 1.5 tablespoons of lime juice, red wine vinegar, olive oil and salt. Blend until smooth and looks like a puree or dressing. Set aside.

Baja Fish Tacos:

  1. To a small bowl, add 1 teaspoon garlic powder, 1 teaspoon smoked paprika, 1/2 teaspoon cumin, 1/2 teaspoon salt, 1/4 teaspoon ancho chili powder and 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper. Stir to blend everything together.
  2. Season both sides of cod with spice blend and gently rub in.
  3. Heat a large non-skillet skillet to medium high heat.
  4. Add avocado oil to pan once hot and immediately add season cod. Sear each side for 2-3 minutes. (the cod is done when it is still white in the center and gently flakes apart)
  5. Remove cod from pan and set on a plate to rest.
  6. To heat corn tortillas: heat a skillet to medium high heat, spray both sides of tortilla with cooking spray and cook for 1-2 minutes on either side until browned.
  7. Assemble Baja Fish Tacos: To one heated corn tortilla add 2 tablespoons of avocado crema, 1/3 cup slaw, 2 oz. of cod and (optional) pico de gallo.
Ramen Noodle Salad
Servings: 22
Prep 20 minutes
Cook 6 minutes
Ready in: 26 minutes
  • 5.5¬†(3 oz) pkgs.¬†dry ramen,¬†broken into small pieces,* seasoning packet discarded
  • 2.75¬†cup¬†Fisher Sliced Almonds
  • 16.5¬†cups thinly sliced¬†green cabbage**¬†(13 oz)
  • 5.5¬†cups thinly sliced¬†red cabbage¬†(5 oz)
  • 5.5¬†cups¬†matchstick carrots
  • 1.83¬†cup¬†chopped green onions


  • 1.38¬†cup¬†light olive oil
  • 0.69¬†cup¬†rice vinegar
  • 0.69¬†cup¬†honey¬†(can use more or less to taste)
  • 2.75¬†Tbsp peeled and minced¬†fresh ginger
  • 2.75¬†tsp minced¬†garlic
  • 1.38¬†tsp¬†toasted sesame oil
  • Salt and freshly ground black pepper,¬†to taste***
  • For the dressing:¬†In a mixing bowl whisk together light olive oil, rice vinegar, honey, ginger, garlic, sesame oil and season with salt and pepper to taste. Refrigerate while preparing salad ingredients.
  • For the salad:¬†Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Spread almonds and ramen onto a rimmed 18 by 13-inch baking sheet.
  • Toast in preheated oven 3 minutes, remove from oven and toss mixture and then spread out even. Return to oven and toast until golden brown about 3 – 4 minutes longer. Let cool.
  • To a large salad bowl add green cabbage, red cabbage, carrots, green onions, and ramen almond mixture.
  • Stir dressing then pour over salad. Toss well and serve.
Cabbage Roll Soup
Servings: 8
Prep15 minutes
Cook45 minutes
Ready in: 1 hour
    • 1¬†Tbsp¬†olive oil
    • 1 1/2¬†lbs¬†lean ground beef
    • Salt and freshly ground black pepper
    • 1¬†large yellow onion¬†, chopped (1 3/4 cups)
    • 2¬†large carrots¬†, chopped (1 1/4 cups)
    • 5¬†cups¬†packed chopped cabbage¬†(16 – 19 oz)
    • 3¬†cloves¬†garlic¬†, minced
    • 2¬†(14.5 oz) cans¬†low-sodium beef broth
    • 3¬†(8 oz) cans¬†tomato sauce
    • 2¬†(14.5 oz) cans¬†petite diced tomatoes
    • 2¬†Tbsp¬†packed light brown sugar
    • 1¬†Tbsp¬†Worcestershire sauce
    • 1 1/2¬†tsp¬†dried paprika
    • 1¬†tsp¬†dried oregano or 1 Tbsp chopped fresh
    • 3/4¬†tsp¬†dried thyme or 2 1/2 tsp chopped fresh
    • 2¬†bay leaves
    • 3/4¬†cup¬†dry long-grain white rice¬†
  • 1¬†Tbsp¬†fresh lemon juice
  • 1/3¬†cup¬†chopped fresh parsley
  • Heat 1 Tbsp olive oil in a large cast iron pot over medium-high heat.¬†
  • Add beef, season with salt and pepper and cook, stirring and breaking up beef occasionally, until browned. Transfer beef to a plate lined with paper towels while reserving 2 Tbsp of the rendered fat in pan, set beef aside.¬†
  • Add onion and carrots to pan and saute 1 minute, then add cabbage and saute 2 minutes, then add garlic and saute 1 minute longer.¬†
  • Pour in beef broth, tomato sauce, tomatoes, brown sugar, Worcestershire, paprika, oregano, thyme and bay leaves. Return beef to soup mixture.¬†
  • Season soup with salt and pepper to taste and bring to a light boil, then add rice, cover pot and reduce heat and simmer until rice is cooked through, stirring occasionally, about 25 minutes.¬†
  • Stir in up to 1 cup water or more beef broth to thin as desired (it will thicken as it rests and become almost like a stew), then stir in lemon juice and parsley. Serve warm.
  • 4¬†Haas avocados¬†halved, pitted
  • 1/2¬†pound¬†lean ground turkey
  • 1¬†tablespoon¬†olive oil
  • 1/2¬†small onion¬†chopped
  • 1¬†teaspoon¬†beef bouillon
  • 1¬†tablespoon¬†chili powder
  • 1¬†teaspoon¬†ground cumin
  • 1/2¬†tsp EACH¬†smoked paprika, dried oregano
  • 1/4¬†teaspoon¬†salt
  • dash-1/4¬†teaspoon¬†cayenne pepper¬†(optional for spicy)
  • 3-4¬†garlic cloves¬†minced
  • 1/4¬†cup¬†Homemade Salsa¬†or your favorite store bought
  • 1/2¬†cups¬†canned black beans¬†rinsed and drained
  • 1/2¬†cup¬†fresh sweet corn off the cob
  • 1¬†Roma tomato¬†chopped


  • cheese
  • lettuce
  • Tomatoes
  • salsa
  • cilantro
  • sour cream of Greek yogurt
  • Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium-high.
  • Add ground turkey and all of the seasonings and cook until almost cooked through, then add salsa, corn and black beans simmer an additional 5 minutes or until cooked through and reduced. Taste and add salt or cayenne pepper to taste.
  • Slice avocados in half through the equator. Remove the pits. Stuff the hollow craters with taco filling.
  • Top with desired toppings such as cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, cilantro and sour cream.¬†
Vegan pesto pasta with kale
serves: 4
prep: 20 min
cooking: 10 min
PESTO (makes about 240 ml / 1 cup)
70 g / ¬Ĺ cup almonds (hemp seeds or sunflower seeds for nut allergies)
100 g / 3.5 oz kale (I used Lacinato kale)
25 g / 0.9 oz fresh basil
2 garlic cloves
1 unwaxed lemon, zest and juice
black pepper, to taste
¬ĺ tsp salt, more to taste
3 tbsp nutritional yeast (optional)
120 ml / ¬Ĺ cup extra virgin olive oil
360 g / 13 oz tortiglioni, rigatoni or penne (GF if needed)
100 g / 3.5 oz green peas (fresh or frozen)
2 courgettes / baby zucchini, sliced thinly
200 g / 7 oz asparagus, chopped into small pieces
1 tbsp / 15 ml oil (optional, if stir-frying vegetables)
hemp seeds (optional)
nutritional yeast (optional)
a pinch of chilli flakes (optional)


1. Roast the almonds in a hot pan until golden and fragrant. You could also do it in an oven (180¬į C / 355¬į F)
for about 10 minutes ‚Äď start checking on them towards the end of the baking time as they can go from
toasted to burnt in a matter of seconds. Allow the almonds to cool down completely before blending in the
2. Place all the pesto ingredients apart from the olive oil into a food processor. I used 4 tbsp / ¬ľ cup of lemon
juice in my pesto, but I like things to be lemony so you may want to adjust the amount to your taste.
Process until chopped small and then start trickling in olive oil while the motor is going.
3. Adjust the seasoning to your taste.
4. Boil a large pot of water and cook your pasta al dente or to your liking.
5. Prepare the vegetables by either boiling them, steaming or stir-frying quickly. I boiled the peas for 2
minutes and then plunged them in ice-cold water to preserve their beautiful colour and stir-fried the
zucchini and asparagus in a hot wok for 2 minutes. You could also eat both the zucchini and asparagus raw
(slice the zucchini thinly and shave the asparagus with a speed peeler) if you would like to incorporate
some untampered nutrition into this dish!
6. Drain your pasta and toss it in some pesto, mix the veggies in and serve.
7. For the topping, mix the hemp seeds with nutritional yeast (1:1 ratio) in a small bowl for a quick vegan
parmesan. Give each portion a squeeze of lemon and a light sprinkle of chilli flakes

PREP TIME 30 mins
COOK TIME 10 mins
TOTAL TIME 40 mins
Cauliflower Rice Salmon Poke Bowl Meal Prep
Servings: 4 meals  Calories: 334kcal
Author: Meal Prep on Fleek

1 tsp avocado oil

1 head cauliflower, grated, or cub one package frozen cauliflower rice

2 8 oz. salmon filets

2 carrots, shredded

2 cucumbers, thinly sliced

1 avocado, thinly sliced

1 TBS rice vinegar

1 green onion, thinly sliced

Sesame seeds, for serving

Prep Time:20 minutes
Total Time:20 minutes
Course: Lunch, Main Dish
Cuisine: Asian
Keyword: Meal Prep, Salm
  • Prepare cauliflower rice on the stovetop by cooking over medium heat in a bit of avocado oil for 8-10 minutes, until lightly browned and softened. Set aside.
  • Cube the raw salmon into small chunks and season with a bit of Himalayan sea salt and a splash of rice vinegar.
  • Wash clean and chop all the veggies and avocado.
  • To assemble, divide cauliflower rice between containers and top with sliced veggies, avocado, raw salmon, green onion, and a splash more of rice vinegar and white sesame seeds. Keeps in the fridge for 4 days.
Roasted Shrimp And Orzo

After roasting quick-cooking shrimp on a sheet pan, toss them together with orzo, cucumber, red onion and feta for an easy make-ahead meal for a crowd.

Total:1 hr 35 min
Prep: 20 min
Inactive: 1 hr
Cook: 15 min
Yield: 6 servings
Level: Easy


  • Kosher salt
  • Good olive oil
  • 3/4 pound orzo pasta (rice-shaped pasta)
  • 1/2 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice (3 lemons)
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 2 pounds (16 to 18 count) shrimp, peeled and deveined
  • 1 cup minced scallions, white and green parts
  • 1 cup chopped fresh dill
  • 1 cup chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley
  • 1 hothouse cucumber, unpeeled, seeded, and medium-diced
  • 1/2 cup small-diced red onion
  • 3/4 pound good feta cheese, large diced


Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F.

Fill a large pot with water, add 1 tablespoon of salt and a splash of oil, and bring the water to a boil. Add the orzo and simmer for 9 to 11 minutes, stirring occasionally, until it’s cooked al dente. Drain and pour into a large bowl. Whisk together the lemon juice, 1/2 cup olive oil, 2 teaspoons salt and 1 teaspoon of pepper. Pour over the hot pasta and stir well.

Meanwhile, place the shrimp on a sheet pan, drizzle with olive oil, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Toss to combine and spread out in a single layer. Roast for 5 to 6 minutes, until the shrimp are cooked through. Don’t overcook!

Add the shrimp to the orzo and then add the scallions, dill, parsley, cucumber, onion, 2 teaspoons salt, and 1 teaspoon pepper. Toss well. Add the feta and stir carefully. Set aside at room temperature for 1 hour to allow the flavors to blend, or refrigerate overnight. If refrigerated, taste again for seasonings and bring back to room temperature before serving.

Pumpkin, Spinach and Ricotta Lasagne
  • 1/2 pumpkin large peeled diced
  • 375g ricotta
  • 1/4 cup parmesan cheese grated
  • 4 spring onions sliced
  • 275g frozen spinach thawed
  • 400g tomato pasta sauce
  • 1 cup tasty cheese grated
  • 250g instant lasagne sheets
  • 1 tsp salt and pepper *to taste
  1. Preheat oven to 180C.
  2. Steam the pumpkin in a vegetable steamer or in the microwave using a minimal amount of water. Roughly mash when tender. Do not drain as the liquid will help the pasta sheets cook.
  3. In a separate bowl, combine ricotta cheese, parmesan, spring onions, spinach, salt and pepper, and stir until thoroughly combined.
  4. Grease a casserole dish or deep baking tray and place a layer of lasagne sheets on the base. Spoon over a layer of the cheese mixture, then a layer of mashed pumpkin, smoothing each layer.
  5. Top with more lasagne sheets and then repeat the process until all mixture is used up, ending with a layer of lasagne sheets on top.
  6. Pour pasta sauce over the top of the final layer of pasta sheets. Spread evenly over the top and then sprinkle with grated cheese.
  7. Bake at 180C for 45-50 minutes, or until pasta is cooked. Stand for 10 minutes before slicing and serving.

Pasta Primavera

YIELDS:8 servings
TOTAL TIME:0 hours 35 mins
2 tbsp. olive oil, divided
1 lb. asparagus, trimmed  and cut into 11/2-in. pieces
2 medium shallots, finely chopped

Kosher salt and pepper

1 lb. tagliatelle or pappardelle
8 oz. sugar snap peas, cut into 11/2-inch pieces
1/2 c. dry white wine
1 c. cr√®me fra√ģche
2 large carrots, shaved with peeler 
1 tbsp. grated lemon zest
1 tbsp. fresh tarragon
  1. Bring large pot of water to a boil. Heat 1 tablespoon oil in large skillet on medium-high. Add asparagus and cook until barely tender. Transfer to bowl. 
  2. Add remaining tablespoon oil to skillet and return to medium-low. Add shallots and 1/2 teaspoon each salt and pepper. Cook, stirring occasionally, until translucent, 2 to 3 minutes. 
  3. While shallots are cooking, cook pasta per package directions. Using strainer, dunk snap peas in boiling pasta water 30 seconds, then remove and set aside. 
  4. Add wine to shallots and simmer until reduced to 2 tablespoons, about 5 minutes. Turn heat to lowest setting. 
  5. Add cr√®me fra√ģche to skillet and stir until combined. Add carrots and lemon zest and simmer 3 minutes. Using tongs, transfer pasta from water to pan. Fold in asparagus, snap peas, tarragon, and 1/4 teaspoon salt, adding 1/4 to 1/3 cup pasta water if pasta seems dry.

Pimiento-Cheese Stuffed Deviled Eggs

Prep Time 10 mins Total Time 10 mins Servings: 12 egg halves

  • 6 hard boiled eggs
  • 2 tablespoons mayonnaise
  • 1/2 cup Price*s Southern Style Pimento Cheese Spread
  • salt
  • crumbled bacon optional
  • dried dill optional
  • Peel and slice the eggs lengthwise. Place the yolks in a medium bowl and set the whites aside. With a fork, blend the yolks with the mayo until smooth. Stir in the pimiento cheese spread and mix well. Add salt to taste. Spoon the mixture evenly back into the egg whites and sprinkle with crumbled bacon and dried dill

White Bean and Spring Vegetable Stew


1lb. dried large white beans (such as lima or gigante), soaked overnight, drained

1onion, trimmed, peeled, halved through core

3ribs celery, trimmed, halved

1oz. dried shiitake mushrooms (about 10 large caps)

8sprigs parsley, plus ¬ĺ cup parsley leaves with tender stems

1head of garlic, halved, plus 1 garlic clove, finely grated

1Tbsp. plus 1 tsp. kosher salt, plus more

¬ĺcup plus 3 Tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil, plus more for drizzling, divided

¬ĺcup mint leaves

1bunch radishes

1bunch medium-size asparagus (about 1 lb.)

110-oz. bag frozen peas, thawed

8thick slices country or sourdough bread

14″ piece fresh horseradish root, peeled

1lemon, cut into 8 wedges


Step 1

Preheat oven to 300¬į. Combine beans, onion, celery, mushrooms, parsley sprigs, halved head of garlic, 1 Tbsp. salt, 3 Tbsp. oil, and 2 qt. water in a large Dutch oven. Bring to a simmer over medium-high heat, cover, and transfer to oven. Bake until beans are fully cooked, tender, and creamy through and through but as intact as humanly possible, about 1 hour, depending on the type, brand, and age of beans; start checking every 10 minutes after the first 45 minutes. (When checking beans for doneness, stir gently and taste at least 3 beans‚ÄĒit isn‚Äôt finished until they‚Äôre all tender!)

Step 2

Using tongs, fish out aromatics and discard. Season with salt. Be generous! Under-seasoned beans are barely worth eating. Let sit on stovetop, uncovered, until ready to serve.

Step 3

While beans are cooking, make your pistou and prep the vegetables and garnishes. Using your sharpest knife, finely chop mint and ¬ĺ cup parsley leaves. (A dull knife will just mash your herbs and cause them to turn dark around the edges.) Transfer to a small bowl. Add ¬ĺ cup oil, grated garlic, and 1 tsp. salt and stir to combine; set pistou aside.

Step 4

Trim and wash radishes, then slice as thinly as possible into coins (a mandoline really helps here). Transfer radishes to a small bowl, cover with cold water, and chill until ready to use.

Step 5

Wash asparagus and trim woody stems by bending each spear near the cut end until you find the place where it wants to break naturally. Cut off tips, then cut each tip in half lengthwise. Slice now-tipless stalks crosswise into thin coins. Toss asparagus coins and tips and peas in a medium bowl; set aside.

Step 6

When you‚Äôre almost ready to serve the stew, return beans to a gentle simmer over medium heat, taking care not to stir too much‚ÄĒyou don‚Äôt want to bust up those beans!

Step 7

Generously drizzle oil into a large cast-iron skillet and heat over medium until shimmering. Working in two batches, fry bread slices until golden brown on both sides, about 2 minutes per side. Season with salt and transfer to a plate. (You may have to add more oil between batches, as the bread will soak some of it up.)

Step 8

When beans are simmering, add reserved asparagus and peas and cook, stirring gently, until asparagus coins are barely cooked but still bright green and crunchy, about 2 minutes.

Step 9

Drain reserved radishes. Place horseradish root on a plate with a Microplane (the way you’d serve Parmesan). Bring Dutch oven full of stew directly to the table. Serve with fried bread, pistou, radishes, lemon wedges, and horseradish alongside.

Tagliatelle With Prosciutto and Peas


1lb. tagliatelle

1¬Ĺcups shelled fresh peas (from about 1¬Ĺ lb. pods) or frozen peas

¬Ĺcup (1 stick) unsalted butter

6oz. prosciutto, thinly sliced (about 12 slices)

16sage leaves

2oz. Parmesan, finely grated (about 1 cup), plus more for serving


Step 1

Cook pasta in a large pot of boiling salted water, stirring occasionally and adding peas about 2 minutes before pasta is done, until al dente. Drain pasta and peas, reserving 1¬Ĺ cups pasta cooking liquid.

Step 2

Meanwhile, heat butter in a large Dutch oven or other heavy pot over medium until frothy. Tear prosciutto slices into bite-size pieces and add to pot along with sage. Cook, stirring occasionally, until prosciutto is golden brown and beginning to crisp, about 4 minutes. Remove from heat and let sit until pasta is done.

Step 3

Add pasta, peas, 2 oz. Parmesan, and 1 cup reserved pasta cooking liquid to pot with prosciutto and return to medium heat. Cook, tossing vigorously and adding more pasta cooking liquid if needed, until saucy and pasta is coated, about 30 seconds. Taste and season with more salt if needed.

Step 4

Divide pasta among bowls and top with more Parmesan.

Blanched Crudites

Level: Easy
Total: 12 min
Prep: 10 min
Cook: 2 min
Yield: 4 to 6 servings

Herb Dip:
1 pound asparagus
1 pound carrots, sliced diagonally in 1-inch chunks
1 pint cherry tomatoes
2 heads radicchio
Herb Dip, recipe follows
8 ounces cream cheese, at room temperature
1/2 cup sour cream
1/2 cup mayonnaise
4 scallions, white and green parts, minced
2 tablespoons fresh parsley leaves, minced
1 tablespoon fresh dill, minced
1 teaspoon kosher salt
3/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

Prepare a large pot of boiling salted
water, and fill a large bowl with ice
Remove the tough bottoms of the
asparagus stalks. If they are thick,
peel the stems half-way up the stalk.
Add the carrots to the pot of boiling
water and blanch for 1 minute.
Immediately remove the carrots with a
slotted spoon and plunge them in the bowl
of ice water. Drain the carrots when fully
Add the asparagus to the boiling water
and blanch for 1 minute. Immediately
remove the asparagus with a slotted spoon
and plunge them into the reserved bowl of
ice water. Drain the asparagus when fully
Slice the radicchio into wedges.
Arrange the carrots, asparagus, cherry
tomatoes, and radicchio on a platter
and serve with the Herb Dip.
Herb Dip:
Yield: 2 cups
Place the cream cheese, sour cream,
mayonnaise, scallions, parsley, dill,
salt, and pepper in the bowl of an electric
mixer fitted with the paddle attachment
and blend. Serve at room temperature

Spring Crudités with Herbed Cheese Dip

Prep:15 mins Total:15 mins Servings:4


  • 1 cup ricotta cheese, preferably fresh
  • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh basil, plus leaves for sprinkling
  • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley
  • Coarse salt and freshly ground pepper
  • 1 pound mixed beans, such as haricots verts and yellow wax beans, trimmed
  • 1 bunch baby carrots, tops left intact (optional)
  • 2 baby zucchini or baby yellow summer squashes, sliced about 1/4 inch thick on the bias
  • 1 English cucumber, cut into spears


  • Step 1
  • Stir together ricotta, chopped basil, and parsley. Season with salt and pepper.
  • Step 2
  • Arrange vegetables on a platter. Sprinkle with basil leaves. Serve with herbed ricotta.

Mixed Green and Herb Toss Salad

Raspberry Swirl Rolls

Shrimp Pesto Spring Rolls with Quick Pesto Dipping Sauce

  • Level: Easy
  • Total: 40 min
  • Active: 40 min
  • Yield: 4 spring rolls

1 pound asparagus
1 pound carrots, sliced diagonally in 1-inch chunks
1 pint cherry tomatoes
2 heads radicchio
Herb Dip, recipe follows
8 ounces cream cheese, at room temperature
1/2 cup sour cream
1/2 cup mayonnaise
4 scallions, white and green parts, minced
2 tablespoons fresh parsley leaves, minced
1 tablespoon fresh dill, minced
1 teaspoon kosher salt
3/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

  1. For the quick pesto dipping sauce: Add the basil, Parmesan, pine nuts, red pepper flakes and garlic to the base of a small food processor. With the processor running, drizzle in the oil and lemon juice and allow the mixture to become smooth. Scrape the sides, then add the mayonnaise, sour cream and salt and process until combined, about 1 minute.
  2. For the simple lemon dressing: Add the olive oil, lemon juice, sugar, garlic, salt and pepper to a small mason jar. Secure the lid and shake to combine,
  3. For the assembly: Add the shrimp to a small bowl and toss in 2 tablespoons of the lemon dressing. Set aside.
  4. Add the shredded romaine to a bowl and toss with the remaining lemon dressing. Set aside.
  5. One at a time, place the rice wrappers in warm water until they are soft but still hold together, about 30 seconds. Lay the wrapper flat on a plate and start by shingling 4 shrimp halves and 2 basil leaves in the center of the wrapper. Add one-quarter of the roasted peppers, onions and tomatoes. Drizzle with 2 teaspoons of the pesto dipping sauce. Finally, top with a one-quarter of the lettuce in a small line. Fold in the sides of the wrapper and roll into a tight roll. Cut in half on the diagonal. Repeat to make the other 3 rolls.
  6. Dip the rolls into the pesto dipping sauce and dig in! Best if eaten within 1 hour of making.

Crispy Oven Baked Chicken Wings






Basic Crispy Baked Chicken Wings

  • 2 to 3 pounds chicken wings
  • 1 tablespoon aluminum-free baking powder
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon paprika

Buffalo Sauce

  • 1/4 cup buffalo hot sauce
  • 1/4 cup melted butter
  • 1 tablespoon honey

Basic Crispy Baked Chicken Wings

  • Place a wire rack onto a baking sheet. Use paper towels to pat chicken wings as dry as possible and place into a large mixing bowl.
  • In a small bowl, stir together baking powder, salt, pepper, and paprika (and any additional flavor additions you’d like to use). Sprinkle over chicken wings and toss until wings are evenly coated.
  • Place wings in a single layer on the prepared baking sheet. Refrigerate uncovered overnight, 12 to 24 hours.
  • Preheat oven to 425 degrees F. Take wings directly from refrigerator and roast in the preheated oven for 30 minutes, until crispy and brown and the internal temperature reaches 165 degrees F. Cooking time will vary based on the size of your chicken wings.
  • Serve plain hot, or use desired flavor sauces and variations.


  • 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 tablespoon lemon pepper
  1. In a small bowl, whisk together olive oil and lemon pepper.
  2. Add prepared and cooked chicken wings to a large mixing bowl. Pour in sauce and toss to coat.


  • 1/4 cup buffalo hot sauce
  • 1/4 cup melted butter
  • 1 tablespoon honey
  1. In a small bowl, whisk together hot sauce, melted butter, and honey.
  2. Add prepared and cooked chicken wings to a large mixing bowl. Pour in sauce and toss to coat.


  • ¬ľ cup brown sugar
  • 2 teaspoons cornstarch
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons cajun seasoning
  • 1 teaspoon smoked paprika
  • 1 cup tomato sauce
  • 1/4 cup molasses
  • 2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce
  • 1 tablespoon hot sauce
  • 3 minced garlic cloves
  1. In a medium sauce pan, whisk together brown sugar, cornstarch, salt, cajun seasoning, and paprika.
  2. Whisk in tomato sauce, molasses, worcestershire sauce, hot sauce, and garlic.
  3. Bring to a simmer over medium high heat, stirring occasionally. Let simmer 15 minutes.
  4. Add prepared and cooked chicken wings to a large mixing bowl. Pour in sauce and toss to coat.


  • 1 teaspoon olive oil
  • 5 cloves minced garlic
  • 1/3 cup honey
  • 1/4 cup water
  • 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon soy sauce
  1. Heat olive oil in a small saucepan over medium-high heat. Add in garlic and saute 90 seconds.
  2. Add in honey, water, vinegar, and soy sauce. Bring to a simmer, then remove from heat.
  3. Add prepared and cooked chicken wings to a large mixing bowl. Pour in sauce and toss to coat.



  • 1/4 cup melted butter
  • 1/3 cup grated Parmesan cheese
  • 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 teaspoon black pepper
  1. In a small mixing bowl, whisk together melted butter, parmesan cheese, garlic powder, salt, and pepper until well combined.
  2. Add prepared and cooked chicken wings to a large mixing bowl. Pour in sauce and toss to coat.


  • 1/3 cup brown sugar
  • 2 tablespoons cornstarch
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
  • 1 cup water
  • 1/4 cup soy sauce
  • 1 tablespoon honey
  • 1 clove minced garlic
  1. In a medium sauce pan, whisk together brown sugar, cornstarch, and ginger.
  2. Stir in water, soy sauce, honey, and garlic. Bring to a simmer over medium high heat.
  3. Let simmer until thickened, about 2 minutes. Remove from heat.
  4. Add prepared and cooked chicken wings to a large mixing bowl. Pour in sauce and toss to coat.


  • 2 cups distilled white vinegar
  • 1 cup water
  • 3 tablespoons salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
  1. In a large mixing bowl, stir together vinegar, water, salt, and pepper until dissolved. Add in raw chicken wings and make sure they are completely submerged.
  2. Let soak in the refrigerator for 2 hours.
  3. Pat completely dry, then proceed with basic crispy baked chicken wing recipe.
  • PREP: 5 MIN
  • TOTAL: 5 MIN
1 container (16 ounces) sour cream

1 packet (1 ounce) Hidden Valley¬ģ Original Ranch¬ģ Dips Mix
1 package (10 ounces) frozen spinach, chopped, thawed and well-drained
1 can (8 ounces) water chestnuts, drained and chopped
1 round loaf French bread

In a large bowl, mix the sour cream together with the dips mix until well-blended, then fold in spinach and water chestnuts. Chill covered for 1 hour before serving.


Cut top off the bread, remove center and cut into cubes.


Fill bread bowl with dip. Serve with cubed bread and vegetable sticks of choice.

  • PREP: 5 MIN
  • COOK: 15 MIN
  • TOTAL: 20 MIN


2 tablespoons light brown sugar

2 tablespoons Hidden Valley¬ģ Original Ranch¬ģ Seasoning & Salad Dressing Mix Shaker
3 tablespoons unsalted butter
4 cups ready-to-eat, peeled baby carrots

  • STEP 1
  • In a small bowl, mix the brown sugar together with the ranch seasoning.
  • STEP 2
  • In a large skillet, melt the butter together with the sugar mixture for 3 to 5 minutes over medium heat, until bubbly.
  • STEP 3
  • Add the carrots and let cook, covered, for 7 to 10 minutes or until the carrots have softened slightly. Serve hot.
Lasagna Stuffed Zucchini Boats
  • SERVES: 6
  • PREP TIME: 30 min
  • COOK TIME: 40 min
  • CALORIES: 578


  • 1 lb Ground chicken
  • 1 Red bell pepper, diced
  • 1 Jar marinara sauce
  • 8 oz Ricotta cheese
  • 1 1/2 Cups fresh spinach, chopped
  • 4 Cloves garlic
  • 1 Egg
  • 2 tbsp Flat leaf parsley, minced, divided
  • 1/2 tsp Salt
  • 1/4 tsp Pepper
  • 4 Medium zucchinis, cut in half lengthwise, centers scooped out
  • 8 oz Fresh mozzarella, sliced
  • 1/4 cup Parmesan cheese, grated
  • Red pepper flakes, optional
  1. Heat your oven to 375¬į F.
  2. In a large skillet, brown the ground chicken until no pink remains. Stir in 3/4 of the pasta sauce and bell pepper. Let simmer 10 minutes. Remove from heat and set aside.
  3. In a small bowl, gently mix the ricotta cheese, spinach, garlic, egg, 1 tablespoon of parsley, salt and pepper until thoroughly incorporated.
  4. Slice zucchini lengthwise and carefully scoop out the center with a spoon to create a shell or boat. Place zucchini skin side down in a baking dish.
  5. Fill each zucchini with equal amounts of the chicken mixture. Then dollop the ricotta mixture on top of the chicken. Place a few thin sliced of fresh mozzarella on each zucchini half. Spread the remaining pasta sauce over the zucchini boats and top with 1/2 of the parmesan cheese.
  6. Bake 35 minutes or until zucchini is tender and cheese is bubbly.
  7. Sprinkle with remaining tablespoon of parsley and parmesan cheese.
Strawberry Shortcake
Bisquick Strawberry Shortcake
  • Prep 20 MIN
  • Total 35 MIN
  • Servings 6
  • 1 quart (4 cups) strawberries, sliced
  • 1/4 cup sugar
  • 2 1/3 cups Original Bisquick‚ĄĘ mix
  • 1/2 cup milk
  • 3 tablespoons sugar
  • 3 tablespoons butter, melted
  • 1/2 cup heavy whipping cream
    • 1
      Heat oven to 425¬įF. In large bowl, mix strawberries and 1/4 cup sugar; set aside.
    • 2
      In medium bowl, stir Bisquick‚ĄĘ mix, milk, 3 tablespoons sugar and the butter until soft dough forms. On ungreased cookie sheet, drop dough by 6 spoonfuls.
    • 3
      Bake 10 to 12 minutes or until golden brown. Meanwhile, in small bowl, beat whipping cream with electric mixer on high speed until soft peaks form.
    • 4
      Split warm shortcakes; fill and top with strawberries and whipped cream.

      Japanese Strawberry Shortcake

      Prep Time 10 mins
      Cook Time 1 hr
      Total Time 1 hr
      Course: Dessert
      Cuisine: Japanese
      Servings: 8 slices
      Author: Shihoko | Chopstick Chronicles
      sponge cake
      • 3 eggs 1/2 cup
      • 115 g sugar 3/4 cup
      • 100 g plain flour
      • 40 g milk 2 tbsp + 2 tsp
      • 25 g unsalted butter 1/4 butter stick
      • 60 g water 1/4 cup
      • 30 g sugar 2 tbsp
      • 250 ml fresh whipping cream 1 cup
      • 20 g sugar 1 tbsp + 1 tsp
      • Line an 18cm (7 inch) round cake tin with parchment paper and set aside. Start to preheat the oven to 170 ¬įC (338¬įF).
      • Separate the egg yolk and egg whites.
      • Place the egg whites in an electric mixer and gradually (at three different times) add the sugar into the mixer bowl.
      • Beat the egg whites and sugar until stiff peaks form.
      • Combine the egg yolks through the egg white mixture.
      • Fold the sifted flour through the egg mixture 3-4 times.
      • Mix the milk and melted butter together in a small bowl.
      • Take a small amount of the egg white mixture and put it into the milk and butter bowl and mix together then add it all into the egg white mixture and mix altogether.
      • Pour the mixture into the 18cm lined round cake tin.
      • Bake for about 40 minutes or until cooked when tested with a skewer.
      • If a skewer comes out clean, the cake is baked. Turn the oven off and remove the cake tin.
      • Drop the cake tin onto the kitchen bench from 10 cm (4 inches) high.
      • Cool it in the tin for 5 minutes then turn onto a wire rack upside down.
      • Turn it back and remove the parchment paper. Let it cool completely.
      • Wrap the cake with cling wrap and leave it in room temperature overnight.
      • Slice the cake horizontally into two slabs *1
      • Combine water and sugar to make syrup.
      • Brush the syrup on the two cut sides of the cake.
      • Whip the cream and spread it on one side of the sponge cake. *2
      • Decorate with sliced strawberries and spread more whipped cream over the strawberries.
      • Top with the other side of the cake and spread whipped cream over the whole cake.
      • Decorate with strawberries and raspberries or your choice of decorations.
Strawberry-Orange Smoothies
  • Prep 10 MIN
  • Total 10 MIN
  • Servings 3
  • 2cups Yoplait¬ģ Greek 100 plain or Yoplait¬ģ Original creamy vanilla yogurt
  • 1bag (10 oz) Cascadian Farm¬ģ frozen organic strawberries
  • 2 tablespoons orange juice
  • 1
    tablespoon honey
    • 1
      In blender, place ingredients. Cover; blend on medium speed until smooth. Add more honey to taste if desired.
    • 2
      Pour into 3 glasses. Serve immediately.
      Spring Chicken Dinner Salad
      4 servings
        • 2 large skinless, boneless chicken breasts (about 1¬ľ lb. total)
        • 3 Tbsp. Diamond Crystal or 3¬Ĺ tsp. Morton kosher salt, plus more
        • 1 lemon, halved
        • 2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard
        • 6 Tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil
        • Freshly ground black pepper
        • 8 oz. green beans, trimmed
        • 1 large head of Bibb lettuce
        • 1 small bunch chives, sliced into (2‚ÄĚ-long) pieces
        • 1 cup basil leaves
        • 1 bunch radishes, trimmed, halved, cut into wedges if large
        • 1 cup torn peperoncini
        • 1 avocado, thinly sliced
        1. Place chicken in a large saucepan and pour in 4 cups cold water to cover; add 3 Tbsp. Diamond Crystal or 3¬Ĺ tsp. Morton kosher salt. Bring to a gentle boil over medium heat, then immediately turn over chicken with tongs. Cover pot, remove from heat, and let chicken sit until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part registers 150¬įF, 5‚Äď10 minutes (depending on thickness of breast). Transfer chicken to a cutting board and let rest 10 minutes.
        2. Meanwhile, squeeze lemon halves into a medium bowl. Whisk in mustard, then gradually stream in oil, whisking constantly until dressing is thick and emulsified. Season with salt and pepper.
        3. Using a rolling pin, whack green beans on a cutting board until skins split and insides are softened but not pulverized.
        4. Transfer beans to a medium bowl and drizzle in 2 Tbsp. dressing. Massage beans with your hands to break down further and coat; season with salt.
        5. Separate lettuce leaves; toss in another medium bowl with chives and basil. Arrange on a platter.
        6. Toss radishes, peperoncini, and 1 Tbsp. dressing in the same bowl; season with salt. Slice chicken ¬ľ‚ÄĚ‚Äď¬Ĺ‚ÄĚ thick; season with pepper. Arrange chicken, radish salad, green beans, and avocado on platter with lettuce as desired. Drizzle with more dressing; serve remaining dressing alongside.

      Spring Cocktails

      Cherry Blossom
      1.25 oz 1800 Silver Tequila
      1 oz lime juice
      1 oz grapefruit juice
      .25 oz grenadine
      Grapefruit slice or maraschino cherry for garnish
      Salt as needed

      Pour all ingredients into shaker and shake well. Strain into a salt rimmed martini glass or serve over ice. Garnish with a grapefruit slice or cherry

      Lizzy Lake

      1.5 oz Hendrick’s gin
      3 drops rose water
      1 egg white
      2 tablespoons powdered sugar
      2 thick slices cucumber
      Splash lemon juice

      Muddle one thick slice of cucumber in a cocktail shaker. (Save the second slice of cucumber for a garnish.) Add remaining ingredients and ice to the shaker and shake vigorously until the outside of the shaker is frosted. Strain into a rocks glass over ice. If available, use a fine mesh strainer to avoid large pieces of cucumber in the cocktail. Garnish with the cucumber slice.

      Strawberry Blond

      2 oz Tanteo Jalapeno
      1 oz lime juice
      .75 oz simple syrup
      1 strawberry

      In shaker muddle strawberry, add ice and all ingredients. Shake and pour into a rocks glass and garnish with strawberry and jalape√Īo.

      . Watermelon Agua Fresca


      • 8 cups of cubed seeded watermelon
      • 1/3 cup sugar
      • 1 cup water
      • 1/4 cup lemon juice for garnishing; you can even use lime slices


      Take half of the watermelon, half the sugar, and half off the water in a juicer, and mix them well. Put this mixture with the help of a course strainer into a container. Repeat the same procedure with remaining half of the ingredients. Stir the mixture in lime juice. Put well-mixed recipe into refrigerator for chilling. Serve the drink in club soda and garnish it with lime

 Cino De Mayo


  • 4 cup ounces Corrido Cristalino
  • 1/4 cup juice of lime
  • 2 cup vegetable juice
  • Mexican hot sauce
  • Lime slices for garnishing


Combine all ingredients, except the ones to be used for garnishing, in a container. Put the ingredients inside the container into a cocktail shaker. Add cubes of ice according to your convenience or you can place the juice into the refrigerator. Shake the juice until it is mixed well. Strain resulted juice into a tall glass. Garnish the glass with slices of lime. You can also add ice to make it cooler.

Rosemary Lemonade
  • Total TimePrep: 10 min. Cook: 15 min. + chilling
  • Makes8 servings (1 cup each)


  • 2 cups water
  • 2 fresh rosemary sprigs
  • 1/2 cup sugar
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 1-1/4 cups fresh lemon juice
  • 6 cups cold water
  • Ice cubes
  • Additional lemon slices and fresh rosemary sprigs, optional
  • In a small saucepan, bring 2 cups water to a boil; add rosemary sprigs. Reduce heat; simmer, covered, 10 minutes.
  • Remove and discard rosemary. Stir in sugar and honey until dissolved. Transfer to a pitcher; refrigerate 15 minutes.
  • Add lemon juice; stir in cold water. Serve over ice. If desired, top with additional lemon slices and rosemary sprigs.

Raspberry Refresher

  • Total TimePrep: 10 min. Cook: 20 min. + chilling
  • Makes 14 servings (about 3-1/2 quarts)
  • 8 cups fresh or frozen raspberries, thawed
  • 1-1/2 cups sugar
  • 2/3 cup cider vinegar
  • 2-1/2 cups cold water, divided
  • 2 liters ginger ale, chilled

In a large saucepan, crush the berries. Stir in sugar, vinegar and 1/2 cup water. Bring to a boil; reduce heat. Simmer, uncovered, for 20 minutes. Strain to remove seeds; refrigerate. Just before serving, stir in ginger ale and remaining water. Serve over ice.

Banana Brunch Punch

  • Total TimePrep: 10 min. + freezing
  • Makes60-70 servings (10 quarts)
  • 6 medium ripe bananas
  • 1 can (12 ounces) frozen orange juice concentrate, thawed
  • 3/4 cup thawed lemonade concentrate
  • 3 cups warm water, divided
  • 2 cups sugar, divided
  • 1 can (46 ounces) pineapple juice, chilled
  • 3 bottles (2 liters each) lemon-lime soda, chilled
  • Orange slices, optional
  • In a blender, cover and process the bananas, orange juice and lemonade until smooth. Remove half of the mixture and set aside. Add 1-1/2 cups warm water and 1 cup sugar to blender; blend until smooth. </B>
  • Place in a large freezer container. Repeat with remaining banana mixture, water and sugar; add to container. Cover and freeze until solid.
  • One hour before serving, remove punch base from freezer. Just before serving, place in a large punch bowl. Add pineapple juice and soda; stir until well blended. Garnish with orange slices if desired.

Coconut Milk Strawberry-Banana Pops

  • Total TimePrep: 10 min. + freezing
  • Makes 12 servings


  • 1 can (13.66 ounces) coconut milk
  • 1 pint fresh strawberries, chopped, divided
  • 1 medium banana, sliced
  • 2 tablespoons maple syrup
  • 12 freezer pop molds or 12 paper cups (3 oz. each) and wooden pop sticks

Place coconut milk, 1-1/2 cups strawberries, banana and syrup in a blender; cover and process until smooth. Divide remaining strawberries among 12 molds or paper cups. Pour pureed mixture into molds or cups, filling 3/4 full. Top molds with holders. If using cups, top with foil and insert sticks through foil. Freeze until firm, at least 4 hour

Banana Pineapple Slush

  • Total TimePrep: 10 min. + freezing
  • Makesabout 9-1/2 quarts
  • 4 cups sugar
  • 2 cups water
  • 1 can (46 ounces) pineapple juice
  • 3 cups orange juice
  • 3/4 cup lemon juice
  • 1/2 cup orange juice concentrate
  • 8 medium ripe bananas, mashed
  • 2 bottles (2 liters each) cream soda
  • 3 cans (12 ounces each) lemon-lime soda

In a saucepan, bring sugar and water to a boil over medium heat; cool. Pour into a freezer container; add juices, orange juice concentrate and bananas. Cover and freeze. To serve, thaw mixture until slushy; stir in cream soda and lemon-lime soda.

Honey Banana Punch

  • Total TimePrep: 15 min. + freezing
  • Makes 7-1/2 gallons (30 1-cup servings)
  • 2 cups thawed orange juice concentrate
  • 5 ripe bananas, cut into chunks
  • 1 can (46 ounces) pineapple juice
  • 2 cups water
  • 3/4 cup honey
  • 1/2 cup sugar
  • 1/3 cup sweetened lemonade drink mix
  • 4 liters lemon-lime soda, chilled
  • In a blender, combine orange juice concentrate and bananas; cover and process until smooth.
  • Pour into a large bowl; add the pineapple juice, water, honey, sugar and soft drink mix. Stir until sugar is dissolved. Pour into two 2-qt. freezer containers. Cover and freeze until mixture is slushy.
  • To serve, transfer each portion of fruit slush to a large pitcher. Add 2 liters of soda to each pitcher; stir to blend.

Banana-Pineapple Ice

  • Total TimePrep: 15 min. + freezing
  • Makes 10 servings
  • 2 cups unsweetened apple juice
  • 2 cups mashed ripe bananas
  • 1 can (8 ounces) unsweetened crushed pineapple, undrained
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • In a large bowl, combine all ingredients. Pour into an 8-in. square dish. Cover and freeze for 1-1/2 to 2 hours or until almost firm.
  • Transfer to a large bowl. Beat for 1-2 minutes or until smooth and creamy. Return mixture to dish; freeze until firm. Remove from the freezer 30 minutes before serving.

Easy Citrus Slush

  • Total TimePrep: 15 min. + freezing
  • Makes about 6 quarts (about 25 servings)
  • 2-1/2 cups sugar
  • 1 package (3 ounces) lemon gelatin
  • 1 package (3 ounces) pineapple gelatin
  • 4 cups boiling water
  • 1 can (12 ounces) frozen pineapple juice concentrate, thawed
  • 1 cup lemon juice
  • 1 envelope (0.23 ounce) unsweetened lemonade Kool-Aid mix
  • 10 cups cold water
  • 2 liters ginger ale, chilled
  • Lime slices, optional
  • In a large container, dissolve sugar and gelatins in boiling water. Stir in the pineapple juice concentrate, lemon juice, drink mix and cold water. If desired, divide among smaller containers. Cover and freeze, stirring several times.
  • Remove from freezer at least 1 hour before serving. Stir until mixture becomes slushy. Just before serving, place 9 cups slush mixture in a punch bowl; stir in 1 liter ginger ale. Repeat with remaining slush and ginger ale. If desired, garnish with lime slices.

Rainbow Spritzer

  • Total TimePrep/Total Time: 20 min.
  • Makes 4 servings
  • 1/2 cup fresh blueberries
  • 1/2 cup chopped peeled kiwifruit
  • 1/2 cup chopped fresh pineapple
  • 1/2 cup sliced fresh strawberries or fresh raspberries
  • 1 cup chilled ginger ale
  • 1/2 cup chilled unsweetened pineapple juice
  • 1/2 cup chilled lemonade

In 4 tall glasses, layer blueberries, kiwi, pineapple and strawberries. In a 2-cup glass measure or small pitcher, mix remaining ingredients; pour over fruit. Serve immediately.

Orange Juice Spritzer

  • Total TimePrep/Total Time: 5 min.
  • Makes 8 servings
  • 4 cups orange juice
  • 1 liter ginger ale, chilled
  • 1/4 cup maraschino cherry juice
  • Optional: Orange wedges and maraschino cherries

In a 2-qt. pitcher, mix orange juice, ginger ale and cherry juice. Serve over ice. If desired, top servings with orange wedges and cherries.

Orange Juice Spritzer

  • Prep/Total Time: 5 min.
  • Makes 8 servings
    • 4 cups orange juice
    • 1 liter ginger ale, chilled
    • 1/4 cup maraschino cherry juice
    • Optional: Orange wedges and maraschino cherries

    In a 2-qt. pitcher, mix orange juice, ginger ale and cherry juice. Serve over ice. If desired, top servings with orange wedges and cherries.

    Peach Smoothie
    • Total Time Prep/Total Time: 5 min.
      Makes 2 servings
      • 1/2 cup peach or apricot nectar
      • 1/2 cup sliced fresh or frozen peaches
      • 1/4 cup fat-free vanilla yogurt
      • 2 ice cubes
      In a blender, combine all ingredients. Cover and process until blended. Pour into chilled glasses; serve immediately.
      Celebration Punch
      • Total Time Prep: 15 min. + freezing
      • Makes 16 servings (about 1 gallon)
        • ICE RING:
        • 1-3/4 cups orange juice
        • 1-1/2 cups water
        • 1 cup halved fresh strawberries
        • Fresh mint sprigs
        • PUNCH:
        • 2 packages (10 ounces each) frozen sweetened sliced strawberries, thawed
        • 4 cans (5-1/2 ounces each) apricot nectar
        • 3/4 cup orange juice concentrate
        • 3 cups cold water
        • 1 cup lemon juice
        • 3/4 cup sugar
        • 1 liter ginger ale, chilled
        • For ice ring, in a bowl, combine orange juice and water. Pour 2 cups into a 4-1/2-cup ring mold. Freeze until solid. Top with fresh strawberries and mint. Slowly pour remaining juice mixture into mold to almost cover strawberries and mint. Freeze until solid.
        • For punch, place thawed strawberries in a blender; cover and puree until smooth. Pour into a large serving or punch bowl. Add the apricot nectar, orange juice concentrate, water, lemon juice and sugar; stir until sugar is dissolved. Just before serving, stir in ginger ale and add ice ring.

Mean Green Smoothie Bowls

  • Total TimePrep/Total Time: 20 min.
  • Makes 6 servings


  • 2 medium green apples, chopped
  • 2 celery ribs (with leaves), chopped
  • 2 cups fresh baby spinach
  • 8 sprigs fresh parsley, stems removed, chopped
  • 1 medium cucumber, peeled and chopped
  • 1 tablespoon minced fresh gingerroot
  • 1 cup unfiltered or filtered apple juice
  • 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice
  • 2 tablespoons raw honey
  • Optional toppings: Sliced or chopped cucumber, sliced or chopped apples, minced fresh parsley and additional celery leaves

Place all ingredients except toppings in a blender; cover and process until blended. Pour into chilled bowls; top as desired. Serve immediately.

Sparkling Peach Bellinis

  • Total TimePrep: 35 min. + cooling
  • Makes 12 servings
  • 3 medium peaches, halved
  • 1 tablespoon honey
  • 1 can (11.3 ounces) peach nectar, chilled
  • 2 bottles (750 ml each) champagne or sparkling grape juice, chilled
  • Line a baking sheet with a large piece of heavy-duty foil (about 18×12 in.). Place peach halves, cut sides up, on foil; drizzle with honey. Fold foil over peaches and seal.
  • Bake at 375¬į for 25-30 minutes or until tender. Cool completely; remove and discard peels. In a food processor, process peaches until smooth.
  • Transfer peach puree to a pitcher. Add the nectar and 1 bottle of champagne; stir until combined. Pour into 12 champagne flutes or wine glasses; top with remaining champagne. Serve immediately.

The first season of Yasuke is coming to Netflix on Thursday, April 29th, 2021.

Yasuke Poster


There is a serendipitous nature about this project, how an African-American man goes to Japan to live and work amongst the very best in Japanese anime to create an anime about an African who goes to Japan to live amongst the Japanese elite and become a warrior. Part of me deep down feels I was meant to create this adventure series with MAPPA, Flying Lotus, LaKeith & the rest of this talented team.

Yasuke is a fascinating, mysterious figure in Japanese history that’s drawn a growing interest in today’s media over the decades. I first learned of Yasuke’s role in Japanese history over a decade or so. The children’s book, Kuro-suke by Kurusu Yoshio, featured images that piqued my curiosity. To eventually learn that he wasn’t just a fictional character, but a real person, was exciting material for an adventure story.

LeSean‚Äôs most recent project on Netflix was the anime series Cannon Busters. Over the years LeSean has worked on plenty of popular animated projects:

  • Batman: The Brave and the Bold
  • Black Dynamite
  • The Boondocks
  • The Legend of Korra
  • Spider-Man

Representation in other media


  • In 1968, author Yoshio Kurusu published a children’s book,¬†Kurosuke,¬†about this figure.
  • Since the late 20th century, Japanese TV “period dramas” (Jidaigeki) and¬†manga¬†have also been produced about Yasuke.
  • Yasuke plays a minor part in the 2005 to 2017 manga series¬†Hyouge Mono.
  • Yasuke is featured in the 2016 to 2020 manga¬†The Man Who Killed Nobunaga.
  • The 2017 video game¬†Nioh¬†and its¬†2020 sequel¬†feature a fictional portrayal of Yasuke.
  • In May 2019, it was announced that¬†Chadwick Boseman¬†was set to portray Yasuke in a live action film as well as produce it. However the actor died due to colon cancer in August 2020 causing¬†MGM¬†to cancel the project.
  • Yasuke will be the main protagonist in the 2021¬†Yasuke¬†anime series, directed by¬†LeSean Thomas.

Is Afro Samurai based on yasuke?Once he started combining these efforts with those of the elements of samurai, he eventually developed Afro Samurai. Afro was also based on Yasuke, the legendary black samurai who existed in Japan during the Sengoku period.

What happened to yasuke?

Yasuke¬†was also there at the time. Immediately after Nobunaga’s death,¬†Yasuke¬†went to the lodging of Nobunaga’s heir Oda Nobutada and tried to withdraw with him to NijŇć Castle. When they were ambushed halfway,¬†Yasuke¬†fought alongside the Nobutada forces for a long time. Finally he surrendered his sword to Akechi’s men.

What does yasuke mean?

the black oneYasuke,¬†means, ‚Äúthe black one,‚ÄĚ in Japanese. … He was a slave who traveled to Japan

Who is Afro Samurai based on?Afuro Samurai Inspired by¬†Okazaki’s¬†love of soul and hip hop music and American media, it follows the life of Afro Samurai who witnessed his¬†father, Rokutaro (owner of the No. 1 headband) being killed by a male gunslinger named Justice (owner of the No.

Afro Samurai.

Who will play yasuke?Lakeith Stanfield

Lakeith Stanfield is getting animated again for Netflix, though this next role isn’t quite like Guy on BoJack Horseman. The Uncut Gems and Sorry to Bother You actor¬†will¬†lead the voice cast of¬†Yasuke, a new anime in which Stanfield portrays the first African samurai of the same name

Lakeith Stanfield to play first African samurai in Netflix's Yasuke anime |  EW.com
Yasuke: The African Samurai in Japan √ʬĬď Kintaro Publishing
Born Unknown, circa 1540
Africa, probably Mozambique
Allegiance Mon-Oda.png Oda clan
Rank Retainer, bodyguard
  • Battle of Tenmokuzan
  • HonnŇć-ji Incident
  • Unknown

Yasuke’s Rise as a Samurai

Yasuke‚Äôs origins are shrouded in mystery.  He was probably born between 1555 and 1566, but even that is not certain. Historians are not even sure of the origin of his name, though it is most likely the Japanese form of his original name. According to one source, he may have been a Makua from Mozambique. It has also been suggested that he was from Angola or Ethiopia. Additionally, he may have been a European-born slave from Portugal.

Whatever his origin, Yasuke first appears in history in 1579 as an attendant of the Jesuit missionary Alessandro Valignano coming to Japan to visit the missions that had been set up there. Yasuke was most likely a slave. Yasuke’s black skin generated a lot of interest from the native Japanese and many are said to have come to see him at the church which the Jesuits had constructed in Kyoto. This commotion caught the interest of the Daimyo, Lord Nobunaga, who asked for an audience with him.

Nobunaga apparently was skeptical that Yasuke’s black skin was genuine and had him remove his shirt and rub his skin to show that it wasn’t ink. Nobunaga was nonetheless impressed by Yasuke’s height. He is recorded to have been over 6 feet (182cm) tall in an era where most Japanese men were closer to 5 feet (152 cm) tall. This height would have made him very imposing to most indigenous inhabitants of the islands.

Nobunaga soon made Yasuke his retainer and bodyguard. He was eventually made a samurai in 1581 and stationed at Nobunaga’s Azuchi Castle. After this, Nobunaga would invite Yasuke to dine at his table, an unusual privilege even for a samurai. He was also made the Daimyo’s sword bearer with his own katana. During this time, he learned to speak Japanese fluently as well.

The End of His Samurai Career

Yasuke’s career as a samurai would not last long. In 1582, Nobunaga’s general, Mitsuhide, started a coup to overthrow him. Mitsuhide stormed the temple where Nobunaga was staying in Kyoto. Nobunaga, convinced of his imminent defeat at the hands of his treacherous general, committed Seppuku, ritual suicide. After Nobunaga’s death, Yasuke fled to back to the Azuchi castle and entered the service of his son Odo Nobutada. His son however also committed suicide after suffering defeat at the hands of Mitsuhide.

Mitsuhide was not very impressed with Yasuke and dismissed him as ‚Äúa beast‚ÄĚ and not a true samurai. The reason for this was that rather than committing honor suicide, the norm after defeat in Japanese culture, Yasuke apparently offered his sword to Mitsuhide following Western custom. It was undoubtedly because of this rejection that Yasuke returned to the service of Valignano and soon returned to obscurity. The Jesuits, however, were glad to see that he had survived and thanked God for his return.   

African-Japanese Contact

There is little indisputable evidence for an African presence in Japan before Yasuke, though there are some interesting historical examples which suggest the possibility of African-Japanese contact. There is a Japanese proverb which says ‚ÄúFor a Samurai to be brave, he must have a bit of black blood.‚ÄĚ It is uncertain of course whether this is referring to people with dark skin or some other meaning of the word black. It is possible that the expression ‚Äúblack blood‚ÄĚ could be completely unrelated to someone who is of Black African descent and have had a very different meaning in ancient Japanese culture.

The one problem with this hypothesis, however, is that the color black, in Japanese culture, is associated with death, fear, and sorrow (among other similar concepts.) It is possible that the ancient Japanese believed that bravery required these qualities, but it is not necessary to assume that they did, and it is more likely that the Japanese didn’t associate these qualities with bravery. It would probably be yet another quality associated with the color black.

Another figure in Japanese history considered by some to be of African descent is Sakanouye No Tamuramaro, a warrior who came to be considered a paragon of warrior virtues. He lived during the Heian Period (794-1185 AD) from about 758 to 811 and was a palace guard of Emperor Kammu (reigned 781-806). He was placed in command of the forces that the emperor sent to fight the Ainu. This warrior is said to have had a ‚Äúblack complexion.‚ÄĚ

Yasuke: The True Story of the Legendary African Samurai

Yasuke: The True Story of the Legendary African Samurai
By Thomas Lockley and Geoffrey Girard
Sphere (2019)
ISBN-13: 978-0751571615

African Samurai: The True Story of Yasuke, a Legendary Black Warrior in Feudal Japan

The remarkable life of history’s first foreign-born samurai, and his astonishing journey from Northeast Africa to the heights of Japanese society.

When Yasuke arrived in Japan in the late 1500s, he had already traveled much of the known world. Kidnapped as a child, he had ended up a servant and bodyguard to the head of the Jesuits in Asia, with whom he traversed India and China learning multiple languages as he went. His arrival in Kyoto, however, literally caused a riot. Most Japanese people had never seen an African man before, and many of them saw him as the embodiment of the black-skinned (in local tradition) Buddha. Among those who were drawn to his presence was Lord Nobunaga, head of the most powerful clan in Japan, who made Yasuke a samurai in his court. Soon, he was learning the traditions of Japan’s martial arts and ascending the upper echelons of Japanese society.

In the four hundred years since, Yasuke has been known in Japan largely as a legendary, perhaps mythical figure. Now African Samurai presents the never-before-told biography of this unique figure of the sixteenth century, one whose travels between countries, cultures and classes offers a new perspective on race in world history and a vivid portrait of life in medieval Japan.

Yasuke The Legend of the African Samurai

Warrior.  Bodyguard.  Samurai. Legend.  Jamal Turner

His name was¬†Yasuke¬†and he was all of these things. But how did a warrior from Africa find himself serving under one of Japan’s most powerful warlords?¬† Find out in this epic tale of honor, loyalty, and duty.¬† If you or your children love swords, samurai, or legendary warriors, you will love the tale of¬†Yasuke!¬†¬†

Yasuke (African Samurai): The Life and Legend of Japan’s First African Samurai

Brought to Japan in the 16th century by Portuguese traders, he was the first person of African origin who became an instant celebrity. Rumored to be about 7 feet tall, and possessing the strength of 10 men, he garnered the attention of the famed warlord, Oda Nobunaga. He served his master diligently through many battle victories. He is most famously associated with the title of African Samurai. This is the story of Yasuke.

Not much is known about Yasuke. From the historical accounts that are available, we know that, despite his intimidating demeanor, he was a gentle person. This was the first impression Nobunaga had of him when he first saw him surrounded by a large curious crowd in Kyoto. Being taken to immediately, he frequently accompanied the warlord and even dined with him personally which was a rare occurrence at the time.

Come and meet the legendary non-Japanese figure in Japanese history. This wonderful book will help you acquire unique insights into Yasuke’s life and times. 

Here’s a preview of what you’ll discover in this book:

  • Yasuke’s origins, his travels and how he ended up in Japan
  • The cultural context in Japan, and how Yasuke was perceived
  • How Yasuke met Nobunaga and deepening of their association
  • How Yasuke became a samurai warrior 
  • Adopting the Bushido Code
  • Before and after Nobunaga’s death 

Legend of Yasuke (Son of the Soil) 

Legend of Yasuke (Son of the Soil) by [Morakinyo Araoye, Dominic Omoarukhe, Steven Akinyemi]

A young Portuguese Captain breaks all rules to obtain an ancient relic which once belonged to an African god. He meets a proud Bini soldier and their fated bonds form over a calabash of palm wine. Swords are drawn as betrayal and treachery sour their brotherhood. The road to the Legend known as Yasuke the Samurai begins here! Featuring the dynamic creative team of Morakinyo Araoye, Dominic Oziren, Kazeem Oladejo, and Osiris Santos Junior.

Yasuke Paperback

Afro Samurai¬†(„āĘ„Éē„É≠„āĶ„Ɇ„É©„ā§,¬†Afuro Samurai, stylized as¬†őõFőďO SőõMUőďőõI)¬†is a¬†Japanese¬†seinen¬†dŇćjinshi¬†manga¬†series written and illustrated by¬†manga artist¬†Takashi Okazaki. It was originally serialized irregularly in the¬†avant-garde¬†dŇćjinshi¬†manga magazine¬†Nou Nou Hau¬†from November 1998 to September 2002. Inspired by Okazaki’s love of¬†soul¬†and¬†hip hop music¬†and American media, it follows the life of Afro Samurai who witnessed his father, Rokutaro (owner of the No. 1 headband) being killed by a male gunslinger named Justice (owner of the No. 2 headband) while he was a child. As an adult, Afro sets off to kill Justice and avenge his father.

Afro Samurai: Resurrection - Director's Cut

The legendary master is forced back into the game by Sio, a deadly woman from his past. She won’t stop attacking until Afro gets schooled in the brutal lessons he dealt to those who stood in his way.

Afro Samurai

In a¬†feudal¬†yet¬†futuristic¬†Japan, it is said that the one who wields the Number 1 headband is the greatest warrior in the world and shall possess¬†god-like powers. Some believe that the Number 1 headband grants immortality, while others believe that the headband had been sent down by gods. The only way to obtain the Number 1 headband is to challenge and defeat the current wearer in combat. However, only the wearer of the Number 2 headband can challenge the Number 1 whereas anyone can challenge the Number 2. Thus, the Number 2 must constantly fight to stay alive. The Number 2 headband’s current owner, the outlaw Justice, fights and kills Rokutaro, Afro’s father and owner of the Number 1 headband. A young Afro witnesses the fight and vows revenge against Justice, who tells him to seek him out when he is “ready to duel a god

                                                          Series Cast  

Samuel L. Jackson Samuel L. Jackson ¬†Afro Samurai¬†/ …5 episodes, 2007¬†
Phil LaMarr Phil LaMarr ¬†Brother 1¬†/ …5 episodes, 2007¬†
Yuri Lowenthal Yuri Lowenthal ¬†Kuma¬†/ …4 episodes, 2007¬†
Greg Eagles Greg Eagles ¬†Brother 6¬†/ …3 episodes, 2007¬†
Terrence 'T.C.' Carson Terrence ‘T.C.’ Carson ¬†Sword Master¬†/ …3 episodes, 2007¬†
John DiMaggio John DiMaggio ¬†Brother 2¬†/ …3 episodes, 2007¬†
Ron Perlman Ron Perlman  Justice2 episodes, 2007 
S. Scott Bullock S. Scott Bullock  Dharman2 episodes, 2007 
Fred Tatasciore Fred Tatasciore ¬†Juzo¬†/ …2 episodes, 2007¬†
Dave Wittenberg Dave Wittenberg ¬†Assassin¬†/ …2 episodes, 2007¬†
Jeff Bennett Jeff Bennett ¬†Foo¬†/ …2 episodes, 2007¬†
Jason Marsden Jason Marsden  Sasuke2 episodes, 2007 
Tara Strong Tara Strong ¬†Otsuru¬†/ …2 episodes, 2007¬†
Crystal Scales Crystal Scales ¬†Young Afro¬†/ …2 episodes, 2007¬†
Steve Blum Steve Blum  Assassin1 episode, 2007 
Kelly Hu Kelly Hu  Okiku1 episode, 2007 
Grey Griffin Grey Griffin ¬†Oyuki¬†/ …1 episode, 2007¬†
John Kassir John Kassir  Soshun1 episode, 2007 
Liam O'Brien Liam O’Brien ¬†Kihachi¬†/ …1 episode, 2007¬†
Dwight Schultz Dwight Schultz ¬†Assassin 1¬†/ …1 episode, 2007¬†
James Arnold Taylor James Arnold Taylor  Yashichi1 episode, 2007 

Coming to Netflix in April 2021

 Netflix in the United States throughout the month of April 2021.

What’s Coming to Netflix on April 1st

  • Coven of Sisters (2021 ‚Äď English Dub)¬†N¬†‚Äď The Spanish period drama will be re-added to Netflix available with the English dub.


  • Friends With Benefits (2011)¬†‚Äď Mila Kunis and Justin Timberlake star in this rom-com about two friends who are on the verge of being more than just that.
  • Irul (2021)¬†‚Äď Indian mystery thriller.
  • Magical Andes (Season 2)¬†‚Äď Documentary that darts between the beauty spots of the world-renowned South American mountains.
  • Prank Encounters (Season 2)¬†N¬†‚Äď Stranger Things‚Äôs Gaten Matarazzo returns to prank more unwitting victims.
  • Seven Souls in the Skull Castle: Season Flower & Season Bird
  • Tersanjung the Movie (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Indonenisan movie about a love triangle.
  • The Platform (Season 2)¬†‚Äď Arabic drama.
  • The Time Traveler‚Äôs Wife (2009)¬†‚Äď Eric Bana and Rachel McAdams feature in this sci-fi romance about a librarian who goes backward in time to various points in his lover‚Äôs life.


  • White Boy (2017)¬†‚Äď Documentary on a white teenager who was charged with running an inner-city drug operation.
  • Worn Stories (Season 1)¬†N¬†‚Äď Jenji Kohan produced docu-series about humans‚Äô connection to clothes.

 Netflix on April 2nd

  • Concrete Cowboy (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Idris Elba features in this drama directed by Ricky Staub about a 15-year-old boy from Detroit sent to live with his father in Philadelphia.
  • Just Say Yes (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Dutch romantic comedy movie.
  • Madame Claude (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď French period drama set in 1960s Paris. Follows business magnate Madame Claude and a new challenger.
  • Sky High (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Spanish thriller about a mechanic and his new girlfriend who both take part in high stake heists.
  • The Serpent (Limited Series) ¬†‚Äď BBC/Netflix co-production starring Jenna Colman. Based on the true story of the notorious killer during the 70s who became the world‚Äôs most-wanted man.

 Netflix on April 5th

  • Coded Bias (2020)¬†‚Äď Documentary on how AI discriminates against dark-skinned faces and one researcher‚Äôs mission to correct it.
  • Family Reunion (Part 3)¬†‚Äď The next batch of episodes in the multi-camera comedy series¬†Family Reunion.

Netflix on April 7th

  • Snabba Cash (Season 1)¬†‚Äď Swedish thriller series based on the movie trilogy about a woman playing in the high stakes criminal world of entrepreneurship.
  • The Big Day (Collection 2) ¬†Indian romantic series following six couples during their big day.
  • The Wedding Coach (Season 1) ‚Äď Reality series featuring comedian Jamie Lee.
  • This Is a Robbery: The World‚Äôs Biggest Art Heist (Limited Series) ¬†‚Äď Docu-series on how two men in the 1990s conned their way into the Boston art museum.

 Netflix on April 8th

  • JoJo‚Äôs Bizarre Adventure (Season 3)¬†‚Äď Anime series looks to be¬†returning after departing recently.Part 4 Final Poster.png
JoJo’s Bizarre Adventure: Diamond Is Unbreakable¬† ¬† In 1999, Jotaro Kujo tracks down Josuke Higashikata, the illegitimate son of Joseph Joestar, to help him find a magical bow and arrow which grants people Stand powers. Along the way, Josuke and his friends discover that a Stand-using serial killer is on the loose in their hometown of Morioh and they set out to stop him.
  • Story of Kale: When Someone‚Äôs in Love (2020)¬†‚Äď Indonesian romance.
  • The Way of the Househusband (Season 1) ‚Äď Japanese anime that premiered late last year to rave reviews.

 Netflix on April 9th

  • Have You Ever Seen Fireflies? (2021) ‚Äď Turkish comedy.
  • Night in Paradise (2021) ‚Äď Korean gangster movie about a man who is being targeted by a criminal organization.
  • Thunder Force (2021) ‚Äď Superhero movie starring Melissa McCarthy and Octavia Spencer.


Netflix on April 10th

  • Don‚Äôt be the First one (Season 1 ‚Äď New Episodes Weekly) ‚Äď Korean reality series.
the stand in netflix april 2021
  • The Stand In (2020)¬†‚Äď Drew Barrymore headlines this comedy about an actress employing a lookalike to take her place while she‚Äôs in rehab.

Netflix on April 12th

  • New Gods Nezha Reborn (2021) ‚Äď Chinese animated feature based on Fengshen Yanyi from director Ji Zhao.

Netflix on April 13th

  • Mighty Express (Season 3) ‚Äď More episodes with our favorite new train friends.
  • My Love: Six Stories of True Love (Limited Series) ¬†‚Äď Docu-series that follows half a dozen couples and their love stories.

What’s Coming to Netflix on April 14th

dad stop embarrasing me april 2021

  • Dad Stop Embarrassing Me (Season 1) ¬†‚Äď New sitcom starring Jamie Foxx.

Bachelor Brian Dixon unexpectedly becomes a full-time father to his teenage daughter, Sasha.

  • The Soul (2021) ‚Äď Asian sci-fi drama about a prosecutor and his wife investigating the death of a businessman.

What’s Coming to Netflix on April 15th

  • Ride or Die (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Japanese thriller based on Ching Nakamura‚Äôs comic ‚ÄúGunjo‚ÄĚ.

What’s Coming to Netflix on April 16th

  • Ajeeb Daastaans (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Bollywood movie.
  • Arlo the Alligator Boy (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Musical animated feature follow young croc Arlo who is on the search for his father.

crimson peak netflix april 2021

  • Crimson Peak (2015)¬†‚Äď Horror thriller starring Tom Hiddleston, Mia Wasikowska and Jessica Chastain.

After marrying the charming and seductive Sir Thomas Sharpe, young Edith (Mia Wasikowska) finds herself swept away to his remote gothic mansion in the English hills. Also living there is Lady Lucille, Thomas’ alluring sister and protector of her family’s dark secrets. Able to communicate with the dead, Edith tries to decipher the mystery behind the ghostly visions that haunt her new home. As she comes closer to the truth, Edith may learn that true monsters are made of flesh and blood.


  • Fast and Furious Spy Racers (Season 4) ‚Äď The fourth season to the animated series based on the Fast and Furious movie franchise.
  • Into the Beat (2020) ¬†‚Äď German musical romance movie.
  • The Zookeeper‚Äôs Wife (2017)¬†‚Äď Jessica Chastain movie that follows the zookeeper who is keeping the zoo afloat during the Nazi invasion.Watch The Zookeeper's Wife | Prime Video

The time is 1939 and the place is Poland, homeland of Antonina Zabinski and her husband, Dr. Jan Zabinski. The Warsaw Zoo flourishes under Jan’s stewardship and Antonina’s care. When their country is invaded by the Nazis, Jan and Antonina are forced to report to the Reich’s newly appointed chief zoologist, Lutz Heck. The Zabinskis covertly begin working with the Resistance and put into action plans to save the lives of hundreds from what has become the Warsaw Ghetto.

Netflix on April 18th

  • Luis Miguel: The Series (Season 2)¬†¬†‚Äď The final half of the biopic series on the Mexican superstar, Luis Miguel.

Luis Miguel Gallego Basteri¬†(born 19 April 1970)¬†is a Mexican singer, often referred to as¬†El Sol de M√©xico¬†(The Sun of Mexico), which is the nickname his mother gave him as a child‚ÄĒ”mi sol”.He is widely regarded as the most successful artist in Latin American history, having successfully performed in a wide range of musical styles, including¬†pop,¬†ballads,¬†boleros,¬†tangos,¬†jazz,¬†big band¬†and¬†mariachi. Luis Miguel is also recognized as the only Latin singer of his generation to not crossover to the¬†Anglo¬†market during the “Latin Explosion” in the 1990s.

Despite recording only in Spanish, he continued to be the best selling Latin artist in the 1990s, and was credited for popularizing the bolero genre into the mainstream market.He has sold around 60 million records worldwide,making him one of the best-selling Latin music artists.

Latin pop music, along with his personal life and showmanship on stage, has made Luis Miguel popular for nearly his entire career, which started in Mexico in 1982. Having won his first Grammy Award at the age of fourteen for his duet “Me Gustas Tal Como Eres” with¬†Sheena Easton,he is the¬†youngest male artist¬†in music history to have received this accolade. In 1991, the¬†RIAA¬†recognized the high sales for his 1991 album¬†Romance, itself being the third best-selling music album in Mexico, and one of the best-selling¬†Spanish language¬†albums of all time. He was the first Latin artist to have been awarded two¬†Platinum certified¬†Spanish-language albums in the United States with ‚Äė‚ÄėRomance‚Äô‚Äô and ‚Äė‚ÄėSegundo Romance‚Äô‚Äô the latter earning him 35 platinum records throughout Central and South America. He is also recognized by Billboard, as the artist with the most top 10 hits on the¬†Billboard’s¬†Hot Latin Songs¬†chart. His album¬†Complices¬†was released in 2008 and peaked at No.10 on the¬†Billboard¬†200; it is the highest position a fully Spanish composed album has reached. His most recent album¬†¬°M√©xico Por Siempre!¬†was released in 2017, and it earned him his second No. 1 on the¬†Billboard¬†Regional Mexican Albums¬†and achieved double platinum status.

Luis Miguel is also known for his high-grossing live performances. He is the first-highest grossing Latin touring artist since Boxscore began tracking touring data in 1990, with a towering total of $278.5 million. With the Luis Miguel Tour, which took place in 2010, he visited 22 countries in North America, South America and Europe, where he performed in a three-year span with a total of 223 shows all over the world, making it the longest and highest-grossing tour ever made by a Latin artist. He also holds the record for the most consecutive presentations in the Auditorio Nacional (National Auditorium) with a total of 30 consecutive concerts as well as the record for the most presentations in the same venue with a total of 258 concerts.As of October 2020, Luis Miguel ranks number two on Billboards Greatest of All-Time Latin Artists chart.

One of his songs, Separados has become known among fans of Professional Wrestling for being the entrance theme of Japanese masked wrestler Ultimo Dragon, especially whenever he wrestles in Mexico.

Luis Miguel stars onstage in Houston and on the small screen

Netflix on April 19th

miss sloane netflix april 2021
  • Miss Sloane (2016) ‚Äď From director John Madden comes this political thriller starring Jessica Chastain.

Netflix on April 21st

  • Zero (Season 1)¬†‚Äď Italian superhero series about a young boy who can turn invisible and teams up with friends to save his neighborhood.

Netflix Canada on April 1st, 2021

  • Breakaway (2011)¬†‚Äď Indian-Canadian sports drama about a Canadian hockey player who struggles to go against family tradition and discrimination in sport.
  • Happy Death Day 2U (2019)¬†‚Äď Slasher comedy that takes place immediately after the events of the first film where Tree finds herself in the cycle of dying over and over all over again.
  • Prank Encounters (Season 2) ¬†‚Äď Gaten Matarazzo returns for a second round of frightening pranks.
  • Racetime (2018)¬†‚Äď Children‚Äôs animated musical.
  • Tersanjung the Movie (2021) ¬†‚Äď Romantic-drama centered around a complicated love triangle between three close friends.
  • Urban Legend (1998)¬†‚Äď Teen horror-thriller starring Jared Leto and Alicia Witt.
  • Worn Stories (Miniseries) ‚Äď A docu series dedicated to clothes and the moving stories people have from the most meaningful items wrapped up in their closet.

Netflix Canada on April 2nd, 2021

  • Bitter Daisies (Season 2) ¬†A civil guard officer uncovers the secrets of her past as she investigates the disappearance of a teenage girl.
  • Concrete Cowboy (2021) ‚Äď Drama starring Idris Elba and Stranger Things star Caleb McLaughlin.
  • Just Say Yes (2021) ¬†‚Äď Dutch rom-com starring Yolanthe Cabau as the bride who gets left at the alter and now has to deal with the engagement of her self-absorbed sister.
  • Madame Claude (2021) ¬†‚Äď French biographical-drama about Madame Claude, the most powerful and influential brothel owner France had ever seen.

  • The Serpent (Miniseries)¬†¬†‚Äď Crime-drama co-production with the BBC that tells the tale of Charles Sobhraj, a murderer, thief, and seductive master of disguise.
  • Sky High (2020)¬†¬†‚Äď Spanish thriller centered around a gang of Spanish petty criminals and their misadventures after the real estate crash.

What’s Coming to Netflix Canada on April 9th, 2021

  • Have You Ever Seen Fireflies? (2021)¬†‚Äď Turkish comedy
  • Night in Paradise (2021)¬†‚Äď After the death of his sister and nephew, former Korean mobster Tae-soo escapes to Jeju island where he meets a terminally ill woman and begins an unlikely friendship.
  • Thunderforce (2021)¬†‚Äď Superhero-comedy starring Melissa McCarthy and Octavia Spencer.

 Netflix Canada on April 5th, 2021

  • Coded Bias (2020)¬†‚Äď MIT Researcher Joy Buolamwini leads an investigation into the racial bias of facial recognition and how it fails to accurately read dark-skinned faces accurately.
  • Family Reunion (Part 3)¬†‚Äď The McKellan family are fish out of the water as they move from Seattle to Georgia, where they reunite with their extended southern family.

Netflix Canada on April 7th, 2021

  • The Big Day (Collection 2)¬†¬†‚Äď Reality series centered around six engaged Indian couples, and the extravagant weddings put on display.
  • Snabba Cash (Season 1)¬†¬†‚Äď Swedish crime-drama.
  • This Is a Robbery: The World‚Äôs Biggest Art Heist (Season 1)¬†N¬†‚Äď Docuseries focused on the famous 1990 Boston robbery which saw two men dressed as Police steal a fortune in art.
  • The Wedding Coach (Season 1)¬†¬†‚Äď Reality series that sees Jamie Lee aide with wedding planning for struggling lovebirds.

Netflix Canada on April 8th, 2021

  • The Way of the Househusband (Season 1)¬†‚Äď Japanese anime series that sees the legendary Yakuza ‚ÄėImmortal Tatsu‚Äô retire from gang-life, and settle down as a house husband.

Netflix Canada on April 10th, 2021

  • Don‚Äôt Be The First One (Season 1) ‚Äď K-drama reality talk show.
  • The Stand In (2020) ‚Äď R rated comedy starring Drew Barrymore and‚Ķ Drew Barrymore.

Netflix Canada on April 14th, 2021

  • Dad Stop Embarrassing Me (Season 1)¬†‚Äď Jamie Foxx returns to his sitcom roots as a successful cosmetics business owner that suddenly has to learn how to be a father on the job when his teenage daughter moves in.

Netflix Canada on April 15th, 2021

  • Ride or Die (2021)¬†¬†‚Äď Japanese LGBT psychological-thriller.

Netflix Canada on April 21st, 2021

  • Zero (Season 1)¬†‚Äď Italian superhero-drama series.

Netflix Canada on April 23rd, 2021

  • Shadow and Bone (Season 1)¬†N‚Äď Based on the best-selling Grishaverse novels by Leigh Bardugo, the fantasy-drama takes place in a world ravaged by war, where the threat of the Shadow Fold threatens to destroy everything.

What’s Coming to Netflix Canada on April 29th, 2021

  • Yasuke (Season 1)¬†‚Äď Anime series inspired by the real-life Yasuke, the first and only known Black Samurai.
Lakeith Stanfield to play first African samurai in Netflix's Yasuke anime |  EW.com
The Uncut Gems and Sorry to Bother You actor will lead the voice cast of Yasuke, a new anime in which Stanfield portrays the first African samurai of the same name.
Set in war-torn feudal Japan with mechs and magic, Yasuke follows the warrior as he struggles to maintain a peaceful living after a lifetime of violence. He’s thrown back into battle when a local village becomes the epicenter of warring daimyo and he’s tasked with transporting a mysterious child who’s targeted by dark forces.

Life in Color is coming to Netflix on Thursday, April 22nd, 2021.

Instead of focusing on the impact climate change has on the fragile ecosystems of the Earth, Life in Colour will instead focus on how color is used in animal interactions and the vital role it plays. Life in Colour could become one of the most visually captivating and breathtaking docuseries of all time as a new technology for cameras has been specially developed for the docuseries.

Netflix Canada on April 30th, 2021

  • Things Heard and Seen (2021)¬†N¬†‚Äď Horror thriller starring Amanda Seyfriend and Natalia Dyer.
  • The Innocent (Season 1)¬†N¬†‚Äď Spanish crime-drama that centers around Mateo, the man who became an accidental murderer after interceding in a fight nine years ago.

Lucifer Season 5 Part B on May 28th 2021

What is the release date of Lucifer Season 5 Part 2?
Lucifer season 5 part 2¬†is nearly ready for¬†release¬†but won’t be¬†coming¬†to Netflix until at least April 2021 with a March 2021¬†release¬†ruled out. Here’s an updated guide to everything we know so far about the penultimate¬†season¬†of¬†Lucifer¬†in the form of¬†part two of¬†the fifth¬†season

Part 1: Chloe deals with the absence of Lucifer in her life, only for his twin brother Michael to arrive and turn the lives of everyone close to Lucifer upside down bad enough to force Lucifer to leave Hell. At the same time, Ella has something good happen in her life and Maze begins having an existential crisis.

Part 2

Episode 9: “Family Dinner”
Episode 10: “Bloody Celestial Karaoke Jam”
Episode 11: “Resting Devil Face”
Episode 12: “Daniel Espinoza: Naked and Afraid”
Episode 13: “A Little Harmless Stalking”
Episode 14: “Nothing Lasts Forever”
Episode 15: “Is This Really How It’s Going to End?!”
Episode 16: “A Chance at a Happy Ending”

Bloody Celestial Karaoke Jam” is the upcoming eleventh episode of the¬†fifth season¬†of¬†Lucifer.


    • Tom Ellis¬†as¬†Lucifer MorningstarLucifer morningstar wallpaper by Abdelmoghit - 65 - Free on ZEDGE√ʬĄ¬ĘLucifer Morningstar, also known as¬†Samael¬†or¬†the Lightbringer, is one of the younger of¬†God’s¬†angels¬†and the infamous¬†ruler of Hell. He served as the King of¬†Hell¬†for billions of years until he decided that he needed a change of scenery. He is commonly known as¬†the Devil¬†or¬†Satan¬†by¬†humans. Having grown tired of ruling the Underworld, after being cast out and fallen from¬†Heaven, Lucifer voluntarily left his position in Hell to become a nightclub owner in¬†Los Angeles, operating an establishment called¬†Lux¬†with his closest friend and senior lieutenant, the demon¬†Mazikeen.Lucifer started working alongside¬†LAPD¬†homicide detective¬†Chloe Decker¬†after he witnessed the murder of a close¬†acquaintance¬†of his. This position gave him an outlet to punish sinners.

      With his wings returned and his Devil face gone, Lucifer believed that a mater criminal known as¬†The Sinnerman¬†was behind it all and set out to punish him. He also started a friendship with¬†Charlotte Richards¬†after her experience in Hell left her broken. After a long chase and misdirection, Lucifer learned that the LAPD’s new lieutenant was not only the Sinnerman, but the world’s first murderer,¬†Cain, but had nothing to do with his latest conundrum. This led Lucifer to think that God did it all to foil Cain’s plans, so Lucifer set out to help get rid of his mark so he could finally die. He soon grew jealous when he and Chloe started dating, and later engaged and decided to tell her how he felt, but backed out when the latter called it off. After the death of Charlotte and¬†Amenadiel¬†getting his wings back, Lucifer realized that all the changes to his body were his doing, believing he deserved what he got. Once Lucifer finally killed Cain, his Devil face returned, just as Chloe witnessed it.

      Lucifer’s relationship with Chloe took a turn after she initially betrayed him to send him back to Hell with the help of Father¬†William Kinley. Though Chloe realized she was wrong, Lucifer couldn’t bring himself to forgive her, and things only got worse when¬†Eve¬†showed up and the two resumed their former relationship. Lucifer and Chloe eventually reconciled and he returned to consulting for the LAPD. Unfortunately, because of Eve’s influence, Lucifer started inflicting serious punishment on the guilty, before he realized what he was becoming and broke up with her to prevent a world ending prophecy. However, the prophecy came true when¬†Demons¬†started invading LA, forcing Lucifer to return to Hell to keep them in line. Before leaving, Lucifer and Chloe admitted their feelings for each other and he resumed his rule over Hell.

      Thousands of years later, Lucifer was forced to return when his twin¬†Michael¬†showed up on¬†Earth¬†and started wreaking havoc. His relationship with Chloe took another turn after she was a gift from God and his own confidence was shattered when he discovered Michael had been manipulating him since the beginning. Lucifer and Chloe, however, were able to see past their issues and finally became a couple, but, Lucifer’s mojo passed on to Chloe, and he became invulnerable again, even whilst in the presence of his girlfriend. After Chloe was kidnapped by his twin and subsequently rescued, Lucifer was forced to finally confront his true feelings for her, but was halted when Michael and Maze attacked him and Amenadiel. Their sibling squabble was broken up, however, when God showed up.

  • Occupation

    • Sovereign of Hell¬†(formerly)
    • Member of the Heavenly Host¬†(formerly)
    • Owner of¬†Lux¬†(currently)
    • LAPD¬†civilian consultant¬†(currently)
    • Chloe Decker¬†(girlfriend)

    Chloe and Lucifer are friends and coworkers. Lucifer is curious as to how she can resist his charms and why he is vulnerable in her presence. Chloe finds him odd, but she admits to him that she likes working with him. While working together, they grow closer and develop a close friendship. Lucifer is shown to be attracted to Chloe and openly reveals his wishes to sleep with her, but Chloe constantly rejects his advances. Recently, Lucifer and Chloe have finally come to realize their strong romantic feelings for each other. It has also be shown that Lucifer does indeed have feelings for Chloe as he was visibly upset after witnessing Pierce proposing to Chloe. Lucifer and Chloe have now finally slept together and are considerably boyfriend and girlfriend. This resulted in Lucifer ‘transferring’ his mojo (unwillingly, of course) to Chloe. It seems, though, that Chloe can only use mojo on Lucifer. Both Linda Martin and Ella Lopez are aware that Lucifer and Chloe have slept together, and both are very happy.

  • Mazikeen¬†(former lieutenant; current enemy)
  • Linda Martin¬†(therapist and friend)
  • Eve¬†(ex-girlfriend)
  • Frank Lawrence¬†(friend)
  • Candy Fletcher¬†(fake ex-wife)
  • Lilith¬†(oldest and best friend)
  • God¬†(father)
  • Goddess¬†(mother)
  • Michael¬†(twin brother)
  • Azrael¬†(younger sister)
  • Uriel‚Ƭ†(younger brother)
  • Remiel¬†(younger sister)
  • Gabriel¬†(younger brother)
  • Castiel¬†(younger brother)
  • Raphael¬†(younger brother)
  • Charlie¬†(son)first¬†Nephilim¬†
  • Angels¬†(younger siblings)
    • Lauren German¬†as¬†Chloe DeckerLucifer Season 5 √ʬĬĒ Lauren German as Chloe Decker | Tell-Tale TV
  • ‚Äú Lucifer, if that‚Äôs true, if you choose to be vulnerable around me‚Ķ then I choose to be vulnerable around you. ‚Äě
    ‚ÄĒ Chloe to¬†Lucifer
    in “Detective Amenadiel

    She is a homicide detective working in Los Angeles as a member of the¬†L.A.P.D.. While investigating a murder at the¬†Lux¬†nightclub, Chloe encounters¬†Lucifer Morningstar, the former ruler of¬†Hell, who is now living on Earth. She is assisted by Lucifer on the case (despite her protests) and the two end up forming a professional relationship as a detective-consultant duo before she falls in love with the fallen angel.When Lucifer eventually returns to Earth, Chloe questions him over the sentiment, and when he reveals that Michael’s remarks are true, she has doubts that her entire life has been a lie ‚ÄĒ this drives a wedge between Lucifer and Chloe.

    Shortly after, however, they’re able to overcome the idea and grow closer than ever. They eventually consummate their relationship and decide to take things to the next level, much to everyone’s delight around them. Chloe and¬†Amenadiel¬†eventually talk about the gift from God, when she is made aware that Amenadiel is the one that blessed her parents. This causes tensions between the two, but Amenadiel suggests that the “gift” is not Chloe, but the fact that she is able to see Lucifer for who he truly is; this, in sentiment, is what makes him vulnerable around her.

    • Lucifer Morningstar¬†(boyfriend and coworker)
    • Mazikeen¬†(best friend and former roommate)
    • Ella Lopez¬†(best friend and colleague)
    • Linda Martin¬†(close friend)
    • Charlotte Richards‚Ƭ†(friend and colleague)
    • Jed Moore¬†(ex-boyfriend)
    • Michael¬†(kissed thinking he was¬†Lucifer)
    • Made this edit of Amenadiel. Lucifer edit coming tomorrow : lucifer
    • D.B. Woodside¬†as¬†Amenadiel
  • ‚Äú Years ago at¬†Father’s¬†behest, I came to Earth to lay a blessing on one¬†Penelope Decker. Soon after my visit,¬†you¬†were born. ‚Äě
    ‚ÄĒ Amenadiel to¬†Chloe
    in “Detective Amenadiel”

    Amenadiel¬†is the eldest of all God’s¬†angels, and serves as a central character of¬†Lucifer.¬†Initially, Amenadiel would occasionally travel to¬†Earth¬†in order to convince¬†Lucifer¬†to return to his duties as the¬†Ruler of Hell,¬†as the latter would often become bored and leave his post. Unbeknownst to his brother, Amenadiel was sent by their¬†father¬†to bless¬†Penelope Decker¬†who was¬†unable to have a child.. That child would later end up being¬†Chloe Decker, who God intentionally placed into Lucifer’s path.

    In 2013, Lucifer permanently abdicates¬†the throne¬†and¬†his kingdom, resulting in Amenadiel venturing to Earth with the intention of forcing his brother to return under God’s orders, though his attempts at doing so are proven futile. This leads to God revoking this order after¬†resurrecting Lucifer¬†and learning that his ex-wife,¬†Goddess, has escaped Hell.

    As his time progresses on Earth, Amenadiel begins to have a change of heart regarding humans, and learns to live alongside them. His relationship with Lucifer improves immensely, and he learns to care about the world that he once condescendingly looked down upon. He later bares a child with a human named¬†Dr. Linda Martin,¬†a close confidant and friend of Lucifer’s, thus becoming the father of the first¬†Nephilim¬†on Earth.

    • God¬†(father)
    • Goddess¬†(mother)
    • Michael¬†(younger brother)
    • Lucifer¬†(younger brother)
    • Azrael¬†(younger sister)
    • Uriel‚Ƭ†(younger brother)
    • Remiel¬†(younger sister)
    • Gabriel¬†(younger brother)
    • Castiel¬†(younger brother)
    • Raphael¬†(younger brother)
    • Charlie¬†(son)first¬†Nephilim¬†
    • Angels¬†(younger siblings)
    • Linda Martin¬†(girlfriend & mother of child)
    • Chloe Decker¬†(friend)
    • Dan Espinoza¬†(friend)
    • Charlotte Richards‚Ƭ†(friend & ally)
    • Mazikeen¬†(enemy & former lover)

    Occupation   Manager of Lux(Currently

    • Lesley-Ann Brandt¬†as¬†MazikeenMazikeen needs to find love in Lucifer season 5 part 2
I was forged in the bowels of Hell to torture the guilty for all of eternity. ‚Äě
‚ÄĒ Mazikeen
in “Lady Parts”

Mazikeen of the Lilim, also known by her nickname¬†Maze, is a¬†demon¬†from Hell who holds the form of a beautiful young woman. For millennia, she worked under Lucifer as one of his most trusted lieutenants and servants; he considered her his “right-hand.” She is the best friend and former lover of¬†Lucifer¬†and formerly worked alongside him at the¬†Lux¬†nightclub in¬†Los Angeles¬†before starting a new career as a bounty hunter with the¬†LAPD.Mazikeen of the Lilim, also known by her nickname¬†Maze, is a¬†demon¬†from Hell who holds the form of a beautiful young woman. For millennia, she worked under Lucifer as one of his most trusted lieutenants and servants; he considered her his “right-hand.” She is the best friend and former lover of¬†Lucifer¬†and formerly worked alongside him at the¬†Lux¬†nightclub in¬†Los Angeles¬†before starting a new career as a bounty hunter with the¬†LAPD.

Maze is friends with Linda who is one of the few humans who knows that Maze is a demon. However, she is extremely upset with both Linda and Amenadiel after they lie about not being together.

Maze lives with¬†Chloe¬†and¬†Trixie. She particularly likes Trixie who is not scared of her and even looks up to Maze. Unfortunately, Maze upsets Trixie during her fight with Dan by calling Trixie a stupid little brat. Maze and Trixie meet again at the¬†LAPD. As Maze tries¬†to apologize, Trixie runs¬†and hugs her, saying that she can’t¬†be mad at her.


  • Lilith¬†(mother)
  • Dromos¬†(brother)
  • Squee¬†(brother)
  • Gromos¬†(brother)
  • Belios¬†(brother)
  • Lilim¬†(siblings)
    • Other Affiliations
      • Eve¬†(ex fling, in love with)
      • Amenadiel¬†(former love interest; frenemy)
      • Ben Rivers¬†(former love interest)
      • Chloe Decker¬†(best friend, former roommate)
      • Lucifer¬†(former ally)
      • Trixie Espinoza¬†(first human friend)
      • Linda Martin¬†(best friend)
      • Marcus Pierce¬†(former ally)
      • Michael¬†(ally)

      Dan Espinoza | Lucifer Wiki | FandomKevin Alejandro as Dan Espinoza

  • But¬†he’s¬†an Angel, you’re the devil, you’re the prince of all lies. ‚Äě
    ‚ÄĒ Dan to¬†Lucifer
    in “Spoiler Alert”

    Dan is the ex-husband of¬†Chloe Decker. Together, they had a daughter named¬†Trixie. He is currently an active member of the LAPD and is secretly known for being the responsible of the Palmetto case, which troubled Chloe. Even though Dan dislikes¬†Lucifer, he still stood against¬†Malcolm¬†when it came to killing Lucifer. This can help to conclude that Dan does not hate Lucifer as much as he expresses, thus¬†their on-off relationship.Dan is blaming Lucifer for¬†Charlotte Richards’s death. He “hates”¬†Lucifer Morningstar¬†more than ever.

    • Aimee Garcia¬†as¬†Ella Lopez
    • Rachael Harris¬†as¬†Linda MartinDr. Linda Martin l Lucifer | Rachael harris, Rachel harris, Actresses
  • I don’t know. I guess…with all the bad…comes a lot of good. I got a¬†best friend¬†out of this. And the…most fascinating patient¬†in the world. And¬†this baby. Who saw that coming? I guess, as freaked out as I am…I’m really looking forward to being a mom. And meeting my son. Wings and all.‚Ä쬆‚ÄĒ Linda to¬†Chloe
    in “All About Eve”

Throughout the series, Lucifer Morningstar, the ruler of Hell, seeks her counsel on a consistent basis, usually involving personal issues with Chloe Decker or his family. Though he never outwardly admits his problems, Lucifer instead supplies the Doctor with biblical metaphors and innuendos, requiring Linda to draw the conclusions herself. She occasionally counsels Chloe and Maze when they reach out to her, and forms close bonds with the two.

As their relationship progresses, Lucifer’s trust for Linda continues to grow immensely, causing her to become a close confidant of Lucifer. This later results in Lucifer revealing his true identity to Linda as the Devil, thus making her one of the first humans to know about celestial life existing. She later bares a¬†child¬†with Lucifer’s eldest brother,¬†Amenadiel, thus becoming a mother of the first¬†Nephilim¬†on Earth.

inda had became a teenage mother at age 17 and spent her entire pregnancy in denial. When her daughter¬†was born, the reality of the situation came crashing down her. She loved her daughter but didn’t have confidence in raising her and was too scared to actually give her up, so when the nurses weren’t present, she fled the hospital, abandoning her child.

Linda attended medical school before becoming a therapist. This likely means that she is a psychiatrist, a medical doctor who has completed a residency in psychiatric medicine. To pay for med school, she worked as a phone sex operator, later calling it “1-800-Professor FeelGood”.

She was married to¬†Reese Getty¬†but had been separated from him for approximately two years when she met¬†Lucifer. The pair finalized their divorced sometime in the first season (shown in flashbacks “Off the Record”) after Reese approached her after seeing Lucifer’s devil face.


Charlie (son)
Adriana Nassar (daughter)
Reese Getty† (ex-husband)
Uncle Edwin†

\Other Affiliations

  • Lucifer¬†(patient, confidante, ex-lover)
  • Amenadiel¬†(lover, father of Charlie)
  • Mazikeen¬†(best friend)
  • Chloe Decker¬†(close friend)

‚ÄúGrown Up problems. Not interested.‚Ä쬆‚ÄĒ Trixie to¬†Lucifer
in “It Never Ends Well for the Chicken”

  • Scarlett Estevez as Trixie EspinozaLucifer season 5 part 2 theory | Could Trixie help Maze get a soul? - Radio  Times

Beatrice Espinoza, better known as Trixie, is the young daughter of Detective Chloe Decker and Detective Dan Espinoza. She is a very excited, happy young lady that loves meeting new people, is not the slightest bit shy, and loves hugs. We have also learned through multiple episodes (and bribery attempts) that Trixie is a massive chocolate cake lover. She becomes friends with Lucifer Morningstar and Mazikeen.

  • Dennis Haysbert as GodLucifer: God Takes Charge As Dennis Haysbert Joins Season 5 | Den of Geek

God is one of the two co-creators of the Universe and the father of all angels along with Goddess. He is seemingly trying to have Lucifer redeem himself, as shown when he has Frank Lawrence cross paths with him.

God seems to care more for humans than angels, as after He created humans, He spent more time on them than He did with His celestial family. His care for humans even surpassed his love for his wife, as he banished her to Hell after she repeatedly tried to destroy humanity.

Amenadiel said that God has a tendency to overreact. This is displayed by His cursing of Cain after he killed Abel despite both brothers wanting to kill each other and by the fact that He was about to destroy Lucifer after his rebellion.

Nevertheless, God is capable of forgiving and cares for His angelic children, as He forgave Lucifer for his rebellion eventually.

God set up the universe so he does not have control of the fates of mortals and immortals; instead, their own self-judgment decides where they go when they die. Despite humans fighting wars over what they think God wants, God does nothing to try correcting this; once again hands-off.

God: “Does that mean I never should’ve manipulated things to begin with? I have a better question. Wouldn’t you do the same in my shoes? After all, a parent just wants what’s best for their child.”

God: “My¬†son¬†and I… Well, let’s just say, I don’t think I could change anything that would make our relationship less complicated.”


  • Goddess¬†(ex-wife)
  • Amenadiel¬†(son)
  • Michael¬†(son)
  • Lucifer¬†(son)
  • Gabriel¬†(son)
  • Uriel‚Ƭ†(son)
  • Azrael¬†(daughter)
  • Remiel¬†(daughter)
  • Castiel¬†(son)
  • Raphael¬†(son)
  • Angels¬†(children)
  • Charlie¬†(grandson)
‚Äú What Lucifer and I have is special. It’s real, and it doesn’t matter how many lies you tell me. I will never lose faith in me and him. ‚Äě
in “Lucifer! Lucifer! Lucifer!”

Lucifer Morningstar and Chloe Decker are initially friends and LAPD co-workers, but as the series progresses they fall in love with each other and eventually become a couple.

  • Chloe opening up to Lucifer in the pilot episode and Lucifer offered to be her partner afterwards
  • Their Piano Duet to Hearts and Soul
  • Lucifer refuses to take advantage of Chloe when she arrived to his place drunk
  • Their first kiss
  • Lucifer went down to hell in order to get an antidote to save Chloe’s life
  • Lucifer and Chloe’s Prom Dance
  • Lucifer shield her with his wings to protect her from guns shots
  • Chloe helps Lucifer to forgive himself
  • Lucifer and Chloe holding hands while going towards the crime scene
  • Their first night (sex) together
  • The morning after scene

Who is expected in the Lucifer season 6 cast?

While there was some uncertainty regarding Tom Ellis’s involvement in the last season, it’s been confirmed that the star will be back. Here’s which cast members look set to be back.

  • Lauren German as Chloe
  • Lesley-Ann Brandt as Maze
  • Rachael Harris as Linda Martin
  • Aimee Garcia as Ella Lopez
  • Kevin Alejandro as Dan Espinoza
  • Scarlett Estevez as Trixie Espinoza
  • DB Woodside as Amenadiel

It was also recently confirmed that Scarlett Estevez will be reprising her role as Trixie Espinoza, Chloe’s daughter for the sixth season as well as the second half of the fifth season.

International Women’s Day

¬†oPin by Tash Mckenzie on Rose Hill Designs...√ʬô¬° | International womens day  quotes, Womens day quotes, Happy womens day quotes
What is International Women’s Day mean?
International Women’s Day¬†is a global¬†day¬†celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of¬†women. The¬†day¬†also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity.
What is the history of women’s day?
Women’s Day was observed for the first time in 1911. Two years later, in 1913, the date was changed to¬†March¬†8, and it continues to be celebrated as such every year. The theme for this year’s International Women’s Day is #ChooseToChallenge.

DOROTHY THOMPSONDorothy Thompson 1930.jpg

”Women have had the vote for over forty years and their organizations lobby in Washington for all sorts of causes; why, why, why don’t they take up their own causes and obvious needs?”

Dorothy Celene Thompson¬†(July 9, 1893 ‚Äď January 30, 1961) was an American journalist and radio broadcaster. She was the first American journalist to be expelled from¬†Nazi Germany¬†in 1934 and was one of the few women news commentators on radio during the 1930s.¬†Thompson is regarded by some as the “First Lady of American Journalism”and was recognized by¬†Time¬†magazine¬†in 1939 as equal in influence to¬†Eleanor Roosevelt.Thompson was born in¬†Lancaster, New York, in 1893, one of three children of Peter and Margaret (Grierson) Thompson. Her siblings were Peter Willard Thompson and Margaret Thompson (later Mrs. Howard Wilson). Her mother died when Thompson was seven (in April 1901), leaving Peter, a Methodist preacher, to raise his children alone. Peter soon remarried, but Thompson did not get along with his new wife, Elizabeth Abbott Thompson.In 1908, Peter sent Thompson to¬†Chicago¬†to live with his two sisters to avoid further conflict. Here, she attended¬†Lewis Institute¬†for two years before transferring to¬†Syracuse University¬†as a junior. At Syracuse, she studied politics and economics and graduated with a degree in 1914. Because she had the opportunity to be educated, unlike many women of the time, Thompson felt that she had a social obligation to fight for¬†women’s suffrage in the United States, which would become the base of her ardent political beliefs. Shortly after graduation, Thompson moved to¬†Buffalo, New York¬†and became involved in the women’s suffrage campaign. She worked there until 1920, when she went abroad to pursue her journalism career.

After graduating from Syracuse University, Thompson took a job with the New York Woman Suffrage Party. When the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote was ratified in 1920, she decided to become a journalist and set off for Europe to look for a good story.

In 1921, Thompson posed as a Red Cross medical assistant and infiltrated the inner circle of the former King Karl I, a Hapsburg (German royal family) who sought to reclaim the Hungarian throne. She was the only journalist to report on the event from the inside. ‚ÄúIt scooped the world, of course, that story. The only interview with Karl. The other correspondents were‚ÄĒwell, you can imagine,‚ÄĚ she later recalled.

Famous as a journalist willing to take great risk, she soon accepted a full-time job as the Vienna correspondent and central European bureau chief for the Philadelphia Public Ledger.

After working for women‚Äôs suffrage in the United States, Thompson relocated to Europe in 1920 to pursue her journalism career. She was interested in the early¬†Zionist¬†movement. Her big break occurred when she visited Ireland in 1920 and was the last to interview¬†Terence MacSwiney, one of the major leaders of the¬†Sinn F√©in¬†movement. It was the last interview MacSwiney gave before he was arrested days later and died two months after that.Because of her success abroad, she was appointed Vienna correspondent for the¬†Philadelphia¬†Public Ledger. While working in Vienna, Thompson focused on becoming fluent in German. She met and worked alongside correspondents¬†John Gunther¬†and¬†G. E. R. Gedye. In 1925, she was promoted to Chief of the Central European Service for the¬†Public Ledger.¬†She resigned in 1927 and, not long after, the¬†New York Post¬†appointed her head of its Berlin bureau in Germany.¬†There she witnessed firsthand the rise of the¬†National Socialist or Nazi¬†party. According to her biographer, Peter Kurth, Thompson was “the undisputed queen of the overseas press corps, the first woman to head a foreign news bureau of any importance.”

During this time Thompson cultivated many literary friends, particularly among¬†exiled German authors. Among her acquaintances from this period were¬†√Ėd√∂n von Horv√°th,¬†Thomas Mann,¬†Bertolt Brecht,¬†Stefan Zweig¬†and¬†Fritz Kortner. She developed a close friendship with author¬†Carl Zuckmayer. In Berlin she even got involved in a¬†lesbian¬†affair with German author¬†Christa Winsloe, while still married, claiming “the right to love”.

Thompson’s most significant work abroad took place in Germany in the early 1930s.While working in¬†Munich, Thompson met and interviewed¬†Adolf Hitler¬†for the first time in 1931. This would be the basis for her subsequent book,¬†I Saw Hitler, in which she wrote about the dangers of him winning power in Germany.Thompson described Hitler in the following terms: “He is formless, almost faceless, a man whose countenance is a caricature, a man whose framework seems cartilaginous, without bones. He is inconsequent and voluble, ill poised and insecure. He is the very prototype of the little man.”

Later, when the full force of Nazism had crashed over Europe, Thompson was asked to defend her “Little Man” remarks; it seemed she had underestimated Hitler.¬†The Nazis considered both the book and her articles offensive and, in August 1934, Thompson was expelled from Germany. She was the first American journalist to be kicked out.She was married three times, most famously to second husband and¬†Nobel Prize in literature¬†winner¬†Sinclair Lewis.¬†In 1923 she married her first husband, Hungarian¬†Joseph Bard; they divorced in 1927. Thompson married Lewis in 1928 and acquired a house in Vermont. They had one son, Michael Lewis, born in 1930.The couple divorced in 1942.She married her third husband, artist Maxim Kopf, in 1945, and they were married until Kopf’s death in 1958.

  • 1928:¬†The New Russia¬†(Holt)
  • 1932:¬†I Saw Hitler!¬†(Farrar and Rinehart)
  • 1935:¬†Maps
  • 1938:¬†Dorothy Thompson’s Political Guide: A Study of American Liberalism and Its Relationship to Modern Totalitarian States¬†(Stackpole)
  • 1938:¬†Refugees: Anarchy or Organization?¬†(Random House)
  • 1937:¬†Concerning Vermont
  • 1939:¬†Once on Christmas¬†(Oxford University Press)
  • 1939:¬†Let the Record Speak¬†(Houghton Mifflin)
  • 1939:¬†Christian Ethics and Western Civilization
  • 1941:¬†A Call to Action, Ring of Freedom
  • 1941:¬†Our Lives, Fortunes, and Sacred Honor
  • 1942:¬†Listen, Hans¬†(Houghton Mifflin)
  • 1944:¬†To Whom Does the Earth Belong?
  • 1945:¬†I Speak Again as a Christian
  • 1946:¬†Let the Promise Be Fulfilled: A Christian View of Palestine
  • 1948:¬†The Truth About Communism¬†(Washington:¬†Public Affairs Press)
  • 1948:¬†The Developments of Our Times
  • 1955:¬†The Crisis of the West
  • 1957:¬†The Courage to Be Happy¬†(Houghton Mifflin)

BPioneer Billie Jean King Moved The Baseline For Women's Tennis : NPR



Tennis career
Country (sports) United States
Turned pro 1959
Retired 1990
Plays Right-handed (one-handed backhand)
College California State University, Los Angeles
Prize money $1,966,487
Int. Tennis HoF 1987
Career¬†record 695‚Äď155 (81.76%)
Career titles 129 (67 during open era)
Highest ranking No. 1 (1966, Lance Tingay)
Grand Slam Singles results
Australian Open W (1968)
French Open W (1972)
Wimbledon W (1966, 1967, 1968, 1972, 1973, 1975)
US Open W (1967, 1971, 1972, 1974)
Career¬†record 87‚Äď37¬†(as shown on WTA website)
Highest ranking No. 1 (1967)
Grand Slam Doubles results
Australian Open F (1965, 1969)
French Open W (1972)
Wimbledon W (1961, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1979)
US Open W (1964, 1967, 1974, 1978, 1980)
Mixed doubles
Career titles 11
Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results
Australian Open W (1968)
French Open W (1967, 1970)
Wimbledon W (1967, 1971, 1973, 1974)
US Open W (1967, 1971, 1973, 1976)
Team competitions
Fed Cup W (1963, 1966, 1967, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979) (as player) W (1976, 1996, 1999, 2000) (as captain)



Billie Jean King¬†(n√©e¬†Moffitt; born November 22, 1943) is an American former¬†World No. 1¬†professional¬†tennis player. King won 39¬†Grand Slam¬†titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women’s doubles, and 11 in mixed doubles. She often represented the United States in the¬†Federation Cup¬†and the¬†Wightman Cup. She was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States’ captain in the Federation Cup.

King is an advocate for gender equality and has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice.[2]¬†In 1973, at age 29, she won the “Battle of the Sexes” tennis match against the 55-year-old¬†Bobby Riggs. She was also the founder of the¬†Women’s Tennis Association¬†and the¬†Women’s Sports Foundation. She was also instrumental in persuading cigarette brand¬†Virginia Slims¬†to sponsor women’s tennis in the 1970s and went on to serve on the board of their parent company¬†Philip Morris¬†in the 2000s.

Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest women’s tennis players of all time,[3][4][5][6]¬†King was inducted into the¬†International Tennis Hall of Fame¬†in 1987. The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on her in 2010. In 1972, she was the joint winner, with¬†John Wooden, of the¬†Sports Illustrated¬†Sportsman of the Year¬†award and was one of the¬†Time¬†Persons of the Year in 1975. She has also received the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†and the¬†Sunday Times¬†Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award. She was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†in 1990, and in 2006, the¬†USTA National Tennis Center¬†in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. In 2018, she won the¬†BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award.

For all her tennis accomplishments, Billie Jean King is probably best known for her 1973 match against former men’s champion Bobby Riggs, dubbed the “Battle of the Sexes.” The 55-year-old Riggs had assumed an overtly chauvinistic public persona to bait the sport‚Äôs top women into playing him, and after he easily defeated multi-time champion Margaret Court in the “Mother’s Day Massacre” of May 1973, he secured King as his next opponent.

The match took place on September 20, 1973, at the Houston Astrodome. Embracing the spectacle of the event, King entered the court in a gold litter carried by four muscular men, while Riggs rolled in on a rickshaw pulled by a team of women called “Bobby’s Bosom Buddies.” But King was all business once the match started, and she handily beat Riggs in straight sets before an estimated television audience of 90 million viewers.

Afterward, King acknowledged the pressure she felt that day. “I thought it would set us back 50 years if I didn’t win that match,” she said. “It would ruin the women’s tour and affect all women’s self-esteem.”

EMILY DICKINSONPhotograph of Emily Dickinson, seated, at the age of 16

¬†‚ÄúBecause I could not stop for death, He kindly stopped for me The carriage held but just ourselves and immortality.‚ÄĚ

Oh the Earth was made for lovers, for damsel, and hopeless swain,

For sighing, and gentle whispering, and unity made of twain

You love me‚ÄĒyou are sure‚ÄĒ

I shall not fear mistake‚ÄĒ
I shall not¬†cheated¬†wake‚ÄĒ
Some grinning morn‚ÄĒ
To find the Sunrise left‚ÄĒ
And Orchards‚ÄĒunbereft‚ÄĒ
And Dollie‚ÄĒgone!

Emily Elizabeth Dickinson¬†(December 10, 1830¬†‚Äď May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Little known during her life, she has since been regarded as one of the most important figures in American poetry.

Dickinson was born in¬†Amherst, Massachusetts¬†into a prominent family with strong ties to its community. After studying at the¬†Amherst Academy¬†for seven years in her youth, she briefly attended the¬†Mount Holyoke Female Seminary¬†before returning to her family’s house in Amherst.

Evidence suggests that Dickinson lived much of her life in isolation. Considered an eccentric by locals, she developed a penchant for white clothing and was known for her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, to even leave her bedroom. Dickinson never married, and most friendships between her and others depended entirely upon correspondence.

While Dickinson was a prolific writer, her only publications during her lifetime were 10 of her nearly 1,800 poems, and one letter.The poems published then were usually edited significantly to fit conventional poetic rules. Her poems were unique for her era. They contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often use slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation. Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends, and also explore aesthetics, society, nature and spirituality.

Although Dickinson’s acquaintances were most likely aware of her writing, it was not until after her death in 1886‚ÄĒwhen Lavinia, Dickinson’s younger sister, discovered her cache of poems‚ÄĒthat her work became public. Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances¬†Thomas Wentworth Higginson¬†and¬†Mabel Loomis Todd, though both heavily edited the content. A 1998¬†New York Times¬†article revealed that of the many edits made to Dickinson’s work, the name “Susan” was often deliberately removed. At least eleven of Dickinson’s poems were dedicated to sister-in-law¬†Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickinson, though all the dedications were obliterated, presumably by Todd.A complete, and mostly unaltered, collection of her poetry became available for the first time when scholar Thomas H. Johnson published¬†The Poems of Emily Dickinson¬†in 1955.

In the early 20th century, Martha Dickinson Bianchi and¬†Millicent Todd Bingham¬†kept the achievement of Emily Dickinson alive. Bianchi promoted Dickinson’s poetic achievement. Bianchi inherited The Evergreens as well as the copyright for her aunt’s poetry from her parents, publishing works such as¬†Emily Dickinson Face to Face¬†and¬†Letters of Emily Dickinson, which stoked public curiosity about her aunt. Bianchi’s books perpetrated legends about her aunt in the context of family tradition, personal recollection and correspondence. In contrast, Millicent Todd Bingham’s took a more objective and realistic approach to the poet.

Emily Dickinson is now considered a powerful and persistent figure in American culture.¬†Although much of the early reception concentrated on Dickinson’s eccentric and secluded nature, she has become widely acknowledged as an innovative, proto-modernist poet.As early as 1891, William Dean Howells wrote that “If nothing else had come out of our life but this strange poetry, we should feel that in the work of Emily Dickinson, America, or New England rather, had made a distinctive addition to the literature of the world, and could not be left out of any record of it.”¬†Critic¬†Harold Bloom¬†has placed her alongside¬†Walt Whitman,¬†Wallace Stevens,¬†Robert Frost,¬†T. S. Eliot, and¬†Hart Crane¬†as a major American poet,and¬†in 1994¬†listed her among the 26 central writers of Western civilization.

Dickinson is taught in¬†American literature¬†and¬†poetry¬†classes in the United States from middle school to college. Her poetry is frequently anthologized and has been used as text for art songs by composers such as¬†Aaron Copland,¬†Nick Peros,¬†John Adams¬†and¬†Michael Tilson Thomas.Several schools have been established in her name; for example, Emily Dickinson Elementary Schools exist in¬†Bozeman, Montana;Redmond, Washington;and New York City.A few literary journals ‚ÄĒ including¬†The Emily Dickinson Journal, the official publication of the Emily Dickinson International Society ‚ÄĒ have been founded to examine her work.An 8-cent commemorative stamp in honor of Dickinson was issued by the¬†United States Postal Service¬†on August 28, 1971, as the second stamp in the “American Poet” series.¬†Dickinson was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†in 1973.A one-woman play titled¬†The Belle of Amherst¬†appeared on Broadway in 1976, winning several awards; it was later adapted for television.

Dickinson’s¬†herbarium, which is now held in the¬†Houghton Library¬†at¬†Harvard University, was published in 2006 as¬†Emily Dickinson’s Herbarium¬†by¬†Harvard University Press. The original work was compiled by Dickinson during her years at Amherst Academy, and consists of 424 pressed specimens of plants arranged on 66 pages of a bound album. A digital facsimile of the herbarium is available online.[193]¬†The town of Amherst¬†Jones Library’s Special Collections department has an Emily Dickinson Collection consisting of approximately seven thousand items, including original manuscript poems and letters, family correspondence, scholarly articles and books, newspaper clippings, theses, plays, photographs and contemporary artwork and prints. The Archives and Special Collections at¬†Amherst College¬†has substantial holdings of Dickinson’s manuscripts and letters as well as a lock of Dickinson’s hair and the original of the only positively identified image of the poet. In 1965, in recognition of Dickinson’s growing stature as a poet, the Homestead was purchased by Amherst College. It opened to the public for tours, and also served as a faculty residence for many years. The¬†Emily Dickinson Museum was created in 2003 when ownership of the Evergreens, which had been occupied by Dickinson family heirs until 1988, was transferred to the college.

How many poems did Emily Dickinson write?
1800 poems
Emily Dickinson titled fewer than 10 of her almost¬†1800 poems. Her poems are now generally known by their first lines or by the numbers assigned to them by posthumous editors. For some of Dickinson’s poems, more than one manuscript version exists.

Hope is the Thing with Feathers :The¬†most famous poem¬†by¬†Dickinson, ‚ÄúHope is the Thing with Feathers‚ÄĚ is ranked among the¬†greatest poems¬†in the English language. It metaphorically describes hope as a bird that rests in the soul, sings continuously and never demands anything even in the direst circumstances

‚ÄúHope‚ÄĚ is the thing with feathers –
That perches in the soul –
And sings the tune without the words –
And never stops – at all –
And sweetest – in the Gale – is heard –
And sore must be the storm –
That could abash the little Bird
That kept so many warm –
I‚Äôve heard it in the chillest land –
And on the strangest Sea –
Yet – never – in Extremity,
It asked a crumb – of me.

QUEEN VICTORIADid Queen Victoria Really Save Prince Albert From Drowning in an Icy Lake?  | Mental Floss

Queen VictoriaPrince Albert's devastating confession about death to Queen Victoria |  Royal | News | Express.co.uk

I love peace and quiet, I hate politics and turmoil. We women are not made for governing, and if we are good women, we must dislike these masculine occupations.

Queen Victoria

Victoria¬†(Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 ‚Äď 22 January 1901) was¬†Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland¬†from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the¬†Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was¬†longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the¬†British Empire. In 1876, Parliament voted her the additional title of¬†Empress of India.

Victoria was the daughter of¬†Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn¬†(the fourth son of¬†King George¬†III), and¬†Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After both the Duke and his father died in 1820, she was¬†raised under close supervision¬†by her mother and her¬†comptroller,¬†John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father’s three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Though a¬†constitutional monarch, privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of¬†personal morality.

Victoria married her first cousin¬†Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha¬†in 1840. Their¬†children¬†married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the¬†sobriquet¬†“the¬†grandmother of Europe” and spreading¬†haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert’s death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion,¬†republicanism in the United Kingdom¬†temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her¬†Golden¬†and¬†Diamond¬†Jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the¬†Isle of Wight¬†in 1901. The last¬†British monarch¬†of the¬†House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son¬†Edward VII¬†of the¬†House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Victoria’s father was¬†Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom,¬†George¬†III. Until 1817, Edward’s niece,¬†Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George¬†III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a¬†succession crisis¬†that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married¬†Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children‚ÄĒCarl¬†(1804‚Äď1856) and¬†Feodora¬†(1807‚Äď1872)‚ÄĒby her first marriage to the¬†Prince of Leiningen. Her brother¬†Leopold¬†was Princess Charlotte’s widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kent’s only child, Victoria, was born at 4:15¬†a.m. on 24 May 1819 at¬†Kensington Palace¬†in London.

Victoria was christened privately by the¬†Archbishop of Canterbury,¬†Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.She was baptised¬†Alexandrina¬†after one of her godparents, Emperor¬†Alexander I of Russia, and¬†Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents‚ÄĒGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta‚ÄĒwere dropped on the instructions of Kent’s eldest brother¬†George, Prince Regent.

At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George¬†III: the Prince Regent (later George¬†IV);¬†Frederick, Duke of York;¬†William, Duke of Clarence¬†(later William¬†IV); and Victoria’s father, Edward, Duke of Kent.The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. William and Edward married on the same day in 1818, but both of William’s legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria’s father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George¬†IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. William’s second daughter,¬†Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4¬†March 1821, and for that period Victoria was fourth in line.

The Duke of York died in 1827, followed by George¬†IV in 1830; the throne passed to their next surviving brother, William, and Victoria became¬†heir presumptive. The¬†Regency Act 1830¬†made special provision for Victoria’s mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.King William distrusted the Duchess’s capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria’s 18th birthday, so that a¬†regency¬†could be avoided.

Though Queen, as an unmarried young woman¬†Victoria¬†was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the¬†Kensington System¬†and her mother’s continued reliance on Sir¬†John Conroy. Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in¬†Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to meet her.When Victoria complained to¬†Lord Melbourne¬†that her mother’s close proximity promised “torment for many years”, Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a “shocking [sic] alternative”. She showed interest in Albert’s education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.

Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.They were married on 10 February 1840, in the¬†Chapel Royal¬†of¬†St. James’s Palace, London. Victoria was besotted. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary:

I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert¬†… his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have¬†hoped¬†to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness‚ÄĒreally how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a¬†Husband!¬†… to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before‚ÄĒwas bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life!

Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen’s companion, replacing Lord Melbourne as the dominant, influential figure in the first half of her life.

The lace was designed by William Dyce, head of the then Government School of Design (later known as the Royal College of Art), and mounted on a white satin dress made by Mary Bettans.

The plain, cream-coloured satin wedding dress was made from fabric woven in¬†Spitalfields, east London, and trimmed with a deep flounce and trimmings of lace hand-made in¬†Honiton¬†and¬†Beer, in¬†Devon.This demonstrated support for English industry, particularly the¬†cottage industry¬†for lace.The handmade lace motifs were¬†appliqu√©d onto cotton machine-made net Orange flower blossoms, a symbol of fertility, also trimmed the dress and made up Victoria’s wreath, which she wore instead of a tiara over her veil. The veil, which matched the flounce of the dress, was four yards in length and 0.75 yards wide. Her jewellery consisted of diamond earrings and necklace, and a sapphire brooch given to her by Albert.[11]¬†The slippers she wore matched the white colour of the dress. The train of the dress, carried by her bridesmaids, measured 18 feet (5.5¬†m) long.

Queen Victoria described her choice of dress in her journal thus: “I wore a white satin dress, with a deep flounce of Honiton lace, an imitation of an old design. My jewels were my Turkish diamond necklace & earrings & dear Albert’s beautiful sapphire brooch.”

       Guests of Queen Victoria & Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Victoria Marriage01.jpg
Bride’s family of¬† Queen Victoria
  • The Duchess of Kent,¬†the bride’s mother
  • Queen Adelaide,¬†the bride’s paternal aunt by marriage
  • The Princess Augusta Sophia,¬†the bride’s paternal aunt
  • The Duke of Sussex,¬†the bride’s paternal uncle
  • The Duke¬†and¬†Duchess of Cambridge,¬†the bride’s paternal uncle and aunt
    • Prince George of Cambridge,¬†the bride’s first cousin
    • Princess Augusta of Cambridge,¬†the bride’s first cousin
    • Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge,¬†the bride’s first cousin
  • Princess Sophia of Gloucester,¬†the bride’s first cousin once removed
Groom’s family of Prince Albert
  • The¬†Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,¬†the groom’s father
    • The¬†Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,¬†the groom’s brother
Bridesmaids of  Queen Victoria
  • Lady Mary Howard (1822‚Äď1897), granddaughter of the¬†Earl Marshal¬†the Duke of Norfolk, later¬†Baroness Foley of Kidderminster;
  • Lady Caroline Gordon-Lennox (1819‚Äď1890), daughter of¬†the Duke of Richmond and Lennox, later¬†Countess of Bessborough;
  • Lady Adelaide Paget (d.1890), daughter of¬†the Marquess of Anglesey, later¬†Lady Adelaide Cadogan;
  • Lady Eleanora Paget (d.1848), niece of the above, granddaughter of the 1st Marquess of Anglesey, later Lady Graham;
  • Lady Elizabeth Howard (d.1891), daughter of¬†the Earl of Carlisle, later Lady Grey;
  • Lady Wilhelmina Stanhope¬†(1819-1901), daughter of¬†the Earl Stanhope, later Duchess of Cleveland;
  • Lady Sarah Villiers (1822‚Äď1853), daughter of¬†the Earl of Jersey, later Princess Esterhazy;
  • Lady Elizabeth Sackville-West¬†(1818-1897), daughter of¬†the Earl De La Warr, later Duchess of Bedford;
  • Lady Ida Hay (1821‚Äď1867), daughter of¬†the Earl of Erroll, later Countess of Gainsborough;
  • Lady Frances Cowper¬†(1820‚Äď1880), daughter of the 5th¬†Earl Cowper, later Viscountess Jocelyn;
  • Lady Mary Grimston (1821‚Äď1879), daughter of¬†the Earl of Verulam, later Countess of Radnor;
  • Lady Jane Pleydell-Bouverie (1819‚Äď1903), sister-in-law of the above, daughter of¬†the Earl of Radnor, later Lady Jane Ellice.

Issue¬†Grandchildren of Victoria and Albert¬†and¬†Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IXVictoria’s family in 1846 by¬†Franz Xaver Winterhalter.
Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria.

Name Birth Death Spouse and children
Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November
5 August
Married 1858,¬†Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831‚Äď1888);
4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece)
Edward VII of the United Kingdom 9 November
6 May
Married 1863,¬†Princess Alexandra of Denmark¬†(1844‚Äď1925);
3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway)
Princess Alice 25 April
14 December
Married 1862,¬†Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine¬†(1837‚Äď1892);
2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra of Russia)
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 6 August
31 July
Married 1874,¬†Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia¬†(1853‚Äď1920);
2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania)
Princess Helena 25 May
9 June
Married 1866,¬†Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein¬†(1831‚Äď1917);
4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters
Princess Louise 18 March
3 December
Married 1871,¬†John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th¬†Duke of Argyll¬†(1845‚Äď1914);
no issue
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May
16 January
Married 1879,¬†Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia¬†(1860‚Äď1917);
1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden)
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April
28 March
Married 1882,¬†Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont¬†(1861‚Äď1922);
1 son, 1 daughter
Princess Beatrice 14 April
26 October
Married 1885,¬†Prince Henry of Battenberg¬†(1858‚Äď1896);
3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain)
8 of the best movies and TV series about Queen Victoria
Victoria the Great [1937]Victoria the Great (1937)

This 1937 British biographical film was commissioned by none other than King Edward VIII, following the Broadway success of Laurence Housman’s play Victoria Regina. The play had previously been banned in 1935 by Lord Chamberlain as it was forbidden for the royal family to be shown on the British stage.

Victoria the Great focuses on the early years of Victoria’s reign and her marriage to Prince Albert. It ends with the film switching from black and white to colour as the Queen resumes her public duties following her period of seclusion after Albert’s death in 1861.

On the death of her uncle, King William IV, 18-year-old Princess Victoria (Anna Neagle) becomes Queen of England. This respectful biopic chronicles her six decades in power during a period of immense social change. While quelling political dissent in the palace and economic upheavals among the lower¬†classes, Victoria grudgingly accedes to her advisers’ pressure to marry her German-born cousin, Albert (Anton Walbrook), but their marriage soon becomes a treasured source of stability and affection.

Victoria the Great is available on DVD on Amazon.

Sixty Glorious Years (1938)Sixty Glorious Years Review (1938)

Following the success of Victoria the Great in 1937, director Herbert Wilcox returned with a sequel in 1938, bringing back his wife Anna Neagle as Queen Victoria alongside Anton Walbrook as Prince Albert.

Queen Victoria married her cousin, Prince Albert, in 1840. Their relationship was central to her life, as were the many political and military upheavals that characterized her time as Queen.

Sixty Glorious Years is available on DVD on Amazon.

Victoria Regina (1964)Amazon.com: Victoria Regina [DVD]: Movies & TV

Based on the 1934 play by English writer Laurence Housman, this four-part Granada Television series in 1964 starred a young Patricia Routledge as Queen Victoria.


Mrs Brown (1997)Mrs. Brown (1997) 1/2(3.5/4): Queen and her Highlander servant |  Seongyong's Private Place

After the death of her beloved husband, Prince Albert, Queen Victoria (Judi Dench) withdraws from public life, so the court appoints a former servant of the prince, John Brown (Billy Connolly), to help her recover from her grief. Brown’s unorthodox ways and disdain for protocol draw the queen out of¬†her shell, and the brash Scot becomes her sole confidant. However, their growing closeness causes a stir, as scandalous rumors begin circulating about the exact nature of their relationship.

Mrs Brown is available on DVD on Amazon.


Victoria & Albert (2001)undefined

Dramatisation of the lives of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the love story that was their lengthy marriage.

Victoria & Albert is available on DVD on Amazon.

The Young Victoria (2009)The Young Victoria - The Young Victoria Photo (26774087) - Fanpop

As the only legitimate heir of England’s King William, teenage Victoria (Emily Blunt) gets caught up in the political machinations of her own family. Victoria’s mother (Miranda Richardson) wants her to sign a regency order, while her Belgian uncle schemes to arrange a marriage between the future monarch and Prince Albert (Rupert Friend), the man who will become the love of her life.

he Young Victoria is available on DVD on Amazon.


Victoria (2016)undefined

Beginning with Queen Victoria’s accession to the throne at the age of just 18, the first season explored her loving friendship with Lord Melbourne and her marriage to Prince Albert.

This drama features an all-star cast including Jenna Coleman as a young Queen Victoria and Tom Hughes as Prince Albert. The monarch’s life is chronicled as the story begins with the death of King William IV in 1837, her accession to the throne at the tender age of 18 and her relationships with the influential forces around her. With the advice of the prime minister Lord Melbourne and the support of her husband Prince Albert the young queen flourishes and establishes herself in her newfound role. As the series continues, true historical events are portrayed, such as the Chartist movement demanding voting rights for working men, and the revolution in France in 1848, showing the complexities involved in how Victoria deals with them, and with the foreign secretary Lord Palmerston.

Victoria is available on DVD on Amazon.

Victoria & Abdul (2017)Victoria and Abdul: The Real Story Behind the Queen's Controversial  Relationship with Her Indian Attendant | Vanity Fair

Abdul Karim arrives from India to participate in Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee. The young clerk is surprised to find favour with the queen herself. As Victoria questions the constrictions of her long-held position, the two forge an unlikely and devoted alliance that her household and inner circle¬†try to destroy. As their friendship deepens, the queen begins to see a changing world through new eyes, joyfully reclaiming her humanity.

Victoria & Abdul is available on DVD on Amazon.



The Young Victoria by Alison Plowden

Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London on 24 May 1819 and lost her father Prince Edward before reaching her first birthday. As heir to the throne from infancy Victoria grew up knowing the would one day be queen. The Young Victoria explores the conflicting ambitions that surrounded those charged with the princesses’ care including her mother Victoria and household comptroller John Conroy who between them devised the Kensington System of rules for the young Victoria’s upbringing.


Becoming Queen Victoria: the unexpected rise of Britain’s Greatest Monarch by Kate Williams

Victoria’s reign began on 20 June 1837 after the death of her uncle, William IV, and ended with her death on 22 January 1901. In Becoming Queen Victoria, Kate Williams begins with Victoria’s act of banishing her controlling mother to the sidelines upon taking the throne, exploring the new queen’s growing confidence and power. There is also a study of those who attempted to wrestle power from Victoria, including her ministers and her husband Prince Albert.


Queen Victoria: Daughter, Wife, Mother, Widow by Dr Lucy Worsley

Lucy Worsley’s latest history title explores Victoria’s various family roles, looking at how society’s expectations affected how the queen behaved, even within a family and domestic setting. Lucy takes 24 days of Victoria’s life and uses diaries, letters and other primary source material to show us how despite the popular perception that Victoria was very conservative, she was actually something of a trail-blazer for the women who followed.


Queen Victoria: a personal history by Christopher Hibbert

A personal history that spans the 64-years of Victoria’s reign, looking at her development as a monarch against an ever-changing background of royal quarrels, overseas rebellions, the fall of monarchs and the development of Britain into a dominant industrial power. We also look at the queen’s personal relationships, most particularly with her husband Prince Albert and her servant John Brown.



Victoria: The Queen ‚Äď an intimate biography of the woman who ruled an empire¬†by Julia Baird

This award-winning biography that look at how a woman who came to the throne at the age of 18 went on to rule what was one of the world’s most powerful countries at a time of great change. Author Julia Baird focuses on Victoria’s controversial relationship with John Brown and also uses sources which show how Victoria balanced family life with the demands of her role as monarch.


My dearest, dearest Albert: Queen Victoria’s life through her letters and journals by Karen Dolby

Queen Victoria’s letters and journals form the basis for this exploration of what we can learn about the queen’s life and relationship through her own pen. Victoria kept a diary from the age of 13, and author Karen Dolby uses extracts from the 122 volumes of Victoria’s diaries, as well as her personal letters, to explore her feelings for her husband and children, her opinions on the people she came into contact with, and her views on both local and global affairs.


Victoria: A Life by A.N. Wilson

Award-winning biographer A.N. Wilson turns the spotlight on Victoria with this study that explores the many contradictions of Victoria‚Äôs personality and aims to overthrow long-held presumptions about the queen‚Äôs life and reign. Victoria emerges for the author as a ‚Äėbrave, original woman‚Äô, rather than the hysterical egomaniac some authors have portrayed.


Empress: Queen Victoria and India by Miles Taylor

Victoria’s rule in India is explored by Miles Taylor, focusing on the queen’s entire reign, not just the final decades of her life with which we traditionally associate her with India. The author argues that both Victoria and Albert had a real passion for India and that the involvement of Victoria as empress led to the political and economic modernisation of India.



Queen Victoria’s Children by John Van der Kiste

Albert and Victoria had nine children together, each of whom was born into a life of royal privilege and some of whom would marry into Europe’s foremost dynasties, creating descendants whose bloodlines run into the present day. Queen Victoria’s Children looks at the character and personality of each of the children and explores how each child’s position in the royal family shaped their character.


Grandmama of Europe: The crowned descendants of Queen Victoria by Theo Aronson

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert have well over 700 descendants, making Victoria‚Äôs title ‚Äėgrandmama of Europe‚Äô most apt. The late Theo Aronson looks at the many families of mainland Europe who can count Queen Victoria as an ancestor and explores the complicated bloodlines of the royal houses of Europe.

 Becoming Queen Victoria: The Unexpected Rise of Britain’s Greatest Monarch

Queen Victoria was born in 1819, a daughter to King George III’s fourth son. No one expected this kind of unassuming, over-protected girl to be an effective ruler. But Queen Victoria would become one of the most powerful monarchs in history.

Writing with novelistic stimulus and historical accuracy, Kate Williams reveals an animated woman early in her life when Byzantine techniques continued even after the crown was placed on her head. Upon hearing that he had inherited the throne, 18-year-old Victoria fired her mother out of the house, a simple yet determined move that would set the tone for her reign.

The queen constantly clashed not only with her mother and her mother’s adviser, the Irish explorer John Conroy but also with her ministers and even her beloved Prince Albert all trying to seize control from her.

Williams lays bare the passions that swirled around the throne, the court secrets, the sexual repression, and the endless intrigue. The result is a grand tale of a woman whose destiny began long before she was born and whose legacy lives on.

In fact, Queen Victoria was not only a Queen who entitled to the throne but also was one of the influential leaders of all time in the United Kingdom.

The referred the best biography of Queen Victoria here will provide you with accurate information, her personality as well as how was she as Queen of England and Ireland and Empress of India.


Queen Victoria: Twenty-Four Days That Changed Her Life

Most probably, one of the most well-known of the English monarchies, Queen Victoria forever shaped a chapter in English history, bearing her name in the Victorian era. Lucy Worsley in Queen Victoria introduces this iconic woman in a new light. Going beyond the search for a queen as a mere monarch.

Lucy Worsley considers Victoria to be a woman who lived a truly extraordinary life in a unique time. The audiobook is structured around Victoria’s various roles, a daughter who raised to exercise power, a loving but tempestuous wife, a controlling mother, and a cunning widow while wearing royal crowns.

Queen Victoria was socially conservative far from a protofeminist, and never supported women’s rights. And yet, Victoria failed the strict rules of womanhood that defined the era in which she was named.

She was passionate, enthusiastic, selfish, and moody, boldly disobeying the wishes of politicians who wanted to control him and the family emotionally for decades.

From the vast collection of Victoria’s correspondence and the rich documentation of her life, Worsley recreates 24 of the most important days in Victoria’s life, including her parents’ wedding day, the day she met Albert, her own wedding day, the birth of her first child, a Windsor Christmas, the death of Prince Albert, and many more.

Each day gives a glimpse into the identity of this powerful, difficult queen as a wife and widow, mother and matriarch, and above all, a woman of her time.


We Two: Victoria and Albert: Rulers, Partners, Rivals

In fact, it was the most influential marriage of the nineteenth century and one of the most enduring love stories in history. The traditional biographies tell us that Queen Victoria inherited the throne as a naive teenager when the British Empire was at the height of her power, and found failure as a monarch and misery as a woman until she married her German cousin Albert and accepted him as her lord and minister.

Now the famed chronicler Gillian Gill has turned this familiar story on her head, a strong, feisty queen and a brilliant, fragile prince working to build a family based on support, faith, and loyalty, qualities neither had seen much of as children. The love affair that emerges is far more captivating, complex, and relevant than the one described in any previous account.

As soon as Gill reveals that Victoria and Albert entered their marriage longing for intimate companionship, yet each was determined to be the ruler. This dynamic will continue year after year ‚Äď each spouse, headstrong and emotionless, eager to lead the marriage on their own terms. For two decades, Victoria and Albert competed very openly for supremacy.

Against all adversity, the marriage was successful, but it was always a work of progress. And until the end, it was Albert’s death that set the Queen free to make her wedding fairy tale a quiet anecdote and her husband a Galahad, authentic and perfect.

Victoria & Abdul: The True Story of the Queen’s Closest Confidantby¬†Shrabani Basu¬†¬†(Author) Victoria & Abdul (film tie-in): The Extraordinary True Story of the Queen's Closest Confidant by [Shrabani Basu]


Tall, handsome Abdul Karim was just twenty-four years old when he arrived in England from Agra to wait at tables during Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee. An assistant clerk at Agra Central Jail, he suddenly found himself a personal attendant to the Empress of India herself. Within a year, he was established as a powerful figure at court, becoming the queen’s teacher, or Munshi. Devastated by the death of John Brown, her Scottish gillie, the queen had at last found his replacement, but her intense and controversial relationship with the Munshi led to a near revolt in the royal household.

Victoria & Abdul¬†explores how a young Indian Muslim came to play a central role at the heart of the Empire at a time when independence movements in the sub continent were growing in force. Yet, at its heart, it is a tender love story between an ordinary Indian and his elderly queen ‚Äď a relationship that survived the best attempts to destroy it.



Lucille Ball - Turner Classic Movies

”One of the things I learned the hard way was that it doesn‚Äôt pay to get discouraged. Keeping busy and making optimism a way of life can restore your faith in yourself.”

Lucille D√©sir√©e Ball¬†(August 6, 1911 ‚Äď April 26, 1989) was an American actress, comedian, model, studio executive and producer. As one of Hollywood‚Äôs greatest icons, and arguably the most iconic female entertainer of all time, she was the star and producer of sitcoms¬†I Love Lucy,¬†The Lucy Show,¬†Here’s Lucy, as well as comedy television specials aired under the title¬†The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour. She is also the first female head of a major Hollywood studio,¬†Desilu Productions, which she also owned.

Ball’s career began in 1929 when she landed work as a model. Shortly thereafter, she began her performing career on¬†Broadway¬†using the¬†stage name¬†Diane (or Dianne) Belmont. She later appeared in several minor film roles in the 1930s and 1940s as a contract player for¬†RKO Radio Pictures, being cast as a chorus girl or in similar roles. During this time, she met Cuban bandleader¬†Desi Arnaz, and the two¬†eloped¬†in November 1940. In the 1950s, Ball ventured into television. In 1951, she and Arnaz created the sitcom¬†I Love Lucy, a series that became one of the most beloved programs in television history. The same year, Ball gave birth to their first child,¬†Lucie Arnaz, ¬†followed by¬†Desi Arnaz Jr.¬†in 1953.¬†Ball and Arnaz divorced in May 1960, and she married comedian¬†Gary Morton in 196

Following the end of¬†I Love Lucy, Ball produced and starred in the Broadway musical¬†Wildcat¬†from 1960 to 1961. The show received lukewarm reviews and had to be closed when Ball became ill for several weeks. After¬†Wildcat, Ball reunited with¬†I Love Lucy¬†co-star¬†Vivian Vance¬†for¬†The¬†Lucy Show, which Vance left in 1965. The show continued, with Ball’s longtime friend and series regular¬†Gale Gordon, until 1968. Ball immediately began appearing in a new series,¬†Here’s Lucy, with Gordon, frequent show guest¬†Mary Jane Croft, and Lucie and Desi Jr.; this program ran until 1974.

In 1962, Ball became the first woman to run a major television studio, Desilu Productions, which produced many popular television series, including Mission: Impossible and Star Trek.Ball did not retire from acting completely, and in 1985, she took on a dramatic role in the television film Stone Pillow. The next year she starred in Life with Lucy, which was, unlike her other sitcoms, not well-received; the show was cancelled after three months. She appeared in film and television roles for the rest of her career until her death in April 1989 from an abdominal aortic aneurysm at the age of 77.

Ball was nominated for 13 Primetime Emmy Awards, winning four times. In 1960, she received two stars for her work in film and television on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.In 1977, Ball was among the first recipients of the Women in Film Crystal Award.She was also the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1979,was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1984, received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Kennedy Center Honors in 1986,and the Governors Award from the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in 1989.

In 1940, Ball met Cuban-born bandleader Desi Arnaz while filming the Rodgers and Hart stage hit Too Many Girls. When they met again on the second day, the two connected immediately and eloped the same year. Although Arnaz was drafted into the Army in 1942, he ended up being classified for limited service due to a knee injury. As a result, Arnaz stayed in Los Angeles, organizing and performing USO shows for wounded GIs being brought back from the Pacific.

Ball filed for divorce in 1944, obtaining an interlocutory decree; however, she and Arnaz reconciled, which precluded the entry of a final decree.


On July 17, 1951, one month before her 40th birthday, Ball gave birth to daughter¬†Lucie D√©sir√©e Arnaz.A year and a half later, Ball gave birth to her second child,¬†Desiderio Alberto Arnaz IV, known as Desi Arnaz, Jr.¬†Before he was born,¬†I Love Lucy¬†was a solid ratings hit, and Ball and Arnaz wrote the pregnancy into the show. (Ball’s necessary and planned¬†caesarean section¬†in real life was scheduled for the same date that her television character gave birth.)

Several demands were made by CBS, insisting that a pregnant woman could not be shown on television, nor could the word “pregnant” be spoken on-air. After approval from several religious figures the network allowed the pregnancy storyline, but insisted that the word “expecting” be used instead of “pregnant”. (Arnaz garnered laughs when he deliberately mispronounced it as “‘spectin'”.)¬†The episode’s official title was “Lucy Is Enceinte”, borrowing the French word for pregnant;however, episode titles never appeared on the show.

The episode aired on the evening of January 19, 1953, with 44 million viewers watching Lucy Ricardo welcome little Ricky, while in real life Ball delivered her second child, Desi Jr., that same day in Los Angeles. The birth made the cover of the first issue of¬†TV Guide¬†for the week of April 3‚Äď9, 1953.

In October 1956, Ball, Arnaz, Vance, and William Frawley all appeared on a Bob Hope special on NBC, including a spoof of I Love Lucy, the only time all four stars were together on a color telecast. By the end of the 1950s, Desilu had become a large company, causing a good deal of stress for both Ball and Arna

On March 3, 1960, a day after Desi’s 43rd birthday (and one day after the filming the final episode of¬†The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour), Ball filed papers in Santa Monica Superior Court, claiming married life with Desi was “a nightmare” and nothing at all as it appeared on¬†I Love Lucy.¬†On May 4, 1960, the couple divorced; however, until his death in 1986, Arnaz and Ball remained friends and often spoke very fondly of each other. Her real-life divorce indirectly found its way into her later television series, as she was always cast as an unmarried woman.

The following year, Ball starred in the Broadway musical Wildcat, which co-starred Keith Andes and Paula Stewart. It marked the beginning of a 30-year friendship between her and Stewart, who introduced Ball to second husband Gary Morton, a Borscht Belt comic who was 13 years her junior.[3] According to Ball, Morton claimed he had never seen an episode of I Love Lucy due to his hectic work schedule. She immediately installed Morton in her production company, teaching him the television business and eventually promoting him to producer; he also played occasional bit parts on her various series.

Ball was outspokenly against the relationship her son had with actress¬†Patty Duke. Later, commenting on when her son dated¬†Liza Minnelli, she was quoted as saying, “I miss Liza, but you cannot domesticate Liza.”

On April 18, 1989, Ball complained of chest pain at her home in Beverly Hills and was taken to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where she was diagnosed with a dissecting aortic aneurysm and underwent surgery to repair her aorta and a successful seven-hour aortic valve replacement.

Shortly after dawn on April 26, Ball awoke with severe back pain then lost consciousness; she died at 5:47 a.m. PDT at the age of 77. Doctors determined that Ball had succumbed to a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm not directly related to her surgery.

In accordance with Ball’s wishes, her body was cremated and the ashes were initially interred in¬†Forest Lawn¬†‚Äď Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles. In 2002, her children moved her remains to the Hunt family plot at Lake View Cemetery in Jamestown, New York, where her parents and grandparents are buried.¬†Her brother’s remains were also interred there in 2007.

Ball was the recipient of tributes, honors and many prestigious awards throughout her career and posthumously. On February 8, 1960, she was given two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: one at 6436 Hollywood Boulevard for contributions to motion pictures, and one at 6100 Hollywood Boulevard for her contribution to the arts and sciences of television.

In 1976, CBS paid tribute to Ball with the two-hour special “CBS Salutes Lucy: The first 25 Years.”

On December 7, 1986, Ball received recognition as a Kennedy Center Honors recipient. The portion of the Honors event focused on Ball was particularly poignant, as Desi Arnaz, who was scheduled to introduce Lucy at the event, had died from cancer just five days earlier. Friend and former Desilu star Robert Stack delivered the emotional introduction in the place of Arnaz.

Posthumously, Ball received the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†from President¬†George H. W. Bush on July 6, 1989,¬†and The Women’s International Center’s ‘Living Legacy Award’.


The¬†Lucille Ball Desi Arnaz Museum & Center for Comedy¬†is in Ball’s hometown of Jamestown, New York. The Little Theatre was renamed the¬†Lucille Ball Little Theatre¬†in her honor.The street she was born on was renamed “Lucy Street.” Ball was among¬†Time¬†magazine’s “100 Most Important People of the Century”.

On June 7, 1990,¬†Universal Studios Florida¬†opened a walk-through attraction dedicated to Ball,¬†Lucy ‚Äď A Tribute, which featured clips of shows, as well as various pieces of trivia about her, along with items owned by or associated with Lucille, and an interactive quiz for guests. The attraction was permanently closed on August 17, 2015.

On August 6, 2001, the United States Postal Service honored what would have been her 90th birthday with a commemorative postage stamp as part of its Legends of Hollywood series.

Ball appeared on 39 covers of¬†TV Guide,¬†more than any other person, including its first cover in 1953 with her baby son, Desi Arnaz Jr.TV Guide¬†voted Lucille Ball as the ‘Greatest TV Star of All Time’ and it later commemorated the 50th anniversary of¬†I Love Lucy¬†with eight collector covers celebrating memorable scenes from the show. In 2008, it named¬†I Love Lucy¬†the second-best television program in American history, after¬†Seinfeld.

For her contributions to the¬†Women’s Movement, Ball was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†in 2001.

The¬†Friars Club named a room in its New York clubhouse for Lucille Ball (the Lucille Ball Room).¬†She was posthumously awarded the ‘Legacy of Laughter’ award at the fifth Annual¬†TV Land Awards¬†in 2007.¬†In November 2007, Lucille Ball was chosen as number two on a list of the ’50 Greatest TV Icons’, however, a public poll, chose her as number one.

On August 6, 2011,¬†Google’s homepage displayed an interactive¬†doodle¬†of six classic moments from¬†I Love Lucy to commemorate what would have been Ball’s 100th birthday.¬†On the same day, a total of 915 Ball look-alikes converged on Jamestown to celebrate the birthday and set a new world record for such a gathering.

Since 2009, a¬†statue of Ball¬†has been on display in Celoron, New York, that residents deemed “scary” and not accurate, earning it the nickname “Scary Lucy”.On August 1, 2016, it was announced that a new statue of Ball would replace it on August 6.However, the old statue had become a local tourist attraction after receiving media attention, and it was placed 75 yards (69¬†m) from its original location so visitors could view both statues.

In 2015, it was announced that Ball would be played by Cate Blanchett in an untitled biographical film, to be written and directed by Aaron Sorkin, and in January 2021, Nicole Kidman was in talks to portray Ball instead of Blanchett.

A 2017 episode of¬†Will & Grace¬†paid homage to Ball by replicating the 1963 shower scene from the episode ‚ÄúLucy and Viv Put in a Shower” from¬†The Lucy Show.Three years later, an entire episode was dedicated to her by recreating four scenes from¬†I Love Lucy.

Ball’s character¬†Lucy Ricardo¬†was portrayed by¬†Gillian Anderson¬†in the¬†American Gods¬†episode “The Secret of Spoons” (2017).

Ball was portrayed by¬†Sarah Drew¬†in the play¬†I Love Lucy: A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Sitcom, a comedy about how Ball and her husband battled to get their sitcom on the air. It premiered in Los Angeles on July 12, 2018, co-starring¬†Oscar Nu√Īez¬†as¬†Desi Arnaz, and¬†Seamus Dever¬†as¬†I Love Lucy¬†producer-head writer¬†Jess Oppenheimer. The play was written by Oppenheimer’s son, Gregg Oppenheimer.

Ball was a well-known gay rights supporter, stating in a 1980 interview with¬†People: “It’s perfectly all right with me. Some of the most gifted people I’ve ever met or read about are homosexual. How can you knock it?

Year Title Role play Notes
1927 Tillie the Toiler Extra Claimed by Ball, but disputed.
1933 The Bowery Blonde Uncredited
1933 Broadway Through a Keyhole Chorine/Girl at the Beach Uncredited
1933 Blood Money Davy’s Girlfriend at Racetrack Uncredited
1933 Roman Scandals Goldwyn Girl Uncredited
1934 Moulin Rouge Show Girl Uncredited
1934 Nana Chorus Girl Uncredited
1934 Hold That Girl Girl Uncredited
1934 Murder at the Vanities Earl Carroll Girl Uncredited
1934 Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back Girl Uncredited
1934 The Affairs of Cellini Lady-in-Waiting Uncredited
1934 Kid Millions Goldwyn Girl Uncredited
1934 Men of the Night Peggy  
1934 Broadway Bill Blonde Telephone Operator Uncredited
1934 Jealousy Extra Uncredited
1934 Fugitive Lady Beauty Operator Uncredited
1934 Three Little Pigskins Blonde Girl A Three Stooges short comedy
1935 Behind the Evidence Secretary Uncredited
1935 Carnival Nurse Uncredited
1935 The Whole Town’s Talking Bank Employee Uncredited
1935 Roberta Fashion Model Uncredited
1935 I’ll Love You Always Lucille Uncredited
1935 Old Man Rhythm College Girl Uncredited
1935 Top Hat Flower Clerk Uncredited
1935 The Three Musketeers Extra Uncredited
1935 I Dream Too Much Gwendolyn Dilley  
1936 Chatterbox Lillian Temple  
1936 Muss ‘Em Up Departing Train Passenger Uncredited
1936 Follow the Fleet Kitty Collins  
1936 The Farmer in the Dell Gloria Wilson  
1936 Bunker Bean Rosie Kelly  
1936 Winterset Girl  
1937 That Girl from Paris Claire ‘Clair’ Williams ¬†
1937 Don’t Tell the Wife Ann ‘Annie’ Howell ¬†
1937 Stage Door Judith  
1938 Go Chase Yourself Carol Meeley  
1938 Joy of Living Salina Pine  
1938 Having Wonderful Time Miriam  
1938 The Affairs of Annabel Annabel  
1938 Room Service Christine A Marx Brothers comedy
1938 Annabel Takes a Tour Annabel Allison  
1938 Next Time I Marry Nancy Crocker Fleming  
1939 Beauty for the Asking Jean Russell  
1939 Twelve Crowded Hours Paula Sanders  
1939 Panama Lady Lucy  
1939 Five Came Back Peggy Nolan  
1939 That’s Right ‚Äď You’re Wrong Sandra Sand ¬†
1940 The Marines Fly High Joan Grant  
1940 You Can’t Fool Your Wife Clara Fields Hinklin / Mercedes Vasquez ¬†
1940 Dance, Girl, Dance Bubbles  
1940 Too Many Girls Connie Casey  
1941 A Girl, a Guy, and a Gob Dorothy ‘Dot’ / ‘Spindle’ Duncan ¬†
1941 Look Who’s Laughing Julie Patterson ¬†
1942 Valley of the Sun Christine Larson  
1942 The Big Street Gloria Lyons Costarring Henry Fonda
1942 Seven Days’ Leave Terry Havalok-Allen ¬†
1943 DuBarry Was a Lady May Daly / Madame Du Barry  
1943 Thousands Cheer Lucille Ball  
1943 Best Foot Forward Lucille Ball  
1944 Meet the People Julie Hampton  
1945 Without Love Kitty Trimble  
1945 Abbott and Costello in Hollywood Lucille Ball  
1946 Ziegfeld Follies Lucille Ball  
1946 The Dark Corner Kathleen Stewart  
1946 Two Smart People Ricki Woodner  
1946 Easy to Wed Gladys Benton  
1946 Lover Come Back Kay Williams  
1947 Lured Sandra Carpenter  
1947 Her Husband’s Affairs Margaret Weldon ¬†
1949 Sorrowful Jones Gladys O’Neill Costarring¬†Bob Hope
1949 Miss Grant Takes Richmond Ellen Grant with William Holden
1949 Easy Living Anne  
1950 A Woman of Distinction Lucille Ball  
1950 Fancy Pants Agatha Floud Costarring Bob Hope
1950 The Fuller Brush Girl Sally Elliot Costarring Eddie Albert
1951 The Magic Carpet Princess Narah  
1953 I Love Lucy Lucy Ricardo  
1954 The Long, Long Trailer Tacy Bolton  
1956 Forever, Darling Susan Vega  
1960 The Facts of Life Kitty Weaver Costarring Bob Hope
1963 Critic’s Choice Angela Ballantine Co Starring¬†Bob Hope
1967 A Guide for the Married Man Mrs. Joe X  
1968 Yours, Mine and Ours Helen North Beardsley Co Starring Henry Fonda
1974 Mame Mame Dennis  
1985 Stone Pillow Florabelle TV movie

                                                        Short subjects

CLEOPATRACleopatra (via multiple historical references) : ColorizedStatues

”’All strange and terrible events are welcome, but comforts we despise.
In praising Antony I have dispraised Caesar.
Fool! Don’t you see now that I could have poisoned you a hundred times had I been able to live without you.”

Cleopatra VII ruled ancient Egypt as co-regent (first with her father, then with her two younger brothers and finally with her son) for almost three decades. She was part of a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, who served as general under Alexander the Great during his conquest of Egypt in 332 B.C. Well-educated and clever, Cleopatra could speak various languages and served as the dominant ruler in all three of her co-regencies. Her romantic liaisons and military alliances with the Roman leaders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, as well as her supposed exotic beauty and powers of seduction, earned her an enduring place in history and popular myth.

Cleopatra VII was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, ruling Egypt from 51 BC – 30 BC. She is celebrated for her beauty and her love affairs with the Roman warlords Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.

Cleopatra was born in 69 BC – 68 BC. When her father Ptolemy XII died in 51 BC, Cleopatra became co-regent with her 10-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII. They were married, in keeping with Egyptian tradition. Whether she was as beautiful as was claimed, she was a highly intelligent woman and an astute politician, who brought prosperity and peace to a country that was bankrupt and split by civil war.

In 48 BC, Egypt became embroiled in the conflict in Rome between Julius Caesar and Pompey. Pompey fled to the Egyptian capital Alexandria, where he was murdered on the orders of Ptolemy. Caesar followed and he and Cleopatra became lovers. Cleopatra, who had been exiled by her brother, was reinstalled as queen with Roman military support. Ptolemy was killed in the fighting and another brother was created Ptolemy XIII. In 47 BC, Cleopatra bore Caesar a child – Caesarion – though Caesar never publicly acknowledged him as his son. Cleopatra followed Caesar back to Rome, but after his assassination in 44 BC, she returned to Egypt. Ptolemy XIV died mysteriously at around this time, and Cleopatra made her son Caesarion co-regent.

In 41 BC, Mark Antony, at that time in dispute with Caesar’s adopted son Octavian over the succession to the Roman leadership, began both a political and romantic alliance with Cleopatra. They subsequently had three children – two sons and a daughter. In 31 BC, Mark Antony and Cleopatra combined armies to take on Octavian’s forces in a great sea battle at Actium, on the west coast of Greece. Octavian was victorious and Cleopatra and Mark Antony fled to Egypt. Octavian pursued them and captured Alexandria in 30 BC. With his soldiers deserting him, Mark Antony took his own life and Cleopatra chose the same course, committing suicide on 12 August 30 BC. Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.

About of Cleopatra  Movies 



Theda Bara in Cleopatra (1917)



Claudette Colbert in Cleopatra (1934)



Vivien Leigh in Caesar and Cleopatra (1945)



Elizabeth Taylor in Cleopatra (1963)

The headdress for Elizabeth Taylor in Cleopatra¬†(1963). This film’s costume design garnered an¬†Oscar¬†for¬†Irene Sharaff.
  • Cl√©op√Ętre¬†(1899) (Jeanne d’Alcy)
  • Antony and Cleopatra¬†(1908) (Florence Lawrence)
  • Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt¬†(1912) (Helen Gardner)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1917) (Theda Bara)
  • Antony and Cleopatra¬†(1924) (Ethel Teare)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1934) (Claudette Colbert)
  • Dante’s Inferno¬†(1935) (Lorna Low)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1943) (Amina Rizk)
  • Caesar and Cleopatra¬†(1945) (Vivien Leigh)
  • Serpent of the Nile¬†(1953) (Rhonda Fleming)
  • Due notti con Cleopatra¬†(1954) (Sophia Loren)
  • The Story of Mankind¬†(1957) (Virginia Mayo)
  • A Queen for Caesar¬†(1962) (Pascale Petit)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1963) (Elizabeth Taylor)
  • Tot√≤¬†e Cleopatra¬†(1963) (Magali No√ęl)
  • Carry On Cleo¬†(1964) (Amanda Barrie)
  • Asterix and Cleopatra¬†(1968) (Micheline Dax)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1970) (Chinatsu Nakayama)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1970) (Viva)
  • Antony and Cleopatra¬†(1972) (Hildegarde Neil)
  • Highway to Hell¬†(1992) (Amy Stiller)
  • Cleopatra¬†(1999) (Leonor Varela)
  • Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra¬†(2002) (Monica Bellucci)
  • Scooby-Doo! in Where’s My Mummy?¬†(2005) (Virginia Madsen)
  • Giulio Cesare¬†(2006) (Danielle de Niese)
  • On October 14 2020,¬†Patty Jenkins¬†was confirmed to be directing a film on the ruler with¬†Gal Gadot, who plays the lead in the¬†Wonder Woman¬†films directed by Jenkins, tapped to star in the eponymous lead role.


1.Cleopatra: A Life by Stacy Schiff

‚ÄúHer palace shimmered with onyx and gold but was richer still in political and sexual intrigue. Above all else, Cleopatra was a shrewd strategist and an ingenious negotiator. She was married twice, each time to a brother. She waged a brutal civil war against the first and poisoned the second; incest and assassination were family specialties. She had children by Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, two of the most prominent Romans of the day. With Antony she would attempt to forge a new empire, in an alliance that spelled both their ends. Famous long before she was notorious, Cleopatra has gone down in history for all the wrong reasons. Her supple personality and the drama of her circumstances have been lost. In a masterly return to the classical sources, Stacy Schiff boldly separates fact from fiction to rescue the magnetic queen whose death ushered in a new world order.‚ÄĚ

2. The Life and Times of Cleopatra Queen of Egypt by Arthur Weigall

‚ÄúThis comprehensive treatment of Cleopatra and the political and social world in which she lived will be an indispensable resource for anyone interested in Cleopatra or in ancient Egypt. Laying bare the ‚Äúinjustice, the adverse partiality, of the attitude assumed by classical authors,‚ÄĚ the author offers the reader a new, more balanced look at the life of one of history‚Äôs most important women. The book is divided into sections on Cleopatra and Caesar and Cleopatra and Antony and is supplemented by a number of maps and illustrations.‚ÄĚ

3. A Conversation with a Cat: A Novel by Stephen Spotte

‚ÄúStephen Spotte‚Äôs imaginative novel recounts the tales of a scroungy former alley cat named Jinx, whose memories aren‚Äôt just his own but those of other cats who existed before him, one of which was Annipe, Cleopatra‚Äôs pampered pet. Through Annipe‚Äôs eyes the ancient Mediterranean world of Cleopatra and her legendary lovers, Caesar and Antony, is spread before us in all its glory, pathos, and absurdity. Jinx reveals these stories telepathically one night to his stoned and inebriated owner just home after gall bladder surgery. Annipe‚Äôs memories are bookended by Jinx‚Äôs own that detail his early scavenging days in bleak urban alleys.‚ÄĚ

4. Cleopatra: Last Queen of Egypt by Joyce Tyldesley

‚ÄúShe was the last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty of Ptolemies who had ruled Egypt for three centuries. Highly educated (she was the only one of the Ptolemies to read and speak ancient Egyptian as well as the court Greek) and very clever (her famous liaisons with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony were as much to do with politics as the heart), she steered her kingdom through impossibly taxing internal problems and railed against greedy Roman imperialism. Stripping away preconceptions as old as her Roman enemies, Joyce Tyldesley uses all her skills as an Egyptologist to give us this magnificent biography.‚ÄĚ

5. The Memoirs of Cleopatra: A Novel by Margaret George

‚ÄúTold in Cleopatra‚Äôs own voice, The Memoirs of Cleopatra is a mesmerizing tale of ambition, passion, and betrayal in the ancient Egyptian world, which begins when the twenty-year-old queen seeks out the most powerful man in the world, Julius Caesar, and does not end until, having survived the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of the second man she loves, Marc Antony, she plots her own death rather than be paraded in triumph through the streets of Rome.‚ÄĚ

6.The Search for Cleopatra

Is there any historical basis to the myriad myths and legends surrounding the eternally fascinating Queen of the Nile? Foss (People of the First Crusade) believes there is, and his insightful biography re-creates not only her life, but also offers a panorama of ancient Egyptian history from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. to 30 B.C., when Cleopatra died. Foss’s absorbing description of Egyptian politics, culture and religion in the two centuries of Ptolemaic rule preceding Cleopatra’s birth is tightly packed with information, notable for its clarity and brevity. From the time she became queen at the age of 18, Cleopatra was a strong leader, ruthless with her enemies, including members of her own family, but careful to identify herself with the spirit of ordinary Egyptians. But Egypt was an unruly kingdom on the decline, and just as Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII were about to actually set to, the Roman legions marched in, setting the stage for Cleopatra’s ascendancy and her romance with Julius Caesar. Cleopatra had good reason to suspect Rome’s intentions toward her country, but had little option save to form an alliance. She stayed with Caesar until his murder in 44 B.C., and when the ensuing power struggle awarded Egypt to Marc Antony, history–and Cleopatra–repeated herself. While the art and myth of Cleopatra’s life are extensive, the historical record is frustratingly limited. Still, Foss makes vivid use of what’s available and, thankfully, without trying to shoehorn history into a political agenda.

NANCY PELOSINancy Pelosi on Trump, the 2020 Election and the Democratic Party - Variety

Nancy Patricia Pelosi¬†(¬†D’Alesandro; born March 26, 1940) is an American politician serving as¬†Speaker of the United States House of Representatives¬†since 2019, and previously from 2007 to 2011. She has served as a U.S. representative from¬†California¬†since 1987. A member of the¬†Democratic Party, Pelosi is the only woman in U.S. history to serve as speaker. She is second in the¬†presidential line of succession, after¬†vice president¬†Kamala Harris.

Pelosi was first elected to¬†Congress¬†in¬†1987, following her father,¬†Thomas D’Alesandro Jr., who served as a¬†U.S. representative from Maryland¬†and¬†Mayor of Baltimore, into politics. She is the¬†dean¬†of¬†California’s congressional delegation, having begun her 18th term in 2021. Pelosi represents¬†California’s 12th congressional district, which comprises four-fifths of the city and county of¬†San Francisco. She initially represented the¬†5th district¬†(1987‚Äď1993), and then, when district boundaries were¬†redrawn¬†after the¬†1990 Census, the¬†8th district¬†(1993‚Äď2013). Pelosi has led the House Democrats since 2003‚ÄĒthe first woman to lead a party in Congress‚ÄĒserving twice each as¬†House Minority Leader¬†(2003‚Äď2007 and 2011‚Äď2019) and as Speaker (2007‚Äď2011 and since 2019).

Pelosi was a major opponent of the¬†Iraq War¬†as well as the¬†Bush administration’s¬†2005 attempt to partially privatize¬†Social Security. During her first speakership, she was instrumental in the passage of¬†many of the Obama administration’s landmark bills, including the¬†Affordable Care Act, the¬†Dodd‚ÄďFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the¬†Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act, the¬†American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and the¬†2010 Tax Relief Act.

Pelosi lost the speakership in 2011 after the Republican Party won a majority in the House of Representatives in the¬†2010 elections. But she retained her role as leader of the¬†House Democratic Caucus¬†and returned to the role of House minority leader. In the¬†2018 midterm elections, the Democrats regained control of the House.When the¬†116th Congress¬†convened on January 3, 2019, Pelosi¬†was again elected Speaker,becoming the first former Speaker to return to the post since¬†Sam Rayburn¬†in 1955.¬†Under Pelosi’s leadership, the House of Representatives¬†impeached¬†President¬†Donald Trump,¬†first on December 18, 2019, and¬†again on January 13, 2021; Trump was acquitted both times by the¬†Senate.

On January 3, 2021, Pelosi was reelected to a fourth term as Speaker of the House, which is expected to be her last, after a deal with progressives.

Nancy D’Alesandro met¬†Paul Francis Pelosi¬†while she was attending college.¬†They married in Baltimore at the¬†Cathedral of Mary Our Queen¬†on September 7, 1963.They moved to New York after they wed, then moved to San Francisco in 1969, where Paul’s brother¬†Ronald Pelosi¬†was a member of the¬†City and County of San Francisco’s¬†Board of Supervisors.

Nancy and Paul Pelosi have five children: Nancy Corinne, Christine, Jacqueline, Paul, and Alexandra; and nine grandchildren.Alexandra, a journalist, covered the Republican presidential campaigns in 2000 and made a film about the experience, Journeys with George. In 2007, Christine published a book, Campaign Boot Camp: Basic Training for Future Leaders.

Pelosi resides in the¬†Pacific Heights¬†neighborhood of San Francisco.¬†Her 2016 financial disclosure report lists among her assets a combined home and vineyard in¬†St. Helena, California, two commercial buildings in San Francisco, and a townhouse in¬†Loomis, California.¬†In January 2021, her San Francisco home was vandalized with graffiti, messages of “[c]ancel rent” were left on her garage, along with fake blood and a severed pig’s head.

ELIZABETH ECKFORDLittle Rock Desegregation 1957.jpg

Elizabeth Ann Eckford¬†(born October 4, 1941) is one of the¬†Little Rock Nine, a group of¬†African-American¬†students who, in 1957, were the first black students ever to attend classes at the previously all-white¬†Little Rock Central High School¬†in¬†Little Rock, Arkansas. The integration came as a result of¬†Brown v. Board of Education. Eckford’s public ordeal was captured by press photographers on the morning of September 4, 1957, after she was prevented from entering the school by the¬†Arkansas National Guard. A dramatic snapshot by Johnny Jenkins of the¬†United Press¬†(UP) showed the young girl being followed and threatened by an angry white mob; this and other photos of the day’s startling events were circulated around the US and the world by the press.

The best-known photograph of the event was taken by¬†Will Counts¬†of the¬†Arkansas Democrat.His image was the unanimous selection for a¬†1958 Pulitzer Prize, but since the story had earned then-rival¬†Arkansas Gazette¬†two other Pulitzer Prizes already, the Prize was awarded to another photographer for a pleasant photograph of a two-year-old boy in Washington, D.C. A different photo taken by Counts of Alex Wilson, a black reporter for the¬†Memphis Tri-State Defender¬†being beaten by the angry mob in Little Rock the same day, was chosen as the “News Picture of the Year” for 1957 by the¬†National Press Photographers Association. This image by Counts prompted President¬†Dwight D. Eisenhower¬†to send federal troops to Little Rock.

Eckford only spent one year at Little Rock Central High where she and the other black students were tormented throughout. In the years since, she has struggled through life, and twice attempted suicide. She was subsequently diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Eckford was accepted by Knox College in Illinois, but chose to return to Little Rock to be near her family. She later attended Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, where she earned a BA in history. In 2018, Eckford was awarded an honorary doctorate from Knox College

Eckford served in the United States Army for five years, first as a pay clerk, and then as an information specialist. She also wrote for the Fort McClellan (Alabama) and the Fort Benjamin Harrison (Indiana) newspapers. After that, she has worked as a waitress, history teacher, welfare worker, unemployment and employment interviewer, and a military reporter. She is a probation officer in Little Rock.

In 1997, she shared the Father Joseph Biltz Award‚ÄĒpresented by the¬†National Conference for Community and Justice‚ÄĒwith¬†Hazel Bryan Massery, a then-segregationist student at Central High School who appeared in several of the 1957 photographs screaming at the young Elizabeth. During the reconciliation rally of 1997, the two women made speeches together.But later their friendship broke up, with Eckford reflecting, “[Hazel] wanted me to be cured and be over it and for this not to go on anymore. She wanted me to be less uncomfortable so that she wouldn’t feel responsible.”In 1999, President¬†Bill Clinton¬†presented the nation’s highest civilian award, the¬†Congressional Gold Medal, to the members of the Little Rock Nine.

On the morning of January 1, 2003, one of Eckford’s two sons, Erin Eckford, age 26, was shot and killed by police in Little Rock.¬†The¬†Arkansas Democrat-Gazette¬†reported that the police officers had unsuccessfully tried to disarm him with a beanbag round after he had fired several shots from his rifle. When Eckford pointed his rifle towards them, the police officers shot him. His mother feared that his death was “suicide by police”. Erin, she said, had suffered from¬†mental illness¬†but had been off his prescribed medication for several years. The newspaper later reported that prosecutors investigating the fatal shooting had decided that the police officers concerned were justified in shooting Eckford.[

In 2018, 60 years after leaving Little Rock Central High, Eckford told her story in her first autobiography,¬†The Worst First Day: Bullied While Desegregating Little Rock Central High.¬†The book was coauthored with Dr. Eurydice Stanley and Grace Stanley of Pensacola, Florida. Grace was 15 years old when she worked on the project, the same age Eckford was when she desegregated Central High.¬†The Worst First Day¬†tells Eckford’s experiences in verse. It features the graphic artwork of Rachel Gibson and the photography of Will Counts. Eckford traveled to New Zealand in 2019 to teach American civil rights history to more than 4,000 students with Dr. Stanley at the request of high school teacher Roydon Agent, author of¬†Public Image, Private Shame.

Actress Lisa Marie Russell portrayed Eckford in the Disney Channel movie The Ernest Green Story (1993). Amandla Stenberg portrayed Eckford during a segment on the show Drunk History (2019

Grace JonesGrace Jones James Bond girl with gun A View To A Kill Original 35mm  Transparency | eBay

‚ÄúOne boyfriend told me that I loved myself too much. I thought, Well, you can love a boyfriend too much, but you can‚Äôt love yourself too much. Sometimes you have to love yourself to keep yourself whole. Something‚ÄĚ
‚Äē¬†Grace Jones,¬†I’ll Never Write My Memoirs

Grace Beverly Jones¬†OJ¬†(born 19 May 1948) is a Jamaican model, singer, songwriter, record producer and actress.¬†In 1999, Jones ranked 82nd on¬†VH1’s¬†100 Greatest Women of Rock and Roll, and in 2008, she was honored with a¬†Q Idol Award. Jones influenced the¬†cross-dressing¬†movement of the 1980s and has been an inspiration for artists including¬†Annie Lennox,¬†Lady Gaga,¬†Rihanna,¬†Solange,¬†Lorde,¬†R√≥is√≠n Murphy,¬†Brazilian Girls,¬†Nile Rodgers,¬†Santigold, and¬†Basement Jaxx. In 2016,¬†Billboard¬†magazine ranked her as the 40th greatest¬†dance club¬†artist of all time.

Born in British Jamaica, she and her family moved to Syracuse, New York, when she was 13. Jones began her modelling career in New York state, then in Paris, working for fashion houses such as Yves St. Laurent and Kenzo, and appearing on the covers of Elle and Vogue. She worked with photographers such as Jean-Paul Goude, Helmut Newton, Guy Bourdin, and Hans Feurer, and became known for her distinctive androgynous appearance and bold features.

Beginning in 1977, Jones embarked on a music career, securing a record deal with¬†Island Records¬†and initially becoming a star of¬†New York City’s¬†Studio 54-centered¬†disco¬†scene. In the early 1980s, she moved toward a¬†new wave¬†style that drew on¬†reggae,¬†funk,¬†post-punk¬†and¬†pop music, frequently collaborating with both the graphic designer¬†Jean-Paul Goude¬†and the musical duo¬†Sly & Robbie. Her most popular albums include¬†Warm Leatherette¬†(1980),¬†Nightclubbing¬†(1981), and¬†Slave to the Rhythm¬†(1985). She scored Top 40 entries on the¬†UK Singles Chart¬†with “Pull Up to the Bumper”, “I’ve Seen That Face Before”, “Private Life”, and “Slave to the Rhythm”. In 1982, she released the¬†music video¬†collection¬†A One Man Show, directed by Goude.

Jones appeared in some low-budget films in the US during the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, she made her first mainstream appearance as Zula in the fantasy-action film Conan the Destroyer alongside Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sarah Douglas, and subsequently appeared in the 1985 James Bond movie A View to a Kill as May Day. In 1986, she played a vampire in Vamp, and acted in and contributed a song to the 1992 Eddie Murphy film Boomerang. She appeared alongside Tim Curry in the 2001 film Wolf Girl. For her work in Conan the Destroyer, A View to a Kill, and Vamp, she was nominated for Saturn Awards for Best Supporting Actress.

Jones’s father was strict and their relationship was strained. According to his particular denomination’s beliefs, one should only use one’s singing ability to glorify God.Bishop Robert W. Jones died on 7 May 2008.Her mother, Marjorie, always supported Jones’s career (she sings on “Williams’ Blood” and “My Jamaican Guy”) but could not be publicly associated with her music.Marjorie’s father, William, was also a musician, and played with¬†Nat King Cole.

Jones described her childhood as having been “crushed underneath the Bible”,¬†and since has refused to enter a Jamaican church due to her bad childhood experiences.

Through her relationship with longtime collaborator¬†Jean-Paul Goude, Jones has one son, Paulo. From Paulo, Jones has one granddaughter.¬†Jones married Atila Altaunbay in 1996. She disputes rumors that she married Chris Stanley in her 2015 memoir¬†I’ll Never Write My Memoirs, saying, “The truth is, I only ever married one of my boyfriends, Atila Altaunbay, a Muslim from Turkey.” She spent four years with Swedish actor¬†Dolph Lundgren, her former bodyguard;¬†she was the one who got him a part as a KGB officer in¬†A View to a Kill.¬†Jones started dating Danish actor and stuntman¬†Sven-Ole Thorsen¬†in 1990, and was in an open relationship as of 2007.

Jones’s brother is¬†megachurch¬†preacher Bishop¬†Noel Jones, who starred on the 2013 reality show¬†Preachers of LA.

Jones’s real last name is often referred to as “Mendoza”, which is actually a name she used in her 20s to fool her parents.

Studio albums

  • Portfolio¬†(1977)
  • Fame¬†(1978)
  • Muse¬†(1979)
  • Warm Leatherette¬†(1980)
  • Nightclubbing¬†(1981)
  • Living My Life¬†(1982)
  • Slave to the Rhythm¬†(1985)
  • Inside Story¬†(1986)
  • Bulletproof Heart¬†(1989)
  • Hurricane¬†(2008)

 Vice President Kamala Harris.kamala harris launches presidential campaign in her hometown of oakland

“To the children of our country, regardless of your gender, our country has sent you a clear message: Dream with ambition, lead with conviction, and see yourself in a way that others might not see you, simply because they‚Äôve never seen it before. And we will applaud you every step of the way,” Harris said during her¬†Vice President-elect Acceptance Speech.

“I hope that by being a ‘first,’ I inspire young people to pursue their dreams,” Harris told¬†Harper’s Bazaar. “The number of times I‚Äôve heard the word ‘no’‚ÄĒor that something can‚Äôt be done‚ÄĒin my lifetime is too many to count. I‚Äôm honored to be considered a ‚Äúfirst,‚ÄĚ but I always think about the people who came before and paved the way for me to get where I am today. From Rosa Parks to Shirley Chisholm to Congressman John Lewis, I stand on the shoulders of so many great men and women before me.”

Kamala Devi Harris born October 20, 1964) is an American politician and attorney serving as the 49th vice president of the United States. She is the first female vice president and the highest-ranking female official in U.S. history, as well as the first African American and first Asian American vice president.

A member of the Democratic Party, she served as a United States senator from California from 2017 to 2021, and as the attorney general of California from 2011 to 2017. Harris became vice president upon inauguration in January 2021 alongside President Joe Biden, having defeated the incumbent president, Donald Trump, and vice president, Mike Pence, in the 2020 election.

Born in¬†Oakland, California, Harris graduated from¬†Howard University¬†and the¬†University of California, Hastings College of the Law. She began her career in the¬†Alameda County¬†District Attorney’s Office, before being recruited to the¬†San Francisco District Attorney’s Office¬†and later the¬†City Attorney of San Francisco’s office. In 2003, she was elected¬†district attorney¬†of San Francisco. She¬†was elected¬†Attorney General of California in 2010 and¬†re-elected in 2014. Harris served as the¬†junior¬†United States senator¬†from California from 2017 to 2021. Harris defeated¬†Loretta Sanchez¬†in the¬†2016 Senate election¬†to become the second African American woman and the first¬†South Asian American¬†to serve in the United States Senate.[As a senator,¬†she advocated for¬†healthcare reform,¬†federal de-scheduling of cannabis, a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, the¬†DREAM Act,¬†a ban on assault weapons, and¬†progressive tax¬†reform. She gained a national profile for her pointed questioning of¬†Trump administration¬†officials during Senate hearings, including Trump’s second¬†Supreme Court¬†nominee¬†Brett Kavanaugh, who was¬†accused of sexual assault.

Harris sought the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination, but withdrew from the race prior to the primaries. Biden selected Harris as his running mate in August 2020, and their ticket went on to win the general election in November. Harris assumed office as vice president of the United States on January 20, 2021.

Harris was born in¬†Oakland, California, on October 20, 1964.Her mother,¬†Shyamala Gopalan, a¬†biologist¬†whose work on the¬†progesterone receptor¬†gene stimulated advances in¬†breast cancer¬†research,had arrived in the United States from India in 1958 as a 19-year-old graduate student in nutrition and¬†endocrinology¬†at the¬†University of California, Berkeley;Gopalan received her PhD in 1964.Harris’ father,¬†Donald J. Harris, is a¬†Stanford University¬†professor emeritus of economics, who arrived in the United States from¬†British Jamaica¬†in 1961 for graduate study at UC Berkeley, receiving a PhD in economics in 1966.Along with her younger sister,¬†Maya, Harris lived in¬†Berkeley, California, briefly on Milvia Street in central Berkeley, then a¬†duplex¬†on Bancroft Way in¬†West Berkeley, an area often called the “flatlands”with a significant¬†black¬†population.


When Harris began kindergarten, she was¬†bused¬†as part of¬†Berkeley’s comprehensive desegregation program¬†to Thousand Oaks Elementary School, a public school in a more prosperous neighborhood in northern Berkeley which previously had been 95 percent white, and after the desegregation plan went into effect became 40 percent Black. A neighbor regularly took the Harris girls to an¬†African American church¬†in Oakland where they sang in the children’s choir, and the girls and their mother also frequently visited a nearby¬†African American cultural center.Their mother introduced them to¬†Hinduism¬†and took them to a nearby¬†Hindu temple, where she occasionally sang. As children, she and her sister visited their mother’s family in Madras (now¬†Chennai) several times. She says she has been strongly influenced by her maternal grandfather¬†P. V. Gopalan, a retired Indian civil servant whose progressive views on democracy and women’s rights impressed her. Harris has remained in touch with her Indian aunts and uncles throughout her adult life.Harris has also visited her father’s family in Jamaica.

Her parents divorced when she was seven. Harris has said that when she and her sister visited their father in¬†Palo Alto¬†on weekends, other children in the neighborhood were not allowed to play with them because they were black.When she was twelve, Harris and her sister moved with their mother to¬†Montreal,¬†Quebec, where Shyamala had accepted a research and teaching position at the¬†McGill University-affiliated¬†Jewish General Hospital.Harris attended a French-speaking primary school,¬†Notre-Dame-des-Neiges, then¬†F.A.C.E. School,and finally¬†Westmount High School[b]¬†in¬†Westmount, Quebec, graduating in 1981.Wanda Kagan, a high school friend of Harris, later told¬†CBC News¬†in 2020 that Harris was her best friend and described how she confided in Harris that she had been molested by her stepfather.[34]¬†She said that Harris told her mother, who then insisted Kagan come to live with them for the remainder of her final year of high school. Kagan said Harris had recently told her that their friendship, and playing a role in countering Kagan’s exploitation, helped form the commitment Harris felt in protecting women and children as a prosecutor. After high school, in 1982, Harris attended¬†Howard University, a¬†historically black university¬†in¬†Washington, D.C.¬†While at Howard, she interned as a mailroom clerk for California senator¬†Alan Cranston, chaired the economics society, led the debate team, and joined¬†Alpha Kappa Alpha¬†sorority. Harris graduated from Howard in 1986 with a degree in¬†political science¬†and¬†economics.

Harris then returned to California to attend law school at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law through its Legal Education Opportunity Program (LEOP).While at UC Hastings, she served as president of its chapter of the Black Law Students Association. She graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1989 and was admitted to the California Bar in June 1990.

Before the opening of the impeachment trial of Donald Trump on January 16, 2020, Harris delivered remarks on the floor of the Senate, stating her views on the integrity of the American justice system and the principle that nobody, including an incumbent president, is above the law. Harris later asked Senate Judiciary chairman Lindsey Graham to halt all judicial nominations during the impeachment trial, to which Graham acquiesced. Harris voted to convict the president on charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress

Harris has worked on bipartisan bills with Republican co-sponsors, including a bail reform bill with Senator Rand Paul, an election security bill with Senator James Lankford,  and a workplace harassment bill with Senator Lisa Murkowski.


Following her election as Vice President of the United States, Harris resigned from her seat on January 18, 2021,]prior to taking office on January 20, 2021, and was replaced by California Secretary of State Alex Padilla.

In May 2019, senior members of the¬†Congressional Black Caucus¬†endorsed the idea of a Biden‚ÄďHarris ticket.¬†In late February, Biden won a landslide victory in the¬†2020 South Carolina Democratic primary¬†with the endorsement of House whip¬†Jim Clyburn, with more victories on¬†Super Tuesday. In early March, Clyburn suggested Biden choose a black woman as a running mate, commenting that “African American women needed to be rewarded for their loyalty”.In March, Biden committed to choosing a woman for his running mate.On April 17, 2020, Harris responded to media speculation and said she “would be honored” to be Biden’s running mate.In late May, in relation to the¬†death of George Floyd¬†and¬†ensuing protests and demonstrations, Biden faced renewed calls to select a black woman to be his running mate, highlighting the law enforcement credentials of Harris and¬†Val Demings.

On June 12,¬†The New York Times¬†reported that Harris was emerging as the frontrunner to be Biden’s running mate, as she was the only African American woman with the political experience typical of vice presidents.On June 26,¬†CNN¬†reported that more than a dozen people close to the Biden search process considered Harris one of Biden’s top four contenders, along with¬†Elizabeth Warren,¬†Val Demings, and¬†Keisha Lance Bottoms.

On August 11, 2020, Biden announced that he had chosen Harris. She was the first African American, the first Indian American, and the third woman after Geraldine Ferraro and Sarah Palin to be picked as the vice-presidential nominee for a major party ticket.

Harris became the¬†vice president‚Äďelect¬†following the Biden-Harris ticket’s victory in the¬†2020 United States presidential election.After the major networks called the election for Biden/Harris, Kamala Harris was recorded calling Biden, saying, “We did it! We did it, Joe. You’re going to be the next President of the United States.” The quote became one of the top 10 tweets of 2020.

Harris being sworn in as vice president on January 20, 2021

Following the election of Joe Biden as U.S. president in the 2020 election, Harris assumed office as vice president of the United States on January 20, 2021.¬†She is the United States’ first female vice president, the highest-ranking female elected official in U.S. history, and the first African-American and first¬†Asian-American¬†vice president.¬†She is also the second¬†person of color¬†to hold the post, preceded by¬†Charles Curtis, a¬†Native American¬†and member of the¬†Kaw Nation, who served under¬†Herbert Hoover¬†from 1929 to 1933.She is the third person with acknowledged non-European ancestry to reach one of the highest offices in the executive branch, after Curtis and former president¬†Barack Obama.

Harris resigned her Senate seat on January 18, 2021, two days before her swearing-in as vice president. Her first act as vice president was swearing-in her replacement Alex Padilla and Georgia senators Raphael Warnock and Jon Ossoff, who were elected in the 2021 Georgia runoff elections.

Harris cast her first of two¬†tie-breaking votes¬†on February 5, 2021. In February and March, Harris’ tie-breaking votes in her role as President of the¬†Senate¬†were crucial in passing the¬†American Rescue Plan Act of 2021¬†stimulus package proposed by President Biden since no Republicans in the Senate voted for the package.

In 2005, the National Black Prosecutors Association awarded Harris the¬†Thurgood Marshall Award. That year, she was featured along with 19 other women in a¬†Newsweek¬†report profiling “20 of America’s Most Powerful Women”.A 2008¬†New York Times¬†article published later that year also identified her as a woman with potential to become president of the United States, highlighting her reputation as a “tough fighter”.

In 2013,¬†Time¬†named Harris as one of the “100 Most Influential People in the World”.In 2016, the 20/20 Bipartisan Justice Center awarded Harris the Bipartisan Justice Award along with Senator¬†Tim Scott.

Biden and Harris were jointly named Time Person of the Year for 2020.

  • Harris, Kamala; O’C Hamilton, Joan (2009).¬†Smart on Crime: A Career Prosecutor’s Plan to Make Us Safer. San Francisco, CA:¬†
  • Harris, Kamala (2019).¬†Superheroes Are Everywhere. London:¬†Penguin Young Readers Group.¬†
  • Harris, Kamala (2019).¬†The Truths We Hold: An American Journey. London: Penguin

Barbara Walters Turns 87! Her Most Inspirational Quotes on Struggle and  SuccessBARBARA WALTERS

Work harder than everybody. You’re not going to get it by whining, and you’re not going to get it by shouting, and you’re not going to get it by quitting. You’re going to get it by being there.

Barbara Walters

Barbara Jill Walters (born September 25, 1929) is an American retired broadcast journalist, author, and television personality.Known for her interviewing ability and popularity with viewers, Walters appeared as the host of numerous television programs, including Today, The View, 20/20, and the ABC Evening News. Walters was a working journalist from 1951 until 2015.

Walters began her career on¬†The Today Show¬†in the early 1960s as a writer and segment producer of women’s interest stories. Her popularity with viewers resulted in Walters receiving more airtime, and in 1974, she became co-host of the program, the first woman to hold such a title on an American news program.In 1976, she continued to be a pioneer for women in broadcasting by becoming the first female co-anchor of a network evening news program, alongside¬†Harry Reasoner¬†on the¬†ABC Evening News. From 1979 to 2004, Walters worked as a producer and co-host on the¬†ABC¬†newsmagazine¬†20/20. She also became known for an annual special aired on ABC,¬†Barbara Walters’ 10 Most Fascinating People.

Walters created, produced, and co-hosted the ABC daytime talk show The View in 1997, on which she appeared until her retirement in 2014. Thereafter, she continued to host a number of special reports for 20/20 as well as documentary series for Investigation Discovery. Her final on-air appearance for ABC News was in 2015.

Walters was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1989, and in 2007 received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 2000, she received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.

Walters has been married four times to three different men. Her first husband was Robert Henry Katz, a business executive and former Navy lieutenant. They married on June 20, 1955, at The Plaza Hotel in New York City. The marriage was reportedly annulled after 11 months, or in 1957.

Her second husband was Lee Guber, theatrical producer and theater owner. They married on December 8, 1963, and divorced in 1976. They have one daughter, Jacqueline Dena Guber (born 1968, adopted the same year).

Her third husband was Merv Adelson, the CEO of Lorimar Television. They married in 1981 and divorced in 1984. They remarried in 1986 and divorced for the second time in 1992.

She dated lawyer ¬†Roy Cohn in college; he said that he proposed marriage to Walters the night before her wedding to Lee Guber, but Walters denied this.¬†She explained her lifelong devotion to Cohn as gratitude for his help in her adoption of her daughter, Jacqueline.n her autobiography, Walters says she also felt grateful to Cohn because of his legal assistance to her father. According to Walters, her father was the subject of an arrest warrant for “failure to appear” after he failed to show up for a New York court date because the family was in Las Vegas, and Cohn was able to have the charge dismissed.Walters testified as a character witness at Cohn’s 1986 disbarment trial.

Walters dated future U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan in the 1970s and was linked romantically to United States Senator John Warner in the 1990s.

In Walters’s autobiography¬†Audition, she claimed that she had an affair in the 1970s with¬†Edward Brooke, then a married¬†United States Senator¬†from Massachusetts. It is not clear whether Walters also was married at the time. Walters said they ended the affair to protect their careers from scandal.In 2007 she dated¬†Pulitzer Prize-winning gerontologist¬†Robert Neil Butler.

Walters is close friends with Tom Brokaw and Woody Allen, and was close friends with Joan Rivers as well with former Fox News head Roger Ailes from the late 1960s until his death in 2017.

In 2014, Walters said she regretted not having more children.

Barbara Walters was inducted into the¬†Television Hall of Fame¬†in 1989. On June 15, 2007, Walters received a star on the¬†Hollywood Walk of Fame. She has won Daytime and Prime Time Emmy Awards, a¬†Women in Film Lucy Award, and a¬†GLAAD¬†Excellence in Media award. Her impact on popular culture is illustrated by¬†Gilda Radner’s “Baba Wawa” impersonation of her on¬†Saturday Night Live,¬†featuring her idiosyncratic speech with its¬†rounded “R”. Her name also appeared in the January 23, 1995¬†New York Times¬†Monday¬†Crossword Puzzle.¬†In 2008, she was honored with the¬†Disney Legends¬†award, given to those who made an outstanding contribution to¬†The Walt Disney Company, which owns the network¬†ABC. That same year, she received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the¬†New York Women’s Agenda. On September 21, 2009, Walters was honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 30th Annual News and Documentary Emmy Awards at New York City’s Lincoln Center.

Awards and nominations

  • 1985:¬†Paul White¬†Award,¬†Radio Television Digital News Association

Daytime Emmy Awards

  • 1975 Award for Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Talk Show Host (Today)
  • 1998 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 1998 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 1999 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 1999 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2000 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2000 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2001 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2001 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2002 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2002 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2003 Award for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2003 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2006 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2006 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2007 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2007 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2008 Nomination for Best Talk Show (The View)
  • 2008 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)
  • 2009 Award for Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Talk Show Host (The View)¬†(with Whoopi Goldberg, Joy Behar, Elisabeth Hasselbeck and Sherri Shepherd)
  • 2010 Nomination for Best Talk Show Host (The View)

NAACP Image Award

  • 2009 Award for Best Talk Series (The View)
  • 2010 Nomination for Best Talk Series

Women in Film Crystal + Lucy Award

  • 1998¬†Lucy Award¬†in recognition of her excellence and innovation in her creative works that have enhanced the perception of women through the medium of television.

Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement

  • 1991 Golden Plate Award presented by Awards Council member¬†Beverly Sills.

In the late 1960s, Walters wrote a magazine article, “How to Talk to Practically Anyone About Practically Anything”, which drew upon the kinds of things people said to her, which were often mistakes.Shortly after the article appeared, she received a letter from¬†Doubleday¬†expressing interest in expanding it into a book. Walters felt that it would help “tongue-tied, socially awkward people‚ÄĒthe many people who worry that they can’t think of the right thing to say to start a conversation.”She published the book¬†How to Talk with Practically Anybody about Practically Anything¬†in 1970, with the assistance of¬†ghostwriter¬†June Callwood.To Walters’s great surprise, the book was a success. As of 2008, it had gone through eight printings, sold hundreds of thousands of copies worldwide, and had been translated into at least six languages.

She published her autobiography, Audition: A Memoir, in 2008.

KATHARINE GRAHAMKatharine Graham 927-9432 (cropped retouched).jpg

‚ÄúBut though he lacked the gift of intimacy, in many ways his supportive love still came through to me. He somehow conveyed his belief in me without ever articulating it, and that was the single most sustaining thing in my life.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē¬†Katharine Graham,¬†Personal History

Katharine Meyer Graham¬†(June 16, 1917 ‚Äď July 17, 2001) was an American publisher. She led her family’s newspaper,¬†The Washington Post, from 1963 to 1991. Graham presided over the paper as it reported on the¬†Watergate scandal, which eventually led to the resignation of President¬†Richard Nixon. She was the first twentieth century female publisher of a major American newspaper. Graham’s memoir,¬†Personal History, won the¬†Pulitzer Prize¬†in 1998.

Currently at the¬†University of Chicago, Katherine Graham has a house in one of the dorms (Max Palevsky Residential) named after her. Every year on 03/02 they celebrate “Graham Day,” honoring their namesake and all her accomplishments.

In 1966, Graham was the ostensible honoree of¬†Truman Capote’s¬†Black and White Ball.

In 1973, Graham received the Elijah Parish Lovejoy Award as well as an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Colby College.

In 1975, Graham received the S. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a Private Citizen, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.

In 1979, the¬†Supersisters¬†trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Graham’s name and picture.

In 1979, Deborah Davis published a book titled Katharine the Great about Graham.

In 1987, Graham won the Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism.

In 1988, Graham was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Graham published her memoirs,¬†Personal History, in 1997. The book was praised for its honest portrayal of Philip Graham’s¬†mental illness¬†and received rave reviews for her depiction of her life, as well as a glimpse into how the roles of women have changed over the course of Graham’s life. The book won the¬†Pulitzer Prize¬†in¬†1998.

In 1997, she received the Freedom medal.

In 1999, Graham received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. Her award was presented by Awards Council member Coretta Scott King.

In 2000, Graham was named as one of the¬†International Press Institute’s 50¬†World Press Freedom Heroes¬†of the past 50 years.

In 2002, Graham was presented, posthumously, with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush.

In 2002, Graham was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame.

On January 30, 1998, television station WCPX-TV in Orlando changed its call sign to WKMG in honor of longtime Washington Post publisher, Katharine M. Graham.

In 2017, Graham was portrayed by¬†Meryl Streep¬†in the¬†Steven Spielberg¬†film¬†The Post. Streep was nominated for an¬†Academy Award for Best Actress¬†(among other awards) for her work. She does not appear in¬†the film adaptation of¬†All The President’s Men, but¬†Robert Redford, who plays Woodward, revealed that Graham had a scene written for her in earlier versions where she asks Woodward and Bernstein (played by¬†Dustin Hoffman) about the Watergate story, beginning with, “What are you doing with my paper?”

Graham was a distinguished American icon, thus leading her autobiography to obtain a Pulitzer Prize in 1998 in the Autobiography or Biography category. Not only did ‚ÄúPersonal History‚ÄĚ receive the high honor of a Pulitzer Prize, but the book pursued greatness in public opinion as well.

Nora Ephron¬†of the¬†New York Times¬†(who was at one point married to Bernstein) raved about Graham’s autobiography. She found it an incredible story of how Graham was able to make herself a prominent name in a male-dominated industry.

‚ÄúAm I making clear how extraordinary this book is? ‚Äú Ephron said. ‚ÄúShe manages to rewrite the story of her life in such a way that no one will ever be able to boil it down to a sentence.‚ÄĚ

On July 14, 2001, Graham fell and struck her head while visiting Sun Valley, Idaho; she died three days later. Her funeral took place at the Washington National Cathedral. Graham is buried in historic Oak Hill Cemetery, across the street from her former home in Georgetown.

SALLY RIDESally Ride (1984).jpg

‚ÄúThe view of earth is absolutely spectacular, and the feeling of looking back and seeing your planet as a planet is just an amazing feeling. It‚Äôs a totally different perspective, and it makes you appreciate, actually, how fragile our existence is.‚ÄĚ

Sally Ride

Sally Kristen Ride¬†(May 26, 1951¬†‚Äď July 23, 2012) was an American¬†astronaut¬†and¬†physicist. Born in Los Angeles, she joined¬†NASA¬†in 1978, and in 1983 became the first American woman in¬†space. She was the third woman in space overall, after USSR¬†cosmonauts¬†Valentina Tereshkova¬†(1963) and¬†Svetlana Savitskaya¬†(1982). Ride remains the youngest American astronaut to have traveled to space, having done so at the age of 32. After flying twice on the Orbiter¬†Challenger, she left NASA in 1987.

Ride worked for two years at¬†Stanford University’s¬†Center for International Security and Arms Control, then at the¬†University of California, San Diego¬†as a professor of physics, primarily researching¬†nonlinear optics¬†and¬†Thomson scattering. She served on the committees that investigated the¬†Challenger¬†and¬†Columbia¬†Space Shuttle disasters, the only person to participate in both. Having been married to astronaut¬†Steven Hawley¬†during her spaceflight years and in a private, long-term relationship with former Women’s Tennis Association player¬†Tam O’Shaughnessy¬†in her years after, she is the earliest space traveler to have been recognized as¬†LGBT. Ride died of¬†pancreatic cancer¬†on July 23, 2012.

Ride was selected to be an astronaut as part of¬†NASA Astronaut Group 8, in 1978, the first class to select women. She applied after seeing an advertisement in the Stanford student newspaper, and was one of only 35 people selected out of the 8000 applications.¬†After graduating training in 1979, becoming eligible to work as a¬†mission specialist¬†she served as the ground-based¬†capsule communicator¬†(CapCom) for the¬†second¬†and¬†third¬†Space Shuttle flights, and helped develop the Space Shuttle’s “Canadarm” robot arm.

Prior to her first space flight, she was subject to media attention due to her gender. During a press conference, she was asked questions such as, “Will the flight affect your reproductive organs?” and “Do you weep when things go wrong on the job?” Despite this and the historical significance of the mission, Ride insisted that she saw herself in only one way‚ÄĒas an astronaut.

n 1987, Ride left her position in Washington, D.C., to work at the Stanford University¬†Center for International Security and Arms Control. In 1989, she became a professor of physics at the¬†University of California, San Diego, and director of the California Space Institute. From the mid-1990s until her death, Ride led two public-outreach programs for NASA‚ÄĒthe¬†ISS EarthKAM¬†and¬†GRAIL MoonKAM projects, in cooperation with NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UCSD. The programs allowed middle school students to request images of the Earth and Moon.In 1999, she acted in the season 5 finale of Touched by an Angel, titled “Godspeed”. In 2003, she was asked to serve on the¬†Columbia¬†Accident Investigation Board. She was the president and CEO of¬†Sally Ride Science, a company she co-founded in 2001 that creates entertaining science programs and publications for upper elementary and middle school students, with a particular focus on girls.

According to Roger Boisjoly, who was one of the engineers that warned of the technical problems that led to the Challenger disaster, after the entire workforce of Morton-Thiokol shunned him, Ride was the only public figure to show support for him when he went public with his pre-disaster warnings. Sally Ride hugged him publicly to show her support for his efforts.

Ride wrote or co-wrote seven books on space aimed at children, with the goal of encouraging children to study science.

Ride endorsed Barack Obama for U.S. President in 2008.  She was a member of the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee, an independent review requested by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) on May 7, 2009.

Ride was extremely private about her personal life. In 1982, she married fellow NASA astronaut Steve Hawley. They divorced in 1987.

After Ride’s death, her obituary revealed that her partner of 27 years was¬†Tam O’Shaughnessy, a¬†professor emerita¬†of¬†school psychology¬†at¬†San Diego State University¬†and childhood friend, who met her when both were aspiring tennis players.O’Shaughnessy was also a science writer and, later, the co-founder of Sally Ride Science.¬†O’Shaughnessy served as the Chief Executive Officer and Chair of the Board of Sally Ride Science.¬†They wrote six acclaimed children’s science books together.Their relationship was revealed by the company and confirmed by her sister, who said she chose to keep her personal life private, including her sickness and treatments. This made Ride the first¬†lesbian astronaut.And the first lesbian in outer space.

Ride died on July 23, 2012, at the age of 61, in her home in La Jolla, California, seventeen months after being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Following cremation, her ashes were interred next to her father at Woodlawn Memorial Cemetery, Santa Monica.

Ride received numerous awards throughout her lifetime and after. She received the¬†National Space Society’s von Braun Award, the Lindbergh Eagle, and¬†the NCAA’s Theodore Roosevelt Award. She was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†and the¬†Astronaut Hall of Fame¬†and was awarded the¬†NASA Space Flight Medal¬†twice. Two elementary schools in the United States are named after her: Sally Ride Elementary School in¬†The Woodlands, Texas, and Sally Ride Elementary School in¬†Germantown, Maryland.

In 1994, Ride received the Samuel S. Beard Award for Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.

On December 6, 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Ride into the California Hall of Fame at the California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts.

In 2007, she was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in Dayton, Ohio.

Ride directed public outreach and educational programs for NASA’s GRAIL mission, which sent twin satellites to map the moon’s gravity. On December 17, 2012, the two¬†GRAIL¬†probes, Ebb and Flow, were directed to complete their mission by crashing on an unnamed lunar mountain near the crater¬†Goldschmidt. NASA announced that it was naming the landing site in honor of Sally Ride. Also in December 2012, the¬†Space Foundation¬†bestowed upon Ride its highest honor, the General James E. Hill Lifetime Space Achievement Award.

In April 2013, the U.S. Navy announced that a research ship would be named in honor of Ride.This was done in 2014 with the christening of the oceanographic research vessel RV Sally Ride (AGOR-28).

On May 20, 2013, a “National Tribute to Sally Ride” was held at the¬†John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts¬†in Washington, D.C. and on that same day, President Barack Obama announced that Ride would receive the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. The medal was presented to her life partner Tam O’Shaughnessy in a ceremony at the¬†White House¬†on November 20, 2013.¬†In July 2013,¬†Flying magazine¬†ranked Ride at number 50 on their list of the “51 Heroes of Aviation”.

In 2014, Ride was inducted into the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display that celebrates LGBT history and people.

In 2017, a¬†Google Doodle¬†honored her on¬†International Women’s Day.

The U.S. Postal Service issued a first-class postage stamp honoring Ride in 2018.

In 2019 Stanford University’s Serra House located in Lucie Stern Hall was renamed the Sally Ride House. It was formerly named after Junípero Serra.

For their first match of March 2019, the women of the¬†United States women’s national soccer team¬†each wore a jersey with the name of a woman they were honoring on the back;¬†Tierna Davidson¬†chose the name of Sally Ride.

When she became the first American woman in space on the¬†Space Shuttle¬†Challenger, many in the crowd attending the launch wore T-shirts printed, “Ride, Sally Ride”, a play on the lyric of the 1965 song “Mustang Sally”.

Billy Joel’s 1989 song “We Didn’t Start the Fire” mentions her.

In 1999, Ride appeared as herself on the¬†Touched By An Angel¬†episode “Godspeed”.

In 2013,¬†Janelle Mon√°e¬†released a song called “Sally Ride”.

Also in 2013, astronauts¬†Chris Hadfield¬†and¬†Catherine Coleman performed a song called “Ride On”.The song was later released as part of Hadfield’s album¬†Space Sessions: Songs from a Tin Can¬†under the name¬†Ride That Lightning.¬†

Ride’s space flight is a central event in the 2016 novel¬†Our Lady of the Inferno.

In 2017, a “Women of NASA”¬†LEGO¬†set went on sale featuring (among other things) mini-figurines of Ride,¬†Margaret Hamilton,¬†Mae Jemison, and¬†Nancy Grace Roman

In 2019,¬†Mattel¬†released a¬†Barbie doll¬†in Ride’s likeness as part of their “Inspiring Women” series.

In the 2020 movie Valley Girl, she is referred to as the first woman astronaut and a valley girl, since she was from Encino.


Margaret Bourke-White | International Photography Hall of Fame

[Life wanted] faces that would express what we wanted to tell. Not just the unusual or striking face, but the face that would speak out the message from the printed page. I am always looking for some typical person or face that will tie the picture essay together in a human way.¬†–¬†Margaret Bourke-White, Portrait of Myself by Margaret Bourke-White

Margaret Bourke-White¬†(¬†June 14, 1904 ‚Äď August 27, 1971) was an American¬†photographer¬†and¬†documentary photographer.She is best known as the first foreign photographer permitted to take pictures of Soviet industry under the Soviet’s¬†five-year plan,¬†the first American female war photojournalist, and having one of her photographs (the construction of¬†Fort Peck Dam) on the cover of the first issue of¬†Life magazine. She died of¬†Parkinson’s disease¬†about eighteen years after developing symptoms.

Margaret Bourke-White, the second of three children, was born to Minnie Bourke and Joseph White. Her father was Jewish but the couple chose to raise their children in their mother’s Christian faith. It was a decision that would have a profound impact on Margaret who struggled with her “secret” Jewish heritage into adult life.

Margaret and her siblings were raised by a strict mother who demanded high standards of behavior and educational achievement. It was her father, however, who had the deeper impact on her childhood. An engineer and inventor who was responsible for developments to the rotary press, Joseph, according to historian Vicki Goldberg, “introduced Margaret to the world of machines” and shared with her his love of the camera, allowing her to help him develop pictures in the family bathtub. It was of little surprize, then, when some years later Bourke-White produced her first professional series of images of industrial machines.

Margaret BourkeWhite¬†was a woman of firsts: the first photographer for Fortune, the first Western professional photographer permitted into the Soviet Union, Life magazine’s first female photographer, and the first female war correspondent credentialed to work in combat zones during World War II.

Her photographs of the emaciated inmates of concentration camps and of the corpses in gas chambers stunned the world. After World War II BourkeWhite traveled to India to photograph Mohandas Gandhi and record the mass migration caused by the division of the Indian subcontinent into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan.

In 1953, Bourke-White developed her first symptoms of¬†Parkinson’s disease.She was forced to slow her career to fight encroaching paralysis.In 1959 and 1961, she underwent several operations to treat her condition,which effectively ended her tremors but affected her speech. n 1971, she died at¬†Stamford Hospital¬†in¬†Stamford, Connecticut, aged 67, from Parkinson’s disease.

Bourke-White wrote an autobiography,¬†Portrait of Myself, which was published in 1963 and became a bestseller, but she grew increasingly infirm and isolated in her home in¬†Darien,¬†Connecticut. In her living room, there “was wallpapered in one huge, floor-to-ceiling, perfectly-stitched-together black-and-white photograph of an evergreen forest that she had shot in¬†Czechoslovakia¬†in 1938”. A pension plan set up in the 1950s, “though generous for that time”, no longer covered her health-care costs. She also suffered financially from her personal generosity and “less-than-responsible attendant care.”


‚ÄúThe world would be entirely different if it were run by women. I think it is true that we are more seeking consensus and don’t have such big egos and have a variety of different ways of trying to get along. But anybody who says that the world would be better has forgotten high school. It depends on who the women are.‚ÄĚ
—¬†Madeleine Albright

Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová; May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the first female United States Secretary of State in U.S. history from 1997 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton.

Along with her family, Albright immigrated to the United States in 1948 from Czechoslovakia. Her father, diplomat Josef Korbel, settled the family in Denver, Colorado, and she became a U.S. citizen in 1957.[6][7] Albright graduated from Wellesley College in 1959 and earned a PhD from Columbia University in 1975, writing her thesis on the Prague Spring.[8] She worked as an aide to Senator Edmund Muskie before taking a position under Zbigniew Brzezinski on the National Security Council. She served in that position until 1981, when President Jimmy Carter left office.

After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of¬†Georgetown University¬†and advised¬†Democratic¬†candidates regarding foreign policy. After Clinton’s victory in the 1992 presidential election, Albright helped assemble his National Security Council. In 1993, Clinton appointed her to the position of¬†U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. She held that position until 1997, when she succeeded¬†Warren Christopher¬†as Secretary of State. Albright served in that capacity until Clinton left office in 2001.

Albright has served as chair of the¬†Albright Stonebridge Group¬†since 2009. She is the Michael and Virginia Mortara Endowed Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University’s¬†School of Foreign Service.In May 2012, she was awarded the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†by U.S. President¬†Barack Obama.¬†Secretary Albright also serves on the board of the¬†Council on Foreign Relations.

Madeleine Korbel Albright was born Marie Jana Korbel on May 15, 1937, in Prague, Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic). Her grandmother gave her the nickname “Madeleine” when she was young, and her name was legally changed when she was an adolescent. Her father, Josef Korbel, was a member of the Czechoslovakian diplomatic service (a person who deals with international relations). Her mother, Anna, was a homemaker. Between 1937 and 1948 her family lived in Prague, Czechoslovakia; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; and London, England.

In 1948, while working for the United Nations, Madeleine’s father lived in India while the rest of the family lived in New York. When the Communists overthrew the Czechoslovakian government, her father was sentenced to death. Madeleine was eleven years old when her family was given political asylum, or a safe place to live, in the United States. Albright was strongly influenced by her father and credits his influence for her own view of the world.

After becoming a U.S. citizen, Albright pursued an academic career. Her education reflects her interest in politics. She studied political science at Wellesley College and graduated in 1959. Albright then went on to earn advanced degrees in international affairs from the Department of Public Law and Government at Columbia University.

Albright married Joseph Medill Patterson Albright three days after graduating from Wellesley. She and her husband lived in Chicago, Illinois, and Long Island, New York, before moving to Washington, D.C. She and her husband had three daughters before they divorced.

In 1996 Clinton nominated Albright for secretary of state and the U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed her nomination. On January 23, 1997, Madeleine Albright was sworn in as secretary of state. She became the highest-ranking female within the United States government.

Shortly after her confirmation, Albright’s cousin, Dasha Sima, revealed to reporters at the¬†Washington Post¬†that Albright’s family had been Czechoslovakian Jews, not Catholics as she had believed, and that three of her grandparents had died in concentration camps. Before World War II (1939‚Äď45) the Nazi government in Germany had set up concentration camps to hold people who they saw as enemies of the state. Eventually minority groups, including Jews, were forced into these camps, where many people died during the course of the war. (Albright was quoted in Newsweek as saying, “I have been proud of the heritage that I have known about and I will be equally proud of the heritage that I have just been given.” A few months later, Albright flew to Prague and was honored by Czech Republic president Vaclav Havel (1936‚Äď).

Albright began a peace mission in the Middle East in the fall of 1997, first meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (1949‚Äď), then with Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat (1929‚Äď), Syrian President Hafez al-Assad (1930‚Äď2000), Egyptian President Hosny Mubarak (1928‚Äď), King Fahd ibn Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia (1922‚Äď), and King Hussein of Jordan (1935‚Äď1999). Albright condemned terrorist activities, urged Netanyahu to make some concessions to the Palestinians, and then vowed not to meet with Israeli and Palestinian leaders again until they were “ready to make the hard decisions.” In July 2000 Albright returned to the Middle East. This time, talks between the new Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak (1942‚Äď) and Arafat ended when Barak said he was taking time out from the peace process.

Albright made history with her October 23, 2000, visit to North Korea’s leader Kim Jong II (1941‚Äď). She became the first U.S. secretary of state to visit North Korea.

Albright holds honorary degrees from Brandeis University (1996), the University of Washington (2002), Smith College (2003), Washington University in St. Louis (2003),University of Winnipeg (2005), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (2007), Knox College (2008),Dickinson College (2014),  and Tufts University (2015).

In 1998, Albright was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame. Albright was the second recipient of the¬†Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award¬†presented by the¬†Prague Society for International Cooperation. In March 2000 Albright received an Honorary Silver Medal of Jan Masaryk at a ceremony in Prague sponsored by the Bohemian Foundation and the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs.September 2006, Albright‚ÄĒalong with¬†V√°clav Havel‚ÄĒreceived the Menschen in Europa Award for furthering the cause of international understanding.In 2010, she was inducted into the¬†Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame.

  • Madam Secretary¬†(2003) ‚Äď Albright’s memoir, published after her retirement
  • The Mighty and the Almighty: Reflections on America, God, and World Affairs¬†(2006)
  • Memo to the President Elect: How We Can Restore America’s Reputation and Leadership¬†(2008)
  • Read My Pins¬†(2009)
  • Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War, 1937‚Äď1948¬†(2012);¬†Reviewed by Paul Wilson in¬†The New York Review of Books, June 7, 2012, pages 35‚Äď37.
  • Fascism: A Warning¬†(2018)


”If I have anything special that makes me “influential” I simply don’t know how to define it. If I knew the ingredients I would bottle them, package them and sell them, because I want everyone to be able to work together in a spirit of cooperation and compromise and accommodation without, you know, any caving in or anyone being woefully violated personally or in terms of his principles.”Barbara Charline Jordan

Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 ‚Äď January 17, 1996) was an American lawyer, educator¬†and¬†politician¬†who was a leader in the¬†Civil Rights Movement. A¬†Democrat, she was the first African American elected to the¬†Texas Senate¬†after¬†Reconstruction¬†and the first¬†Southern African-American woman elected to the United States House of Representatives. She was best known for her eloquent opening statement at the House Judiciary Committee hearings during the¬†impeachment process against Richard Nixon, and as the first African-American as well as the first woman to deliver a keynote address at the¬†1976 Democratic National Convention. She received the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom, among numerous other honors. She was a member of the¬†Peabody Awards¬†Board of Jurors from 1978 to 1980. She was the first African-American woman to be buried in the¬†Texas State Cemetery. Jordan’s work as chair of the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, which recommended reducing legal immigration by about one-third, is frequently cited by American immigration restrictionists.On July 25, 1974, Jordan delivered a 15-minute televised speech in front of the members of the¬†U.S. House Judiciary Committee.[19]¬†She presented an opening speech during the hearings that were part of the¬†impeachment process against Richard Nixon. This speech is thought to be one of the greatest speeches of the 20th-century American history.Throughout her speech, Jordan strongly stood by the¬†Constitution of the United States. She defended the¬†checks and balances¬†system, which was set in place to inhibit any politician from abusing their power.[19] Jordan never flat out said that she wanted Nixon impeached, but rather subtly and cleverly implied her thoughts.She simply stated facts that proved Nixon to be untrustworthy and heavily involved in illegal situations, and quoted the drafters of the Constitution to argue that actions like Nixon’s during the scandal corresponded with their understanding of impeachable offenses.She protested that the¬†Watergate scandal¬†will forever ruin the trust American citizens have for their government.This powerful and influential statement earned Jordan national praise for her rhetoric, morals, and wisdom.

Jordan’s companion of approximately twenty years was Nancy Earl, an educational psychologist, whom she met on a camping trip in the late 1960s.Earl was an occasional speechwriter for Jordan, and later was a caregiver when Jordan began to suffer from¬†multiple sclerosis¬†in 1973. Considerable speculation exists as to Jordan’s sexuality and the nature of her and Earl’s relationship, something that neither Jordan nor Earl is known to have addressed, recorded or shared with others.

In the¬†KUT-FM¬†radio documentary¬†Rediscovering Barbara Jordan,¬†President¬†Bill Clinton¬†said that he had wanted to nominate Jordan for the¬†United States Supreme Court, but by the time he could do so, Jordan’s health problems prevented him from nominating her.[29]¬†Jordan later also suffered from¬†leukemia.

On July 31, 1988, Jordan nearly drowned in her backyard swimming pool while doing physical therapy, but she was saved by Earl, who found her floating in the pool and revived her.

Jordan died at the age of 59 of complications from pneumonia on January 17, 1996, in Austin, Texas.

She was best known for her eloquent opening statement at the House Judiciary Committee hearings during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon, and as the first African-American as well as the first woman to deliver a keynote address at the 1976 Democratic National Convention.

  • 1984: Inducted into the¬†Texas Women’s Hall of Fame
  • 1990: Inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame
  • 1992: The¬†Spingarn Medal¬†from the¬†NAACP¬†
  • 1993: The¬†Elizabeth Blackwell¬†Award from¬†Hobart and William Smith Colleges
  • 1994: The¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • 1995: The second ever female awardee of the¬†United States Military Academy’s¬†Sylvanus Thayer Award¬†

Her 1974 statement on the articles of impeachment (regarding President¬†Richard Nixon) was listed as #13 in American Rhetoric’s Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century (listed by rank).

Her 1976 Democratic National Convention keynote address, the first major convention keynote speech ever by a woman and the first by an African American, was listed as #5 in American Rhetoric’s Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century (listed by rank).

In 2000, the Jordan/Rustin Coalition (JRC) was created,honoring Jordan and¬†Bayard Rustin, a leader in the¬†civil rights movement¬†and close confidante of¬†Martin Luther King Jr. The organization mobilized gay and lesbian African Americans to aid in the passage of marriage equality in the state of California. According to its website, “the mission [of the JRC] is to empower Black same-gender loving, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals and families in Greater Los Angeles, to promote equal marriage rights and to advocate for fair treatment of everyone without regard to race, sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression On March 27, 2000, a play based on Jordan’s life premiered at the Victory Garden Theater in Chicago, Illinois.Titled, “Voice of Good Hope”,¬†Kristine Thatcher’s biographical evocation of Jordan’s life played in theaters from San Francisco to New York.

On April 24, 2009, a¬†statue of Barbara Jordan¬†was unveiled at the University of Texas at Austin, where Jordan taught at the time of her death. The Barbara Jordan statue campaign was paid for by a student fee increase approved by the University of Texas Board of Regents. The effort was originally spearheaded by the 2002‚Äď2003 Tappee class of the Texas¬†Orange Jackets, the “oldest women’s organization at the University” (of Texas at Austin).

In 2011, actor/playwright¬†Jade Esteban Estrada¬†portrayed Jordan in the solo musical comedy¬†ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 5¬†which includes the song “Nancy’s Eyes” sung by the character of Jordan with music and lyrics by Estrada.

In 2011, the Barbara Jordan Forever Stamp was issued. It is the 34th stamp in the Black Heritage series of U.S. stamps.

In 2012, Jordan was inducted into the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display which celebrates LGBT history and people.

The Barbara Jordan Media Awards are given annually to media professionals and students who “have produced material for the public which accurately and positively reports on individuals with disabilities, using People First language and respectful depictions”.

The Barbara Jordan Public-Private Leadership Award is presented by Texas Southern University’s School of Public Affairs and School of Law. Its first recipient was former¬†U.S. Secretary of State¬†Hillary Clinton, on June 4, 2015.

The former sorting facility in downtown Houston was renamed the Barbara Jordan Post Office.


Credit: Getty Images/Interim Archives

“Leadership¬†is a two-way street, loyalty up and loyalty down.¬†Respect¬†for one’s superiors; care for one’s crew.”Grace Brewster Murray Hopper

Grace Brewster Murray Hopper¬†(Murray¬†December 9, 1906 ‚Äď January 1, 1992) was an American¬†computer scientist¬†and¬†United States Navy¬†rear admiral.One of the first programmers of the¬†Harvard Mark¬†I¬†computer, she was a pioneer of computer programming who invented one of the first¬†linkers. Hopper was the first to devise the theory of machine-independent programming languages, and the¬†FLOW-MATIC¬†programming language she created using this theory was later extended to create¬†COBOL, an early¬†high-level programming language¬†still in use today.

Prior to joining the Navy, Hopper earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from¬†Yale University¬†and was a professor of mathematics at¬†Vassar College. Hopper attempted to enlist in the Navy during¬†World War II¬†but was rejected because she was 34 years old. She instead joined the Navy Reserves. Hopper began her computing career in 1944 when she worked on the Harvard Mark I team led by¬†Howard H. Aiken. In 1949, she joined the¬†Eckert‚ÄďMauchly Computer Corporation¬†and was part of the team that developed the¬†UNIVAC I¬†computer. At Eckert‚ÄďMauchly she began developing the linker. She believed that a programming language based on English was possible. Her linker converted English terms into¬†machine code¬†understood by computers. By 1952, Hopper had finished her program¬†linker¬†(originally called a compiler), which was written for the¬†A-0 System.[2][3][4][5]¬†During her wartime service, she co-authored three papers based on her work on the Harvard Mark 1.

In 1954, Eckert‚ÄďMauchly chose Hopper to lead their department for automatic programming, and she led the release of some of the first compiled languages like¬†FLOW-MATIC. In 1959, she participated in the¬†CODASYL¬†consortium, which consulted Hopper to guide them in creating a machine-independent programming language. This led to the¬†COBOL¬†language, which was inspired by her idea of a language being based on English words. In 1966, she retired from the Naval Reserve, but in 1967 the Navy recalled her to active duty. She retired from the Navy in 1986 and found work as a consultant for the¬†Digital Equipment Corporation, sharing her computing experiences.

The U.S. Navy¬†Arleigh Burke-class¬†guided-missile destroyer¬†USS¬†Hopper¬†was named for her, as was the¬†Cray XE6¬†“Hopper” supercomputer at¬†NERSC.[6]¬†During her lifetime, Hopper was awarded 40 honorary degrees from universities across the world. A¬†college¬†at¬†Yale University¬†was renamed in her honor. In 1991, she received the¬†National Medal of Technology. On November 22, 2016, she was posthumously awarded the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†by President¬†Barack Obama.

On New Year’s Day 1992, Hopper died in her sleep of natural causes at her home in Arlington, Virginia;. she was 85 years of age. She was interred with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

Military awards

Bronze star

Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Meritorious Service Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom
(2016, Posthumous)
American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal
with bronze service star
(1953, 1966)
Armed Forces Reserve Medal
with two bronze hourglass devices
(1963, 1973, 1983)
Naval Reserve Medal


  • 1964: Hopper was awarded the¬†Society of Women Engineers¬†Achievement Award, the Society’s highest honor, “In recognition of her significant contributions to the burgeoning computer industry as an engineering manager and originator of automatic programming systems.”¬†In May 1955, Hopper was one of the founding members of the¬†Society of Women Engineers
  • 1969: Hopper was awarded the inaugural¬†Data Processing Management Association¬†Man of the Year award (now called the Distinguished Information Sciences Award).
  • 1971: The annual¬†Grace Murray Hopper Award for Outstanding Young Computer Professionals¬†was established in 1971 by the¬†Association for Computing Machinery.
  • 1973: Elected to the¬†U.S. National Academy of Engineering.
  • 1973: First American and the first woman of any nationality to be made a¬†Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society.
  • 1981: Received an Honorary PhD from Clarkson University.
  • 1982:¬†American Association of University Women¬†Achievement Award and an Honorary Doctor of Science from¬†Marquette University.
  • 1983: Golden Plate Award of the¬†American Academy of Achievement.
  • 1985: Honorary Doctor of Letters from¬†Western New England College¬†(now¬†Western New England University).
  • 1986: Received the Defense Distinguished Service Medal at her retirement.
  • 1986: Received an Honorary Doctor of Science from Syracuse University.
  • 1987: She became the first¬†Computer History Museum¬†Fellow Award Recipient “for contributions to the development of programming languages, for standardization efforts, and for lifelong naval service.”
  • 1988: Received the Golden Gavel Award,¬†Toastmasters International.
  • 1991:¬†National Medal of Technology.
  • 1991: Elected a Fellow of the¬†American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
  • 1992: The¬†Society of Women Engineers¬†established three annual, renewable, “Admiral Grace Murray Hopper Scholarships”
  • 1994: Inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame.
  • 1996:¬†USS¬†Hopper¬†(DDG-70)¬†was launched.¬†Nicknamed¬†Amazing Grace, it is on a very short¬†list of U.S. military vessels named after women.
  • 2001:¬†Eavan Boland¬†wrote a poem dedicated to Grace Hopper titled “Code” in her 2001 release¬†Against Love Poetry.
  • 2001: The Gracies, the Government Technology Leadership Award were named in her honor.
  • 2009: The Department of Energy’s¬†National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center¬†named its flagship system “Hopper”.
  • 2009:¬†Office of Naval Intelligence¬†creates the Grace Hopper Information Services Center.
  • 2013: Google made the¬†Google Doodle¬†for Hopper’s 107th birthday an animation of her sitting at a computer, using COBOL to print out her age. At the end of the animation, a moth flies out of the computer.
  • 2016: On November 22, 2016 Hopper was posthumously awarded a¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†for her accomplishments in the field of computer science.
  • 2017:¬†Hopper College¬†at¬†Yale University¬†was named in her honor.


Junko Tabei¬†(ÁĒįťÉ®šļē ś∑≥Ś≠ź,¬†Tabei Junko, born¬†Junko Ishibashi; 22 September 1939¬†‚Äď 20 October 2016)¬†was a Japanese¬†mountaineer, an author, and a teacher. She was the first woman to reach the summit of¬†Mount Everest¬†and the first woman to ascend the¬†Seven Summits, climbing the highest peak on every continent.

Tabei wrote seven books, organized environmental projects to clean up rubbish left behind by climbers on Everest, and led annual climbs up Mount Fuji for youth affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.

An astronomer had named asteroid 6897 Tabei after her and in 2019, a mountain range on Pluto was named Tabei Montes in her honour.

On 28 June 1992 Tabei finished the climb of Puncak Jaya to become the first woman to complete the Seven Summits.

Tabei had a goal to climb the highest peak in every country in the world and continues to work on ecological concerns. Tabei is the director of Himalayan Adventure Trust of Japan, an organization working on a global level to preserve mountain environments.

Tabei was diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2012, but continued with many of her mountaineering activities. In July 2016, despite her advancing illness, she led an expedition of youth up Mount Fuji. She died in a hospital in Kawagoe on 20 October 2016.

Before Tabei’s death, an astronomer had named asteroid¬†6897 Tabei¬†after her.

On 22 September 2019,¬†Google¬†commemorated the 80th anniversary of her birth with a¬†Doodle. The accompanying write-up gave her motivation slogan, “Do not give up. Keep on your quest.”

On 19 November 2019, a mountain range on Pluto was named Tabei Montes in honour of Tabei’s mountaineering accomplishments. The theme for naming mountains on Pluto is “Historic pioneers who crossed new horizons in the exploration of the Earth, sea and sky”.

INDIRA GANDHIIndira Gandhi - Husband, Family & Life - Biography

I have lived a long life, and I am proud that I spend the whole of my life in the service of my people. I am only proud of this and nothing else. I shall continue to serve until my last breath, and when I die, I can say, that every drop of my blood will invigorate India and strengthen it.Indira Priyadarshini Gandh

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi ¬†Nehru; 19¬†November 1917 ‚Äď 31¬†October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the¬†Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, only female¬†Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of¬†Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. She served as prime minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until¬†her assassination¬†in October 1984, making her the second¬†longest-serving Indian prime minister¬†after her father.During Nehru’s time as¬†Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips.¬†She was elected¬†President of the Indian National Congress¬†in 1959. Upon her father’s death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the¬†Rajya Sabha¬†(upper house) and became a member of¬†Lal Bahadur Shastri’s cabinet¬†as¬†Minister of Information and Broadcasting. In the Congress Party’s parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966 (upon the death of¬†Shastri), she defeated her rival¬†Morarji Desai¬†to become leader, and thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India.As prime minister, Gandhi was known for her political intransigency and unprecedented¬†centralisation of power. She went to¬†war with Pakistan¬†in support of the¬†independence movement¬†and¬†war of independence¬†in¬†East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of¬†Bangladesh, as well as increasing India’s influence to the point where it became the sole¬†regional power¬†of¬†South Asia. Citing separatist tendencies, and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a¬†state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. In 1980, she¬†returned to power¬†after free and fair elections. After Gandhi ordered military action in the¬†Golden Temple¬†in¬†Operation Blue Star, her own bodyguards and Sikh nationalists assassinated her on 31¬†October 1984.In 1999, Indira Gandhi was named “Woman of the Millennium” in an online poll organised by the¬†BBC. In¬†In 2020, Gandhi was named by¬†Time¬†magazine among the world’s 100 powerful women who defined the last century.

In 1947, Nehru became the newly independent nation‚Äôs first prime minister, and Gandhi agreed to go to New Delhi to serve as his hostess, welcoming diplomats and world leaders at home and traveling with her father throughout India and abroad. She was elected to the prominent 21-member working committee of the Congress Party in 1955 and, four years later, was named its president. Upon Nehru‚Äôs death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri became the new prime minister, and Indira took on the role of Minister of Information and Broadcasting. But Shastri‚Äôs leadership was short-lived; just two years later he abruptly died and Indira was appointed by Congress Party leaders to be prime minister.Within a few years Gandhi gained enormous popularity for introducing successful programs that transformed India into a country self-sufficient in food grains‚ÄĒan achievement known as the Green Revolution.In 1971, she threw her support behind the Bengali movement to separate East from West Pakistan, providing refuge for the ten million Pakistani civilians who fled to India in order to escape the marauding Pakistan army and eventually offering troops and arms. India‚Äôs decisive victory over Pakistan in December led to the creation of Bangladesh, for which Gandhi was posthumously awarded Bangladesh‚Äôs highest state honor 40 years later.Indian Prime Minister¬†Indira Gandhi¬†was assassinated at 9:29 a.m. on 31 October 1984 at her residence in¬†Safdarjung Road,¬†New Delhi. She was killed by her¬†Sikh¬†bodyguards Satwant Singh¬†and¬†Beant Singh¬†in the aftermath of¬†Operation Blue Star. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military action carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Indira Gandhi to remove the¬†Sikh¬†Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale¬†and his followers from the holy Golden temple of the¬†Harmandir Sahib¬†in¬†Amritsar,¬†Punjab. The collateral damage included the death of many pilgrims, as well as damage to the¬†Akal Takht.[2]¬†The military action on the sacred temple was criticized by Sikhs both inside and outside India.At about 9:20¬†a.m. Indian Standard Time, on 31 October 1984, Gandhi was on her way to be interviewed by British actor¬†Peter Ustinov¬†who was filming a documentary for¬†Irish television. She was wearing a saffron¬†saree¬†with a black border, and accompanied by constable Narayan Singh, personal security officer Rameshwar Dayal and personal secretary,¬†R. K. Dhawan. She was walking through the garden of the Prime Minister’s Residence at No. 1 Safdarjung Road in New Delhi towards the neighboring 1 Akbar Road office.Gandhi passed a¬†wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant Singh, and the two men opened fire. Beant fired three rounds into her abdomen from his .38 revolver;¬†then Satwant fired 30 rounds from his Sten submachine gun after she had fallen to the ground. Both men then threw down their weapons and Beant said, “I have done what I had to do. You do what you want to do.” In the next six minutes, Border Police officers Tarsem Singh Jamwal and Ram Saran captured and killed Beant, while Satwant was arrested by Gandhi’s other bodyguards, along with an accomplice trying to escape; he was seriously wounded. Satwant Singh was hanged in 1989 with accomplice¬†Kehar Singh.Salma Sultan gave the first news of the assassination of Gandhi on Doordarshan’s evening news on 31 October 1984, more than ten hours after she was killed.¬†It is alleged ¬†that Gandhi’s secretary¬†R. K. Dhawan¬†overruled intelligence and security officials who had ordered the removal of policemen as a security threat, including her assassins.

Beant was one of Gandhi’s favorite guards, whom she had known for ten years.Because he was a Sikh, he had been taken off her staff after Operation Blue Star, however, Gandhi had made sure that he was reinstated.¬†Satwant was 22 years old when he killed her, and had been assigned to Gandhi’s guard just five months before her assassination.Gandhi was taken to the¬†All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi¬†at 9:30¬†a.m., where doctors operated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20¬†p.m. The postmortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by¬†Tirath Das Dogra, who stated that 30 bullets had struck Gandhi from a Sterling sub-machine gun and a revolver. The assailants had fired 33 bullets at her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her body, while seven remained inside. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the identity of the weapons and to correlate each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The bullets were matched with respective weapons at CFSL Delhi. Her body was taken in a gun carriage through Delhi roads on the morning of 1 November to¬†Teen Murti Bhavan¬†where her father stayed and where she lay in state. She was cremated on 3 November near¬†Raj Ghat, a memorial to¬†Mahatma Gandhi, at an area named¬†Shakti Sthal. Her elder son and successor¬†Rajiv Gandhi¬†lit the pyre.

Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a¬†Kashmiri Pandit¬†family on 19¬†November 1917 in¬†Allahabad.¬†Her father,¬†Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in the¬†movement for independence¬†from¬†British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the¬†Dominion¬†(and later¬†Republic) of India.She was the only child (she had a younger brother who died young),and grew up with her mother,¬†Kamala Nehru, at the¬†Anand Bhavan, a large family estate in Allahabad.She had a lonely and unhappy childhood.¬†Her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bedridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from¬†tuberculosis.¬†She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters.Indira was taught mostly at home by tutors and attended school intermittently until matriculation in 1934. She was a student at the¬†Modern School¬†in¬†Delhi, St Cecilia’s and St Mary’s Christian convent schools in Allahabad,the¬†International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in¬†Bex, and the Pupils’ Own School in¬†Poona¬†and¬†Bombay, which is affiliated with the¬†University of Mumbai.¬†She and her mother Kamala moved to the¬†Belur Math¬†headquarters of the¬†Ramakrishna Mission¬†where¬†Swami Ranganathananda was her guardian.She went on to study at the Vishwa Bharati in Santiniketan, which became¬†Visva-Bharati University¬†in 1951.It was during her interview that¬†Rabindranath Tagore¬†named her¬†Priyadarshini, literally “looking at everything with kindness” in¬†Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru.¬†A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in¬†Europe.There it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the¬†University of Oxford.[After her mother died, she attended the¬†Badminton School¬†for a brief period before enrolling at¬†Somerville College in 1937 to study history.¬†Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin.At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin‚ÄĒa compulsory subject‚ÄĒremained poor.¬†Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society.

During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended to by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies. She was being treated there in 1940, when Germany rapidly conquered Europe. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. The university later awarded her an honorary degree. In 2010, Oxford honoured her further by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford. During her stay in Britain, Indira frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi), whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the London School of Economics. Their marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals, though Feroze belonged to a Zoroastrian Parsi family of Gujarat.The couple had two sons, Rajiv Gandhi (born 1944) and Sanjay Gandhi (born 1946).

In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first¬†prime minister of India.Towards the end of the 1950s, Gandhi served as the President of the¬†Congress. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led¬†Kerala¬†State Government dismissed in 1959. That government had the distinction of being India’s first-ever elected¬†Communist¬†Government. After her father’s death in 1964 she was appointed a member of the¬†Rajya Sabha¬†(upper house) and served in Prime Minister¬†Lal Bahadur Shastri’s cabinet as¬†Minister of Information and Broadcasting. In January 1966, after Shastri’s death, the Congress legislative party elected her over¬†Morarji Desai¬†as their leader. Congress party veteran¬†K. Kamaraj¬†was instrumental in Gandhi achieving victory. Because she was a woman, other political leaders in India saw Gandhi as weak and hoped to use her as a puppet once elected:

Congress President Kamaraj orchestrated Mrs. Gandhi’s selection as prime minister because he perceived her to be weak enough that he and the other regional party bosses could control her, and yet strong enough to beat Desai [her political opponent] in a party election because of the high regard for her father … a woman would be an ideal tool for the Syndicate.

Clara Barton | National Women's History Museum
‚ÄúI may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while our soldiers¬†can¬†stand and fight, I¬†can¬†stand and feed and nurse them.‚ÄĚ This¬†is¬†one of the statements shared by¬†Barton during her lectures after the Civil War Clarissa Harlowe Barton¬†
Clarissa Harlowe Barton¬†(December 25, 1821 ‚Äď April 12, 1912) was a pioneering American nurse who founded the¬†American Red Cross. She was a hospital nurse in the¬†American Civil War, a teacher, and a¬†patent clerk. Since nursing education was not then very formalized and she did not attend nursing school, she provided self-taught nursing care. Barton is noteworthy for doing humanitarian work and civil rights advocacy at a time before women had the right to vote.¬†She was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†in 1973.

Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born on December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts and was named after the titular character of Samuel Richardson’s novel¬†Clarissa. Her father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman (politician) who inspired his daughter with patriotism and a broad humanitarian interest.He was a soldier under the command of General Anthony Wayne in his crusade against the Indians in the northwest. He was also the leader of progressive thought in the Oxford village area.Barton’s mother was Sarah Stone Barton.

When she was three years old, Barton was sent to school with her brother Stephen, where she excelled in reading and spelling. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Fitts; she is the only known friend Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidity.

When Barton was ten years old, she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe head injury. She learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him (a standard treatment at the time). She continued to care for David long after doctors had given up. He made a full recovery.

Her parents tried to help cure her timidity by enrolling her to Colonel Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a catastrophe.Barton became more timid and depressed and would not eat. She was brought back home to regain her health.

Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member; a paternal cousin of Clara’s had died and left his wife with four children and a farm. The house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be painted and repaired. Clara was persistent in offering assistance, much to the gratitude of her family. After the work was done, she was at a loss because there wasn’t anything else to help with, to not feel like a burden to her family

She began to play with her boy cousins and to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such activities as horseback riding. It wasn’t until after she had injured herself that Clara’s mother began to question her playing with the boys. Her mother decided she should focus on more ladylike skills. She invited one of Clara’s girl cousins over to help develop her femininity. From her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well.

Barton was beginning to be shy. To assist Barton with overcoming her shyness, her parents persuaded her to become a schoolteacher.She achieved her first teacher’s certificate in 1839, at only 17 years old. This profession interested Barton greatly and helped motivate her; she ended up conducting an effective redistricting campaign that allowed the children of workers to receive an education. Successful projects such as this gave Barton the confidence needed when she demanded equal pay for teaching.

Barton became an educator in 1838 and served for 12 years in schools in Canada and West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher; she knew how to handle rambunctious children, particularly the boys since as a child she enjoyed her boy cousins’ and brothers’ company. She learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her care.After her mother’s death in 1851, the family home closed down. Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the¬†Clinton Liberal Institute in New York. In this college, she developed many friendships that broadened her point of view on many issues concurring at the time. The principal of the institute recognized her tremendous abilities and admired her work. This friendship lasted for many years, eventually turning into a romance.¬†As a writer, her terminology was pristine and easy to understand. Her writings and bodies of work could instruct the local statesmen.

While teaching in Hightstown, Barton learned about the lack of public schools in Bordentown, the neighboring city. In 1852, she was contracted to open a¬†free school in Bordentown, which was the first ever free school in New Jersey.¬†She was successful, and after a year she had hired another woman to help teach over 600 people. Both women were making $250 a year. This accomplishment compelled the town to raise nearly $4,000 for a new school building. Once completed, though, Barton was replaced as principal by a man elected by the school board. They saw the position as head of a large institution to be unfitting for a woman. She was demoted to “female assistant” and worked in a harsh environment until she had a nervous breakdown along with other health ailments, and quit.

In 1855, she moved to Washington D.C. and began work as a clerk in the¬†US Patent Office; this was the first time a woman had received a substantial clerkship in the federal government and at a salary equal to a man’s salary. For three years, she received much abuse and slander from male clerks. Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, and in 1856, under the administration of¬†James Buchanan, she was fired because of her “Black Republicanism”.After the election of¬†Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service.

In 1863, Clara Barton would travel to the Union controlled coastal regions around Charleston, South Carolina. On July 14, 1863 Barton moved from Hilton Head Island to Morris Island to tend the growing number of sick and wounded soldiers Рa list that would greatly expand after the failed Union assault on Fort Wagner on July 18, 1863.

Later in the Morris Island campaign, Clara Barton, working out of her tent, would seek to address the growing problem of sickness on the island by passing out fresh food and mail to the troops in the trenches.  Despite her great efforts, Barton herself would become gravely ill and would be evacuated to Hilton Head island.

In January 1865, Barton returned to the North when her brother and nephew died. In March, President Abraham Lincoln appointed her General Correspondent for the Friends of Paroled Prisoners. Her job was to respond to anxious inquiries from the friends and relatives of missing soldiers by locating them among the prison rolls, parole rolls, or casualty lists at the camps in Annapolis, Maryland. To assist in this enormous task, Barton established the Bureau of Records of Missing Men of the Armies of the United States and published Rolls of Missing Men to be posted across the country. It was at her insistence that the anonymous graves at Andersonville prison were identified and marked.

In 1869 Clara Barton traveled to Geneva, Switzerland as a member of the International Red Cross. In 1880 the American Red Cross was established, the culmination of a decade of work by Barton. She served as the organization’s first president until 1904 and continued her tradition of philanthropy as a volunteer in Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

Clara Barton died in 1912 at the age of ninety-one.She continued to live in her Glen Echo, Maryland home which also served as the Red Cross Headquarters upon her arrival to the house in 1897. Barton published her autobiography in 1907, titled The Story of My Childhood.On April 12, 1912, she died in her home at the age of 90. The cause of death was pneumonia.


  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Levittown, Pennsylvania
  • Barton Hall at¬†Montclair State University¬†in¬†Upper Montclair, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Elementary on Del Amo Boulevard in¬†Long Beach, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Alton, Illinois
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Redmond, Washington
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Anaheim, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†The Bronx
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Cherry Hill, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Chicago
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Corona, California
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†San Diego¬†(now San Diego Cooperative Charter School)
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in Rochester NY
  • Clara Barton Elementary School in¬†West Mifflin, Pennsylvania
  • Clara Barton Junior High School in¬†Royal Oak, Michigan
  • Clara Barton High School¬†for Health Professions in¬†Brooklyn
  • Clara Barton House, a residence hall at¬†Towson University,¬†Towson, Maryland
  • Clara Barton Open School in¬†Minneapolis
  • Clara Barton School, in Cabin John, Maryland, now the Clara Barton Community Center
  • Clara Barton School in¬†Bordentown, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton School in¬†Fargo, North Dakota
  • Clara Barton School¬†in¬†Philadelphia
  • Barton Academy in Mobile, Alabama


  • Clara Barton Road in¬†Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Clara Barton Lane in¬†Galveston, Texas
  • Barton Boulevard in¬†Rockledge, Florida
  • Clara Barton Drive in¬†Albany, New York
  • Clara Barton Drive in¬†Fairfax Station, Virginia
  • Clara Barton Parkway¬†in Maryland
  • Clara Barton Street in¬†Dansville, NY
  • Clara Barton Boulevard in¬†Garland, TX
  • Clara Barton Circle in¬†Sylacauga, AL
  • Clara Barton Straat in Amsterdam


  • Clara Barton Home and Gardens, Johnstown, PA
  • Barton, a crater on¬†Venus
  • Barton Center for Diabetes Education,¬†North Oxford, Massachusetts
  • Barton County, Kansas
  • Barton Towers, in¬†Royal Oak, Michigan, on the former site of Clara Barton Junior High School
  • Barton Hall, Iowa State University
  • Barton’s Crossing,¬†Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a homeless shelter
  • Clara Barton, a Norwegian Air Boeing 737-8MAX (part of Norwegian’s “Tailfin Heroes” series)
  • Clara Barton Community Center,¬†Cabin John, Maryland
  • Clara Barton District, a regional association of¬†Unitarian Universalist Association¬†member congregations
  • Clara Barton First Aid Squad,¬†Edison, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Hospital and Clinics,¬†Hoisington, Kansas
  • Clara Barton Service Area, on the¬†New Jersey Turnpike¬†in¬†Oldmans Township, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton, New Jersey
  • Clara Barton Tree, a¬†giant sequoia tree¬†in the¬†Giant Forest,¬†Sequoia National Park
  • Clara Barton Memorial Forest in¬†Lake Clear, New York, planted in 1925
  • Lake Barton in¬†Burke, Virginia
  • Barton House in¬†Towson University
  • Clara Barton Auditorium,¬†United States Patent and Trademark Office,¬†Alexandria, Virginia
  • Clara Barton Shelter, Stony Brook State Park, Dansville, NY
  • The House of Clara Barton at¬†The King’s College (New York City)
  • The Clara Barton Post Office Building, at 14 Walnut Street in Bordentown, New Jersey
  • A stamp with a portrait of Barton and an image of the American Red Cross symbol was issued in 1948.

Barton was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†in 1973.

Barton was featured in 1995 in a set of stamps commemorating the Civil War.

In 2019, Barton was announced as one of the members of the inaugural class of the¬†Government Executive¬†magazine’s Government Hall of Fame.

Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, of the National Museum of American History are focused on the United States at war. The Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance was at one point the signature artifact there but is no longer on display.

Benazir Bhutto.jpg

“Ultimately, leadership requires action: daring to take steps that are necessary but unpopular, challenging the status quo in order to reach a brighter future”

Benazir Bhutto


Benazir Bhutto¬†(¬†21 June 1953 ‚Äď 27 December 2007) was a¬†Pakistani¬†politician who served as¬†Prime Minister of Pakistan¬†from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the first woman to head a democratic government in a¬†Muslim majority¬†country. Ideologically a¬†liberal¬†and a¬†secularist, she chaired or co-chaired the¬†Pakistan Peoples Party¬†(PPP) from the early 1980s until her¬†assassination in 2007.

Of mixed¬†Sindhi¬†and¬†Kurdish¬†parentage, Bhutto was born in¬†Karachi¬†to a¬†politically important, wealthy aristocratic family. She studied at¬†Harvard University¬†and the¬†University of Oxford, where she was President of the¬†Oxford Union. Her father, the PPP leader¬†Zulfikar Bhutto, was elected Prime Minister on a¬†socialist¬†platform in 1973. She returned to Pakistan in 1977, shortly before her father was¬†ousted in a military coup¬†and executed. Bhutto and her mother¬†Nusrat¬†took control of the PPP and led the country’s¬†Movement for the Restoration of Democracy; Bhutto was repeatedly imprisoned by¬†Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq’s military government and then exiled to Britain in 1984. She returned in 1986 and‚ÄĒinfluenced by¬†Thatcherite¬†economics‚ÄĒtransformed the PPP’s platform from a socialist to a liberal one, before leading it to victory in the¬†1988 election. As Prime Minister, her attempts at reform were stifled by¬†conservative¬†and¬†Islamist¬†forces, including President¬†Ghulam Ishaq Khan¬†and the powerful military. Her administration was accused of corruption and nepotism and dismissed by Khan in 1990. Intelligence services rigged¬†that year’s election¬†to ensure a victory for the conservative¬†Islamic Democratic Alliance¬†(IJI), at which Bhutto became¬†Leader of the Opposition.

After the IJI government of Prime Minister¬†Nawaz Sharif¬†was also dismissed on corruption charges, Bhutto led the PPP to victory in the¬†1993 elections. Her second term oversaw economic privatisation and attempts to advance¬†women’s rights. Her government was damaged by several controversies, including the assassination of her brother¬†Murtaza, a¬†failed 1995 coup d’√©tat, and a further bribery scandal involving her and her husband¬†Asif Ali Zardari; in response to the latter, President¬†Farooq Leghari¬†dismissed her government. The PPP lost the¬†1997 election¬†and in 1998 she went into self-exile in¬†Dubai. A widening corruption inquiry culminated in a 2003 conviction in a Swiss court. Following United States-brokered negotiations with President¬†Pervez Musharraf, she returned to Pakistan in 2007 to compete in the¬†2008 elections; her platform emphasised civilian oversight of the military and opposition to growing Islamist violence. After a political rally in¬†Rawalpindi, she was assassinated. The¬†Salafi jihadi¬†group¬†al-Qaeda¬†claimed responsibility, although the involvement of the¬†Pakistani Taliban¬†and rogue elements of the intelligence services was widely suspected. She was buried at her¬†family mausoleum¬†in¬†Garhi Khuda Baksh.

Bhutto was a controversial figure. She was often criticised as being politically inexperienced, was accused of being¬†corrupt, and faced much opposition from Pakistan’s Islamist lobby for her secularist and modernizing agenda. In the early years of her career she was nevertheless domestically popular and also attracted support from Western nations, for whom she was a champion of democracy. Posthumously, she came to be regarded as an icon for women’s rights due to her political success in a male-dominated society.

According to Bhutto biographer Shyam Bhatia, Bhutto possessed a desire to be liked and to be popular, and for this reason “was prepared to be all things to all people”, having a “chameleon-like” quality to blend into her environment. Mu√Īoz concurred, describing Bhutto as “a woman of contradictions”.Suvorova similarly observed that Bhutto presented herself differently when in the West to when she was in Pakistan.While in Pakistan Bhutto presented herself as a conservative Muslim who always wore her head covered, but as a student in Oxford she had adopted a more liberal lifestyle, tending to wear a T-shirt and jeans and occasionally drinking wine.¬†As a politician, she was conscious of how her image was presented in Pakistan; she dressed modestly, was never photographed with a glass lest it is interpreted as containing alcohol, and would refuse to shake men’s hands.In the country, she also wore a white dupatta on her head to placate Islamist opposition; her mother and other female family members had not covered their hair in this manner.

The journalist¬†Christina Lamb¬†believed that in being raised in a wealthy and aristocratic family, Bhutto was unable to appreciate the struggles of Pakistan’s poorest.The Islamic studies scholar¬†Akbar S. Ahmed, who went to school with Bhutto, wrote that she was a “pampered and precocious” child.Bhatia claimed that at Oxford, where he first met her, Bhutto was spoilt, self-obsessed, and prone to throwing temper tantrums, although at the same time was humorous and generous, willing to pay for her friends’ meals whenever at a restaurant.¬†Allen suggested that Bhutto retained her “characteristic¬†de haut en bas¬†arrogance, a relic of her feudal upbringing”,¬†arguing that her key character flaw had been “a belief in the special, almost sacred destiny of herself and the Bhutto family” and that accordingly, while she “spoke like a democrat¬†… she thought and felt as a dynast”.In later life, Bhutto was accused of being addicted to power, although Allen thought it more accurate to state that she was “addicted to adulation”,¬†suggesting that this stemmed from a¬†narcissistic¬†element to Bhutto’s personality.

On the morning of 27 December 2007, Bhutto met with Afghan President¬†Hamid Karzai.In the afternoon, she gave a speech at a PPP rally held in¬†Rawalpindi’s¬†Liaquat National Bagh.¬†On leaving in a¬†bulletproof¬†vehicle, she opened the car’s escape hatch and stood up to wave to the surrounding crowds.¬†A man standing within two to three metres of the car fired three gunshots at her and detonated a suicide vest packed with¬†ball bearings.¬†Bhutto was fatally injured; reports differ as to whether she was hit by bullets or by shrapnel from the explosion.¬†22 others also died.Bhutto was rushed to¬†Rawalpindi General Hospital¬†but was¬†clinically dead on arrival and attempts at resuscitation were unsuccessful.No autopsy was conducted, and the body was swiftly transported to Chaklala Air Base.The following day, she was buried next to her father in the¬†Bhutto family mausoleum,¬†Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, her family graveyard near Larkana.Musharraf declared a three-day period of mourning,¬†while PPP supporters rioted in various parts of Pakistan, leading to at least 50 deaths.

Authorities claimed that the assassin had been a teenage boy from¬†South Waziristan.¬†They claimed to have proof that the attack had been masterminded by¬†Baitullah Mehsud, leader of the¬†Pakistani Taliban.The United States¬†Central Intelligence Agency¬†concurred that this was probable,¬†although Mehsud denied the accusation.Mehsud nevertheless had a motive; he believed that Bhutto’s pro-American and secularist agenda would undermine the Pakistani Taliban’s control of South Waziristan and hinder the growth of Sunni Islamist radicalism.Al-Qaeda¬†commander¬†Mustafa Abu al-Yazid¬†claimed responsibility for the assassination,declaring that “We terminated the most precious American asset which vowed to defeat [the]¬†mujahideen.”¬†The PPP accused the government of a cover-up,with several PPP figures claiming that Bhutto had been killed by a sniper linked to the intelligence agencies.Within Pakistan, there was also public speculation that the attack might have been masterminded by India or the United States.¬†Musharraf agreed to invite Britain’s¬†Scotland Yard¬†to investigate the assassination, although its eventual report proved inconclusive.Requests for the body to be exhumed for an autopsy were rejected by Zardari.


In Bhutto’s political will, she had designated her son Bilawal, who was then nineteen, as her political heir as chair of the PPP. It also specified that her husband should serve as custodial chairman until Bilawal completed his formal education.Zardari became co-chair of the PPP.¬†The academic Anna Suvorova specified that Bhutto’s assassination created “a real family cult”, one which was “fuelled by various apocrypha, rituals, and relics”.¬†In the wake of Bhutto’s death, the election was postponed from January to February 2008, when it resulted in the formation of a coalition government bringing together the PPP and the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz).The new coalition put forth PPP member¬†Yousuf Raza Gilani¬†as Prime Minister.Musharraf, facing likely impeachment, resigned as president in August. He fled to London although, in February 2011, a Rawalpindi court issued a subpoena for him on the grounds that he had not acted on known threats to Bhutto and had provided insufficient security to protect her.¬†In September 2008, Zardari was elected President of Pakistan by the country’s electoral college; he remained in that position until 2013.

As president, Zardari called for a¬†United Nations investigation into his wife’s assassination.In 2009, the UN Secretary General¬†Ban Ki-moon¬†established a three-person team to lead the investigation comprising the Chilean¬†Heraldo Mu√Īoz, Irish¬†Peter FitzGerald, and Indonesian¬†Marzuki Darusman.Although it was not in the commission’s remit to identify a culprit,¬†Mu√Īoz later expressed the view that the assassination was likely carried out by the Pakistani Taliban, perhaps with the support of Mehsud, and that they may well have been assisted by rogue elements in the country’s intelligence agencies.¬†He also expressed the view that the original police investigation had been deliberately botched.In February 2012, the Pakistani official enquiry issued its final report, placing responsibility for the attack with 27 different militant groups.¬†In May 2013, the state’s main prosecutor in the Bhutto case, Zulfikar Ali, was himself assassinated in Islamabad.¬†There was never a¬†smoking gun¬†in the Bhutto investigation. Many in Pakistan had reasons for wanting Bhutto dead.¬†her killing was advantageous to both the military establishment and to the Islamic fundamentalists who despised her.

Mu√Īoz described Bhutto as “one of Pakistan’s most important political figures, a respected world leader, and the leading stateswoman in the Islamic world”. Allen suggested that although Bhutto’s record in office was that of a “corrupt, compromised politician”, she displayed admirable qualities, especially valor in the face of opposition.¬†Within the Islamic world, Bhutto was often regarded as “a genuine Muslim political leader” and recognised as the head of Pakistan’s most popular political party.¬†Bhargava expressed the view that at the time of her initial election, Bhutto’s “personal popularity” was “tremendous”, larger than any that her father had previously achieved,with Suvorova suggesting that at this point in her life Bhutto was often regarded as a “quasi-saint” by her supporters.¬†In 1996, the Guinness Book of Records named her the most popular international political of the year,¬†and she also received such awards at the French¬†Legion of Honour¬†and Oxford University’s Doctor Honours Causa.

At the same time there were many Pakistanis who despised her, disliking her popularity, her ties to Western nations, and her modernizing agenda.Extremist Sunni Islamist elements opposed her because of their belief female leaders are un-Islamic, and because they thought she was a Shia Muslim. They maintained that her participation in politics meant associating with men to whom she was not related and that this compromised the modesty required by Islam.Conservative clerical opponents also claimed that by being prime minister, Bhutto was failing her religious duty, which was to focus her energies on having as many children as possible.

Ahmed stated that Bhutto was one of the very few political leaders who had been able to “assume the iconic status of a political martyr in the West while simultaneously evoking strong sentiments in the Muslim world”.He therefore contrasted her with contemporaries like Iraq’s¬†Saddam Hussein¬†who were popular domestically but hated in the West, and those like Egypt’s¬†Hosni Mubarak¬†who curried favor with Western governments while alienating their domestic audience.¬†Bhutto gained popularity in Western nations in part because she could present herself as being “part of their world”, speaking a high standard of English and having been educated at Harvard and Oxford.While her Western supporters sometimes had doubts about her ability to govern, they generally viewed her as a progressive figure who could advance democracy and counter-terrorism in Pakistan.

Benazir Bhutto memorial coin, commemorative coin of Pakistan

Allen commented that although “the cards might have been stacked in Bhutto’s favor‚ÄĒshe was rich, educated, aristocratic, the favored daughter of a very powerful father‚ÄĒnevertheless, her achievement was a remarkable one” given the male-dominated environment of late-20th century Pakistani society. Mushtaq Ahmed similarly believed that “for a woman to win an election in a male-dominated society was an achievement”¬†and that “her victory over the forces of reaction and persecution was an unprecedented accomplishment in political history.”Ahmed thought that the election of a female Prime Minister in a Muslim-majority country served as “a proclamation that Islam was a forward-thinking religion”.¬†He added that as a pioneering female leader, Bhutto had “barely half a dozen” parallels, among them Indira Gandhi, Thatcher,¬†Golda Meir,¬†Chandrika Kumaratunga, and¬†Corazon Aquino.Comparisons with Aquino were often made ‚ÄĒ and welcomed by Bhutto ‚ÄĒ because both women had fought against a military dictatorship and spent time in exile.She became a global icon for women’s rights,and inspired many Pakistani girls and women by her example.¬†The Pakistani women’s rights activist¬†Malala Yousafzai‚ÄĒwho received the 2014¬†Nobel Peace Prize‚ÄĒcited Bhutto as a personal inspiration.Writing in¬†The American Prospect¬†magazine, the journalist Adele M. Stan called Bhutto “An Imperfect Feminist”, commenting that despite her efforts towards women’s rights, these were sometimes offset by her compromises with Pakistan’s Islamists and her support of the Taliban’s rise to power in neighbouring Afghanistan.

Assessing her legacy,¬†William Dalrymple¬†wrote in¬†The Guardian that “it’s wrong for the West simply to mourn Benazir Bhutto as a martyred democrat since her legacy was far murkier and more complex”¬†Despite her western and positive image in the world, Bhutto’s controversial policies and support have made her legacy much more complicated.Benazir Bhutto failed to revert the controversial Hudood Ordinance ‚Äď a contentious presidential ordinance which suppressed women’s rights, making them subordinate to men.¬†In 2009,¬†CBS News, described her legacy as “mixed”, and commented that: “it’s only in death that she will become an icon‚ÄĒin some ways, people will look at her accomplishments through rose-tinted glasses rather than remembering the corruption charges, her lack of achievements or how much she was manipulated by other people.”Jason Burke, writing in¬†The Guardian¬†about Benazir, termed her “[both] a victim, as well as in part a culprit, of its [Pakistan’s] chronic instability”.

Several¬†universities and public buildings¬†in Pakistan have been named after her. The Pakistani government honored Bhutto on her birthday by renaming Islamabad’s airport¬†Benazir Bhutto International Airport, Muree Road of Rawalpindi as Benazir Bhutto Road and Rawalpindi General Hospital as Benazir Bhutto Hospital.Prime Minister¬†Yousaf Raza Gillani, a member of Bhutto’s PPP, asked Musharraf to pardon convicts on death row on her birthday in honor of Bhutto.¬†Several months after Bhutto’s death, a series of Pakistani postage stamps were announced to mark her 55th birthday.


DR. MAE JEMISONMae Carol Jemison.jpg
‚ÄúNever limit yourself because of others’ limited imagination; never limit others because of your own limited imagination.‚ÄĚ
—¬†Mae Jemison
Mae¬†Carol¬†Jemison¬†(born October 17, 1956) is an American engineer, physician, and former NASA astronaut. She became the first black woman to travel into space when she served as a mission specialist aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.Mae Carol Jemison¬†(born October 17, 1956) is an American¬†engineer,¬†physician, and former¬†NASA¬†astronaut. She became the first¬†black¬†woman to travel into space when she served as a¬†mission specialist¬†aboard the¬†Space Shuttle¬†Endeavour. Jemison joined NASA’s¬†astronaut corps in 1987¬†and was selected to serve for the¬†STS-47¬†mission, during which she orbited the Earth for nearly eight days on September 12‚Äď20, 1992.


Born in Alabama and raised in Chicago, Jemison graduated from Stanford University with degrees in chemical engineering as well as African and African-American studies. She then earned her medical degree from Cornell University. Jemison was a doctor for the Peace Corps in Liberia and Sierra Leone from 1983 until 1985 and worked as a general practitioner. In pursuit of becoming an astronaut, she applied to NASA.

Jemison left NASA in 1993 and founded a technology research company. She later formed a non-profit educational foundation and through the foundation is the principal of the¬†100 Year Starship¬†project funded by¬†DARPA. Jemison also wrote several books for children and appeared on television several times, including in¬†a 1993 episode¬†of¬†Star Trek: The Next Generation. She holds several¬†honorary doctorates¬†and has been inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†and the¬†International Space Hall of Fame.

Mae C. Jemison is an American astronaut and physician who, on June 4, 1987, became the first African American woman to be admitted into NASA’s astronaut training program. On September 12, 1992, Jemison finally flew into space with six other astronauts aboard the Endeavour on mission STS47, becoming the first African American woman in space. In recognition of her accomplishments, Jemison has received several awards and honorary doctorates.

Jemison was born on October 17, 1956, in Decatur, Alabama. She is the youngest child of Charlie Jemison, a roofer and carpenter, and Dorothy (Green) Jemison, an elementary school teacher. Her sister, Ada Jemison Bullock, became a child psychiatrist, and her brother, Charles Jemison, is a real estate broker.

The Jemison family moved to Chicago, Illinois, when Jemison was three years old to take advantage of better educational opportunities, and it is that city that she calls her hometown.

Throughout her early school years, Jemison’s parents were supportive and encouraging of her talents and abilities, and she spent a considerable amount of time in her school library reading about all aspects of science, especially astronomy.

On June 4, 1987, Jemison became the first African American woman to be admitted into the NASA astronaut training program. After more than a year of training, she became the first African American woman astronaut, earning the title of science mission specialist ‚ÄĒ a job that would make her responsible for conducting crew-related scientific experiments on the space shuttle.

When Jemison finally flew into space on September 12, 1992, with six other astronauts aboard the Endeavour on mission STS47, she became the first African American woman in space.

During her eight days in space, Jemison conducted experiments on weightlessness and motion sickness on the crew and herself. In all, she spent more than 190 hours in space before returning to Earth on September 20, 1992. Following her historic flight, Jemison noted that society should recognize how much both women and members of other minority groups can contribute if given the opportunity.

In recognition of her accomplishments, Jemison received a number of accolades, including several honorary doctorates, the 1988 Essence Science and Technology Award, the Ebony Black Achievement Award in 1992 and a Montgomery Fellowship from Dartmouth College in 1993. She was also named Gamma Sigma Gamma Woman of the Year in 1990. In 1992, the Mae C. Jemison Academy, an alternative public school in Detroit, Michigan, was named after her.

Jemison built a dance studio in her home and has choreographed and produced several shows of modern jazz and African dance.

In the spring of 1996, Jemison filed a complaint against a Texas police officer, accusing him of police brutality during a traffic stop that ended in her arrest. She was pulled over by¬†Nassau Bay¬†police officer Henry Hughes for allegedly making an illegal¬†U-turn¬†and arrested after Hughes learned of an outstanding warrant on Jemison for a¬†speeding ticket.In the process of arresting her, the officer twisted her wrist and forced her to the ground, as well as having her walk barefooted from the patrol car into the police station.[In her complaint, Jemison said the officer physically and emotionally mistreated her.¬†Jemison’s attorney said she believed she had already paid the speeding ticket years ago.She spent several hours in jail and was treated at an area hospital after release for deep bruises and a head injury.¬†The Nassau Bay officer was suspended with pay pending an investigation,but the police investigation cleared him of wrongdoing.She filed a lawsuit against the city of Nassau Bay and the officer.

Honors and awards

Jemison on 1996 Azeri postage stamp
  • 1988¬†Essence¬†Science and Technology Award
  • 1990¬†Gamma Sigma Sigma¬†Woman of the Year
  • 1991¬†McCall’s¬†10 Outstanding Women for the 90s
  • 1992¬†Johnson Publications¬†Black Achievement Trailblazers Award
  • 1992¬†Ebony¬†Black Achievement Award
  • 1993¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame
  • 1993¬†Ebony¬†magazine 50 Most Influential women
  • 1993 Kilby Science Award
  • 1993 Montgomery Fellow,¬†Dartmouth College
  • 1993¬†People¬†magazine’s “50 Most Beautiful People in the World”
  • 1993 Turner Trumpet Award
  • 2002 listed among the¬†100 Greatest African Americans¬†according to¬†Molefi Kete Asante
  • 2002¬†Texas Women’s Hall of Fame¬†inductee
  • 2003 Intrepid Award by the National Organization for Girls
  • 2004¬†International Space Hall of Fame
  • 2005 The National Audubon Society,¬†Rachel Carson Award
  • 2017¬†Buzz Aldrin¬†Space Pioneer Award
  • 2019¬†Florida Southern College¬†Honorary Chancellor
  • 1992 Mae C. Jemison Science and Space Museum,¬†Wilbur Wright College, Chicago, Illinois
  • 1992 Mae C. Jemison Academy, an alternative public school in¬†Detroit,¬†Michigan
  • 2001 Mae Jemison School, an elementary public school in¬†Hazel Crest, Illinois
  • 2007 Bluford Drew Jemison STEM Academy, a public charter school in Baltimore, Maryland(closed in 2013)
  • 2010¬†Bluford Drew Jemison STEM Academy West, a Middle/High School in¬†Baltimore, Maryland
  • 2013¬†Jemison High School,¬†Huntsville, Alabama
Honorary doctorates
  • 1991 Doctor of Letters,¬†Winston-Salem College, North Carolina
  • 1991 Doctor of Science,¬†Lincoln College, Pennsylvania
  • 2000 Doctor of Humanities,¬†Princeton University
  • 2005 Doctor of Science,¬†Wilson College, North Carolina
  • 2006 Doctor of Science,¬†Dartmouth College
  • 2007 Doctor of Engineering,¬†Harvey Mudd College
  • 2007 Doctor of Engineering,¬†Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • 2008 Doctor of Humanities,¬†DePaul University
  • 2009 Doctor of Engineering,¬†Polytechnic Institute of NYU
  • 2019 Doctor of Humane Letters,¬†Florida Southern College
  • Star Trek: The Next Generation¬†(1993) ‚Äď Lieutenant Palmer, episode “Second Chances”
  • Susan B. Anthony¬†Slept Here¬†(1995) ‚Äď herself
  • Star Trek: 30 Years and Beyond¬†(1996) ‚Äď herself
  • The New Explorers¬†(1998) ‚Äď episode “Endeavor”
  • How William Shatner Changed the World¬†(2005) ‚Äď herself
  • African American Lives¬†(2006) ‚Äď herself
  • No Gravity¬†(2011) ‚Äď herself
  • The Real¬†(2016) ‚Äď herself
  • Jemison, Mae (2001).¬†Find where the wind goes: moments from my life. New York: Scholastic.¬†
  • Jemison, Mae (2001).¬†S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education¬†(PDF). Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College. p.¬†56.¬†ERIC¬†ED464816.
  • She contributed the piece “Outer Space: The Worldly Frontier” to the 2003 anthology¬†Sisterhood Is Forever: The Women’s Anthology for a New Millennium, edited by¬†Robin Morgan.
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013).¬†Journey Through Our Solar System (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic.
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013).¬†Discovering New Planets (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013).¬†Exploring Our Sun (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic.¬†
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013).¬†The 100 Year Starship (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic.
MARY WOLLSTONECRAFTMary Wollstonecraft | Biography, Beliefs, Books, A Vindication of the  Rights of Woman, & Facts | Britannica



Mary Wollstonecraft¬†(¬†27 April 1759¬†‚Äď 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of¬†women’s rights. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft’s life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships at the time, received more attention than her writing. Today Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding¬†feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and her works as important influences.

During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a¬†travel narrative, a history of the¬†French Revolution, a¬†conduct book, and a children’s book. Wollstonecraft is best known for¬†A Vindication of the Rights of Woman¬†(1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a¬†social order¬†founded on reason.

After Wollstonecraft’s death, her widower published a¬†Memoir¬†(1798) of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, which inadvertently destroyed her reputation for almost a century. However, with the emergence of the¬†feminist movement¬†at the turn of the twentieth century, Wollstonecraft’s advocacy of women’s equality and critiques of conventional femininity became increasingly important.

After two ill-fated affairs, with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay (by whom she had a daughter, Fanny Imlay), Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38 leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. She died 11 days after giving birth to her second daughter, Mary Shelley, who would become an accomplished writer and author of Frankenstein.

In 1792, while visiting friends in France, Wollstonecraft met Captain Gilbert Imlay, an American timber merchant and adventurer. Taken by him, she soon became pregnant. They named their daughter Fanny, after Mary’s best friend. While nursing her firstborn, Wollstonecraft wrote a conservative critique of the French Revolution in An Historical and Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution. She also wrote a deeply personal travel narrative, Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, which became her most popular book in the 1790s. After their travels to Scandinavia, Imlay left her.

Mary recovered, finding new hope in a relationship with William Godwin, the founder of philosophical anarchism. Despite their belief in the tyranny of marriage, the couple eventually wed due to her pregnancy. In 1797, their daughter Mary (who later famously wrote Frankenstein), was born. Eleven days later, due to complications of childbirth, Wollstonecraft died.

The life and legacy of Wollstonecraft has been the subject of several biographies, beginning with her husband’s Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1798). For many years, the scandalous aspects of her life (such as her two children born out of wedlock) were more noted than her works. The 1900s brought renewed interest in her writings. In 2011, her image was projected onto the Palace of Westminster to raise support for a permanent statue of the author.

  • Butler, Marilyn, ed.¬†Burke, Paine, Godwin, and the Revolution Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary.¬†The Collected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary.¬†The Complete Works of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd and Marilyn Butler. 7 vols. London: William Pickering, 1989.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary.¬†The Vindications: The Rights of Men and The Rights of Woman. Eds. D.L. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf. Toronto: Broadview Press, 1997.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary (2005), “On the pernicious effects which arise from the unnatural distinctions established in society”, in¬†Cudd, Ann E.; Andreasen, Robin O. (eds.),¬†Feminist theory: a philosophical anthology, Oxford, UK; Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 11‚Äď16
  • Franklin, Caroline.¬†Mary Wollstonecraft: A Literary Life. Springer, 2004.
  • Flexner, Eleanor.¬†Mary Wollstonecraft: A Biography. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1972.
  • Godwin, William.¬†Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman. 1798. Eds. Pamela Clemit and Gina Luria Walker. Peterborough: Broadview Press Ltd., 2001.
  • Gordon, Charlotte.¬†Romantic Outlaws: The Extraordinary Lives of Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley. Great Britain: Random House, 2015.
  • Gordon, Lyndall.¬†Vindication: A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Great Britain: Virago, 2005.
  • Hays, Mary. “Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft”.¬†Annual Necrology¬†(1797‚Äď98): 411‚Äď60.
  • Jacobs, Diane.¬†Her Own Woman: The Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. US: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
  • Paul, Charles Kegan.¬†Letters to Imlay, with prefatory memoir by C. Kegan Paul. London: C. Kegan Paul, 1879.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins.¬†Life of Mary Wollstonecraft (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1884).
  • St Clair, William.¬†The Godwins and the Shelleys: The biography of a family. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989
  • Sunstein, Emily.¬†A Different Face: the Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1975.
  • Todd, Janet.¬†Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000.
  • Tomalin, Claire.¬†The Life and Death of Mary Wollstonecraft. Rev. ed. 1974. New York: Penguin, 1992
  • Wardle, Ralph M.¬†Mary Wollstonecraft: A Critical Biography. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1951.

I think I’ve already got the main thing I’ve always wanted, which is to be somebody, to have an identify. I’m Althea Gibson, the tennis champion. I hope it makes me happy.

Althea Gibson

Althea Neale Gibson¬†(August 25, 1927¬†‚Äď September 28, 2003) was an American¬†tennis¬†player and¬†professional golfer, and one of the first¬†Black¬†athletes to cross the color line of international tennis. In 1956, she became the first African American to win a¬†Grand Slam¬†title (the¬†French Championships). The following year she won both¬†Wimbledon¬†and the¬†US Nationals¬†(precursor of the US Open), then won both again in 1958 and was voted¬†Female Athlete of the Year¬†by the Associated Press in both years. In all, she won 11 Grand Slam tournaments: five singles titles, five doubles titles, and one mixed doubles title. Gibson was inducted into the¬†International Tennis Hall of Fame¬†and the¬†International Women’s Sports Hall of Fame. “She is one of the greatest players who ever lived”, said¬†Bob Ryland, a tennis contemporary and former coach of¬†Venus¬†and¬†Serena Williams. “Martina [Navratilova]¬†couldn’t touch her. I think she’d beat the Williams sisters.”In the early 1960s she also became the first Black player to compete on the Women’s Professional Golf Tour.

At a time when racism and prejudice were widespread in sports and in society, Gibson was often compared to¬†Jackie Robinson. “Her road to success was a challenging one”, said¬†Billie Jean King, “but I never saw her back down.”“To anyone, she was an inspiration, because of what she was able to do at a time when it was enormously difficult to play tennis at all if you were Black”, said former¬†New York City Mayor¬†David Dinkins.“I am honored to have followed in such great footsteps”, wrote Venus Williams. “Her accomplishments set the stage for my success, and through players like myself and Serena and many others to come, her legacy will live on.”

In late 1958, having won 56 national and international singles and doubles titles, Gibson retired from amateur tennis. Prior to the¬†Open Era¬†there was no prize money at major tournaments, and direct endorsement deals were prohibited. Players were limited to meager expense allowances, strictly regulated by the USTA. “The truth, to put it bluntly, is that my finances were in heartbreaking shape,” she wrote. “Being the Queen of Tennis is all well and good, but you can’t eat a crown. Nor can you send the Internal Revenue Service a throne clipped to their tax forms. The landlord and grocer and tax collector are funny that way: they like cold cash … I reign over an empty bank account, and I’m not going to fill it by playing amateur tennis.”Professional tours for women were still 15 years away, so her opportunities were largely limited to promotional events. In 1959 she signed to play a series of exhibition matches against Fageros before¬†Harlem Globetrotter¬†basketball games.When the tour ended she won the singles and doubles titles at the Pepsi Cola World Pro Tennis Championships in¬†Cleveland, but received only $500 in prize money.

During this period, Gibson also pursued her long-held aspirations in the entertainment industry. A talented vocalist and saxophonist‚ÄĒand runner-up in the¬†Apollo Theater’s amateur talent contest in 1943‚ÄĒshe made her professional singing debut at¬†W. C. Handy’s 84th birthday tribute at the¬†Waldorf Astoria Hotel¬†in 1957.An executive from¬†Dot Records¬†was impressed with her performance, and signed her to record an album of popular standards.¬†Althea Gibson Sings¬†was released in 1959, and Gibson performed two of its songs on¬†The Ed Sullivan Show¬†in May and July of that year, but sales were disappointing.¬†She appeared as a celebrity guest on the TV panel show¬†What’s My Line?¬†and was cast as a slave woman in the¬†John Ford¬†motion picture¬†The Horse Soldiers¬†(1959), which was notable for her refusal to speak in the stereotypic “Negro” dialect mandated by the script.¬†She also worked as a sports commentator, appeared in print and television advertisements for various products, and increased her involvement in social issues and community activities.¬†In 1960 her first memoir,¬†I Always Wanted to Be Somebody, written with sportswriter¬†Ed Fitzgerald, was published.

Her professional tennis career, however, was going nowhere. “When I looked around me, I saw that white tennis players, some of whom I had thrashed on the court, were picking up offers and invitations,” she wrote. “Suddenly it dawned on me that my triumphs had not destroyed the racial barriers once and for all, as I had‚ÄĒperhaps naively‚ÄĒhoped. Or if I did destroy them, they had been erected behind me again.”

In 1964, at the age of 37, Gibson became the first African-American woman to join the¬†Ladies Professional Golf Association¬†(LPGA) tour.Racial discrimination continued to be a problem: Many hotels still excluded people of color, and country club officials throughout the south‚ÄĒand some in the north‚ÄĒroutinely refused to allow her to compete. When she did compete, she was often forced to dress for tournaments in her car because she was banned from the clubhouse.Although she was one of the LPGA’s top 50 money winners for five years, and won a car at a Dinah Shore tournament, her lifetime golf earnings never exceeded $25,000.¬†She made financial ends meet with various sponsorship deals and the support of her husband, William Darben, brother of best friend and fellow tennis player Rosemary Darben, whom she married in 1965 (and divorced in 1976).

While she broke course records during individual rounds in several tournaments, Gibson’s highest ranking was 27th in 1966, and her best tournament finish was a tie for second after a three-way playoff at the 1970¬†Len Immke Buick Open.¬†She retired from professional golf at the end of the 1978 season.“Althea might have been a real player of consequence had she started when she was young,” said¬†Judy Rankin. “She came along during a difficult time in golf, gained the support of a lot of people, and quietly made a difference.”

But failing to win on the course as she had on the courts, she eventually returned to tennis. In 1968, with the advent of tennis’ Open era, Gibson tried to repeat her past success. She was too old and too slow-footed, however, to keep up with her younger counterparts.


Following her retirement, in 1971, Gibson was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. She stayed connected to sports, however, through a number of service positions. Beginning in 1975, she served 10 years as commissioner of athletics for New Jersey State. She was also a member of the governor’s council on physical fitness.


But just as her early childhood had been, Gibson’s last few years were dominated by hardship. She nearly went bankrupt before former tennis great¬†Billie Jean King¬†and others stepped in to help her out. Her health, too, went into decline. She suffered a stroke and developed serious heart problems. On September 28, 2003, Gibson died of respiratory failure in East Orange, New Jersey.


Walter P. Reuther Library (193) Portrait, Dolores Huerta, circa 1975‚ÄúWe as women should shine light on our accomplishments and not feel egotistical when we do. It’s a way to let the world know that we as women can accomplish great things!‚ÄĚ
—¬†Dolores Huerta

Dolores Clara Fern√°ndez Huerta¬†(born April 10, 1930) is an American¬†labor leader¬†and¬†civil rights¬†activist who, with¬†Cesar Chavez, is a co-founder of the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the¬†United Farm Workers¬†(UFW). Huerta helped organize the¬†Delano grape strike¬†in 1965 in California and was the lead negotiator in the workers’ contract that was created after the strike.

Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers’, immigrants’, and¬†women’s rights, including the¬†Eugene V. Debs¬†Foundation Outstanding American Award, the United States Presidential¬†Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights and the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom.She was the first Latina inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame, in 1993.

Huerta is the originator of the phrase, “S√≠, se puede”.As a role model to many in the¬†Latino¬†community, Huerta is the subject of many¬†corridos¬†(Mexican or Mexican-American¬†ballads) and murals.

In California, April 10 is Dolores Huerta Day.

Dolores Huerta currently has about 15 honorary doctorates.

On November 17, 2015, Dolores Huerta was bestowed the highest decoration a foreign national can receive from the country of Mexico for her years of service helping the Mexican community in the United States fighting for equal pay, dignity in the workplace, and fair employment practices in the farms of Northern California like Stockton, Salinas, and Delano.

For more than fifty years, Dolores Huerta has advocated for the working poor, farm workers, women, and children. As founder and president of the Dolores Huerta Foundation, she continues to fight for equality by traveling across the country engaging in campaigns and influencing legislation that benefits under-served communities. She has spoken with hundreds of students and communities about issues of social justice, public policy and what it means to organize for civil rights.

Huerta married Ralph Head in college.During their marriage, they had two daughters, Celeste and Lori.

After divorcing Head, she married Ventura Huerta, with whom she bore five childrenTheir son Emilio Jesus Huerta entered politics and ran for Congress. Her second marriage ended in divorce as well,in part because of the significant amount of time that she spent away from the family while campaigning and organizing.

Later, Huerta had a romantic relationship with Richard Chavez, the brother of César Chávez. Huerta and Chávez never married, but the couple had four children during their relationship. Richard Chávez died on July 27, 2011

Huerta championed women’s rights in feminist campaigns during her time off from union work. She also fought for ethnic diversity in her campaigns.

Huerta was an honorary co-chair of the¬†Women’s March on Washington¬†on January 21, 2017, the day after the inauguration of¬†Donald Trump as president.

Dolores, a new documentary about Huerta, talks a lot about her feminist approach to activism. She defines a feminist person as someone “who supports a woman’s reproductive rights who supports a woman’s right to an abortion, who supports LGBT rights, who supports workers and labor unions, somebody who cares about the environment, who cares about civil rights and equality and equity in terms of our economic system.”Huerta goes on, in the documentary, to explain how she understands why many people think “feminism is for white women” and that is because middle-class women initially organized it, however, her stances to show that women of color can be at the front of civil rights, labor, and feminist movements. When looking to the future of activism, Huerta believes that education is the way to go, stating: “We’ve got to include, from pre-K, the contributions of people of color in our schools today.”¬†She says this is the only way to erase the ignorance we have in the world right now.

Dolores Huerta and Gloria Steinem championed intersectionality in activism. In the 60’s, when Huerta traveled to New York City for the Boycott of California Table Grapes, she was focused on bringing women to the fight. Said Huerta: ‚ÄúMy mind was focused on getting those women at those conventions to support the farmworkers,”. At the convention, Gloria Steinem voiced her support for Huerta’s cause, which prompted Huerta to lend her support for the feminist movement. Huerta believes herself to be a ‚Äúborn again feminist‚ÄĚ.By consciously incorporating feminism into her fight for workers‚Äô rights, Huerta had more of an impact on how female workers were treated. Additionally, Steinem expended the feminist movement to include issues surrounding race and feminism was no longer a movement just for white women.

In 2014, Dolores Huerta organized people in Colorado to vote against Amendment 67, which would limit a woman’s access to birth control, family planning services, and abortions. Amendment 67 extended the definition of ‚Äúperson‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúchild‚ÄĚ to fertilized egg. Many call this amendment a ‚Äútrigger law‚ÄĚ meaning if¬†Roe v. Wade¬†were ever overturned the law would be ‚Äútriggered‚ÄĚ, automatically banning all abortions, even in the case of rape, incest, or the save the life or health of the woman. Amendment 67 would not only restrict all access to birth control and abortions, but it would also subject any woman whose pregnancy did not result in a live birth, including women who have a miscarriage, to a criminal investigation.Huerta spent three decades advocating for safer working conditions with the UFW. A key part of her platform was reducing harmful pesticides. As her movement grew more feminist in nature, this became more important as pesticides cause pregnancy complications such as: decreased fertilitity, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and developmental abnormalities.

Huerta currently has about 15 honorary doctorates.

On November 17, 2015, Dolores Huerta was bestowed the highest decoration a foreign national can receive from the country of Mexico for her years of service helping the Mexican community in the United States fighting for equal pay, dignity in the workplace, and fair employment practices in the farms of Northern California like Stockton, Salinas, and Delano.

Huerta received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama on May 29, 2012.

Huerta has served on the Board of Directors of Equality California.

Huerta was named one of the three most important women of the year in 1997 by¬†Ms.¬†magazine.She was an inaugural recipient of the¬†Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights¬†from President¬†Bill Clinton¬†in 1998. That same year,¬†Ladies’ Home Journal¬†recognized her as one of the ‘100 Most Important Women of the 20th Century’, along with such women leaders as¬†Mother Teresa,¬†Margaret Thatcher,¬†Rosa Parks, and¬†Indira Gandhi.

She was awarded the¬†Puffin/Nation Prize for Creative Citizenship¬†in 2002.She was conferred an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from¬†California State University, Northridge¬†on May 29, 2002. On September 30, 2005, she became an honorary sister of¬†Kappa Delta Chi¬†sorority (Alpha Alpha chapter ‚ÄstWichita State University). She received an honorary degree from¬†Princeton University¬†in recognition of her numerous achievements May 2006. She was lauded in the ceremony: “Through her insatiable hunger of justice‚ÄĒLa Causa‚ÄĒand her tireless advocacy, she has devoted her life to creative, compassionate, and committed citizenship.” She was co-recipient (along with¬†Virgilio Elizondo) of the 2007¬†Community of Christ International Peace Award¬†.

On May 18, 2007, she announced her endorsement of¬†Hillary Clinton¬†for president,and at the¬†2008 Democratic National Convention, Huerta formally placed Clinton’s name into nomination.Also in 2008, Huerta received the¬†“Maggie” Award, highest honor of the Planned Parenthood Federation, in tribute to their founder,¬†Margaret Sanger.

She was recognized in 2008 by United Neighborhood Centers of America with its highest individual honor, the Jane Addams Distinguished Leadership Award at its National Policy Summit in Washington, D.C. She was awarded the UCLA Medal,¬†UCLA’s highest honor, during the UCLA College of Letters and Science commencement ceremony on June 12, 2009.[48]

In October 2010, Huerta was awarded an honorary degree by¬†Mills College, who lauded her as “a lifetime champion of social justice whose courageous leadership garnered unprecedented national support from farmworkers, women, and underserved communities in a landmark quest for human and civil rights”.[49]¬†The same month, she was awarded an honorary doctorate¬†[50]¬†by¬†University of the Pacific, which unveiled an official portrait of her for the Architects of Peace Project by artist Michael Collopy.

Huerta was awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters by Mount Holyoke College, where she delivered the commencement address, on May 21, 2017.

Huerta was honored by California State University, Los Angeles in October 2017 with its highest honor, the Presidential Medallion.

Four elementary schools in California and one in Tulsa, Oklahoma; one school in Fort Worth, Texas; and a high school in Pueblo, Colorado, are named after Huerta.[36] Pitzer College, in Claremont, California has a mural in front of Holden Hall dedicated to her.[A middle school in the major agricultural city of Salinas, California, which has a dense population of farm workers, was named in 2014 after her. She was a speaker at the first and tenth César Chávez Convocation.In 2013, Huerta received the annual Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, given by Jefferson Awards.

Huerta also gave the keynote address at the Berkeley Law Class of 2018 graduation ceremony.

She is an Honorary Chair of Democratic Socialists of America.

In July 2018, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law AB 2455, by Assemblymember Eloise Gómez Reyes, designating April 10 each year as Dolores Huerta Day. In March 2019, Washington Governor Jay Inslee signed a measure also designating April 10 each year as Dolores Huerta Day.

The intersection of East 1st and Chicago streets in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Boyle Heights is named Dolores Huerta Square.In Fort Worth, Texas, a portion of State Highway 183 is named in honor of Huerta.

Asteroid 6849 Dolores Huerta, discovered by American astronomers Eleanor Helin and Schelte Bus at Palomar Observatory in 1979, was named in her honor. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on August 27, 2019 (M.P.C. 115893).

Huerta received the Ripple of Hope Award from the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights in 2020

In March 2021, the Governing Board of the Burbank Unified School District in Burbank voted to rename its David Starr Jordan Middle School as the Dolores Huerta Middle School

  • Huerta is one of the subjects of the¬†Sylvia Morales¬†film¬†A Crushing Love¬†(2009), the sequel to¬†Chicana¬†(1979).
  • She is portrayed by actress/activist¬†Rosario Dawson¬†in¬†Diego Luna’s¬†C√©sar Ch√°vez¬†(2014).
  • She is the focus of a 2017 documentary called¬†Dolores.
  • A middle school in¬†Las Cruces, New Mexico¬†is named after her. La Academia Dolores Huerta. The school specializes in bilingual studies, Latin dance and folk music.
IRENA SENDLERCredit: Getty Images/Laski Diffusion
‚ÄúTo save one Jewish child, ten Poles and two Jews had to risk death. To betray that same child and the family that hid him required only one informer or, worse still, one blackmailer. The risk of being caught by the SS was not prison, but death- death for the entire family.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē¬†Irena Sendler

Irena StanisŇāawa Sendler¬†(n√©e¬†KrzyŇľanowska), also referred to as¬†Irena¬†Sendlerowa¬†in Poland,¬†nom de guerre¬†Jolanta¬†(15 February 1910¬†‚Äď 12 May 2008),¬†was a Polish humanitarian, social worker, and nurse who served in the¬†Polish Underground Resistance¬†during¬†World War II¬†in¬†German-occupied¬†Warsaw. From October 1943 she was head of the children’s section of¬†ŇĽegota,the Polish Council to Aid¬†Jews¬†(Polish:¬†Rada Pomocy ŇĽydom).

In the 1930s, Sendler conducted her social work as one of the activists connected to the Free Polish University. From 1935 to October 1943, she worked for the Department of Social Welfare and Public Health of the City of Warsaw. During the war she pursued conspiratorial activities, such as rescuing Jews, primarily as part of the network of workers and volunteers from that department, mostly women. Sendler participated, with dozens of others, in smuggling Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto and then providing them with false identity documents and shelter with willing Polish families or in orphanages and other care facilities, including Catholic nun convents, saving those children from the Holocaust.

The German occupiers suspected Sendler’s involvement in the Polish Underground and in October 1943 she was arrested by the¬†Gestapo, but she managed to hide the list of the names and locations of the rescued Jewish children, preventing this information from falling into the hands of the Gestapo. Withstanding torture and imprisonment, Sendler never revealed anything about her work or the location of the saved children. She was sentenced to death but narrowly escaped on the day of her scheduled execution, after¬†ŇĽegota¬†bribed German officials to obtain her release.

In post-war¬†communist Poland, Sendler continued her social activism but also pursued a government career. In 1965, she was recognised by the State of Israel as¬†Righteous Among the Nations.Among the many decorations Sendler received were the Gold¬†Cross of Merit¬†granted her in 1946 for the saving of Jews and the¬†Order of the White Eagle, Poland’s highest honour, awarded late in Sendler’s life for her wartime humanitarian efforts.

Irena Sendler was the head of the children’s bureau of Zegota, an underground organization that saved the lives of Jews in Poland after the Nazi invasion in 1939. With the help of about 30 other volunteers, Sendler smuggled 2,500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw ghetto in World War II. She was a social worker in Warsaw with a pass that allowed her to enter the ghetto and convince parents to let her rescue their children. In 1965, the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial in Jerusalem honored Sendler for her work.

In 2010, Polish historian Anna Mieszkowska wrote a biography Irena Sendler: Mother of the Children of the Holocaust.n 2011, Jack Mayer tells the story of the four Kansas school girls and their discovery of Irena Sendler in his novel Life in a Jar: The Irena Sendler Project.

In 2016,¬†Irena’s Children, a book about Sendler written by Tilar J. Mazzeo, was released by¬†Simon & Schuster. A version adapted to be read by children was created by Mary Cronk Farell.Another children’s picture book titled¬†Jars of Hope: How One Woman Helped Save 2,500 Children During the Holocaust, is written by Jennifer Roy.

Sendlerowa. W ukryciu¬†(‘Sendler: In Hiding’), a biography and book about the people and events related to Sendler’s wartime activities, was written by¬†Anna Bikont¬†and published in 2017. The book received the 2018¬†Ryszard KapuŇõciŇĄski Award for Literary Reportage

HARPER LEEHarper Lee to publish sequel to 'To Kill a Mockingbird' - The Washington  PostAppreciation: Why Harper Lee's 'Mockingbird' will endure
You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view.
Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit ’em, but remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.
The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a person’s conscience.
Until I feared I would lose it, I never loved to read. One does not love breathing.
Real courage is when you know you’re licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what.
It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the bravest man who ever lived.
I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks.
Things are never as bad as they seem.
Delete the adjectives and [you’ll] have the facts.
Best way to clear the air is to have it all out in the open.

Nelle Harper Lee¬†(April 28, 1926¬†‚Äď February 19, 2016) was an American¬†novelist¬†best known for her 1960 novel¬†To Kill a Mockingbird. It won the 1961¬†Pulitzer Prize¬†and has become a classic of modern¬†American literature. Lee published only two books, yet she was awarded the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†in 2007 for her contribution to literature.She also received numerous honorary degrees, though she declined to speak on those occasions. She assisted her close friend¬†Truman Capote¬†in his research for the book¬†In Cold Blood¬†(1966).Capote was the basis for the character Dill Harris in¬†To Kill a Mockingbird.

Nelle‚ÄĚ Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926, the youngest of four children of Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Cunningham Finch Lee. She grew up in Monroeville, a small town in southwest Alabama. Her father was a lawyer who also served in the state legislature from 1926‚Äď1938. As a child, Lee was a tomboy and a precocious reader. After she attended public school in Monroeville she attended Huntingdon College, a private school for women in Montgomery for a year and then transferred to the University of Alabama. After graduation, Lee studied at Oxford University. She returned to the University of Alabama to study law but withdrew six months before graduation.

Her Childhood
  • She grew up in the 1930s in a rural southern Alabama town.
  • Her father, Amasa Lee, is an attorney who served in the state legislature in Alabama.
  • Her older brother and young neighbor (Truman Capote) are playmates.
  • Harper Lee is an avid reader as a child.
  • She is 6 years old when the Scottsboro trials are widely covered in national, state and local newspapers.

The plot and characters of¬†To Kill a Mockingbird¬†are loosely based on Lee’s observations of her family and neighbors, as well as an event that occurred near her hometown in 1936 when she was 10. The novel deals with the irrationality of adult attitudes towards race and class in the¬†Deep South¬†of the 1930s, as depicted through the eyes of two children. It was inspired by racist attitudes in her hometown of¬†Monroeville, Alabama. She also wrote the novel¬†Go Set a Watchman¬†in the mid-1950s and published it in July 2015 as a sequel to¬†Mockingbird, but it was later confirmed to be her first draft of¬†Mockingbird.

Lee died in her sleep on the morning of February 19, 2016, aged 89.Prior to her death, she lived in Monroeville, Alabama.On February 20, her funeral was held at First United Methodist Church in Monroeville. The service was attended by close family and friends, and the eulogy was given by Wayne Flynt.

After her death,¬†The New York Times¬†filed a lawsuit that argued that since Lee’s will was filed in a probate court in Alabama that it should be part of the public record. They argued that wills filed in a probate court are considered part of the public record, and that Lee’s should follow suit

MARILYN MONROEMonroecirca1953.jpg
I never quite understood it, this sex symbol. I always thought symbols were those things you clash together! That’s the trouble, a sex symbol becomes a thing. I just hate to be a thing. But if I’m going to be a symbol of something I’d rather have it sex than some other things they’ve got symbols of.”

‚ÄĒMonroe in an interview for¬†Life¬†in 1962

Marilyn Monroe (¬†born¬†Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926¬†‚Äď August 4, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer. Famous for playing comedic “blonde bombshell” characters, she became one of the most popular¬†sex symbols¬†of the 1950s and early 1960s and was emblematic of the era’s¬†sexual revolution. She was a top-billed actress for only a decade, but her films grossed $200¬†million (equivalent to $2 billion in 2019) by the time of¬†her death¬†in 1962.Long after her death, she continues to be a major icon of¬†pop culture.In 1999, the¬†American Film Institute¬†ranked Monroe sixth on its list of the¬†greatest female screen legends from the Golden Age of Hollywood.

Born and raised in Los Angeles, Monroe spent most of her childhood in foster homes and an orphanage and married at age 16. She was working in a factory during World War II when she met a photographer from the¬†First Motion Picture Unit¬†and began a successful pin-up modeling career, which led to short-lived film contracts with¬†20th Century Fox¬†and¬†Columbia Pictures. After a series of minor film roles, she signed a new contract with Fox in late 1950. Over the next two years, she became a popular actress with roles in several comedies, including¬†As Young as You Feel¬†and¬†Monkey Business, and in the dramas¬†Clash by Night¬†and¬†Don’t Bother to Knock. She faced a scandal when it was revealed that she had posed for nude photos before she became a star, but the story did not damage her career and instead resulted in increased interest in her films.

By 1953, Monroe was one of the most marketable Hollywood stars; she had leading roles in the¬†film noir¬†Niagara, which focused on her sex appeal, and the comedies¬†Gentlemen Prefer Blondes¬†and¬†How to Marry a Millionaire, which established her star image as a “dumb blonde”. The same year, her nude images were used as the centerfold and on the cover of the first issue of¬†Playboy. She played a significant role in the creation and management of her public image throughout her career, but she was disappointed when she was typecast and underpaid by the studio. She was briefly suspended in early 1954 for refusing a film project but returned to star in¬†The Seven Year Itch¬†(1955), one of the biggest box office successes of her career.

When the studio was still reluctant to change Monroe’s contract, she founded her own film production company in 1954. She dedicated 1955 to building the company and began studying¬†method acting¬†under¬†Lee Strasberg¬†at the¬†Actors Studio. Later that year, Fox awarded her a new contract, which gave her more control and a larger salary. Her subsequent roles included a critically acclaimed performance in¬†Bus Stop¬†(1956) and her first independent production in¬†The Prince and the Showgirl¬†(1957). She won a Golden Globe for Best Actress for her work in¬†Some Like It Hot¬†(1959), a critical and commercial success. Her last completed film was the drama¬†The Misfits¬†(1961).

Monroe’s troubled private life received much attention. She struggled with addiction and mood disorders. Her marriages to retired baseball star¬†Joe DiMaggio¬†and to playwright¬†Arthur Miller¬†were highly publicized, and both ended in divorce. On August 4, 1962, she died at age 36 from an overdose of¬†barbiturates at her home in Los Angeles. Her death was ruled a probable suicide, although several conspiracy theories have been proposed in the decades following her death.

During her final months, Monroe lived at¬†12305 Fifth Helena Drive¬†in the¬†Brentwood¬†neighborhood of¬†Los Angeles. Her housekeeper Eunice Murray was staying overnight at the home on the evening of August 4, 1962.Murray awoke at 3:00a.m. on August 5 and sensed that something was wrong. She saw light from under Monroe’s bedroom door, but was unable to get a response and found the door locked. Murray then called Monroe’s psychiatrist,¬†Ralph Greenson, who arrived at the house shortly after and broke into the bedroom through a window to find Monroe dead in her bed.¬†Monroe’s physician, Hyman Engelberg, arrived at around 3:50a.m.¬†and pronounced her dead at the scene. At 4:25a.m., the¬†LAPD¬†was notified.

Monroe died between 8:30 p.m. and 10:30p.m. on August 4, and the toxicology report showed that the cause of death was acute barbiturate poisoning. She had 8 mg% (milligrams per 100 milliliters of solution) chloral hydrate and 4.5 mg% of pentobarbital (Nembutal) in her blood, and 13 mg% of pentobarbital in her live.Empty medicine bottles were found next to her bed.The possibility that Monroe had accidentally overdosed was ruled out because the dosages found in her body were several times over the lethal limit.

The¬†Los Angeles County Coroners Office¬†was assisted in their investigation by the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Team, who had expert knowledge on suicide. Monroe’s doctors stated that she had been “prone to severe fears and frequent depressions” with “abrupt and unpredictable mood changes”, and had overdosed several times in the past, possibly intentional/¬†Due to these facts and the lack of any indication of foul play, deputy coroner¬†Thomas Noguchi¬†classified her death as a probable suicide.

Photo of Monroe's crypt, taken in 2005. "Marilyn Monroe, 1926‚Äď1962" is written on a plaque. The crypt has some lipstick prints left by visitors and flowers are placed in a vase attached to it.Monroe’s crypt at Westwood Memorial Park¬†in Westwood Village

Monroe’s sudden death was front-page news in the United States and Europe.According to Lois Banner, “it’s said that the suicide rate in Los Angeles doubled the month after she died; the circulation rate of most newspapers expanded that month”,and the¬†Chicago Tribune¬†reported that they had received hundreds of phone calls from members of the public who were requesting information about her death.¬†French artist¬†Jean Cocteau¬†commented that her death “should serve as a terrible lesson to all those, whose chief occupation consists of spying on and tormenting film stars”, her former co-star Laurence Olivier deemed her “the complete victim of ballyhoo and sensation”, and¬†Bus Stop¬†director Joshua Logan stated that she was “one of the most unappreciated people in the world”.¬†Her funeral, held at the¬†Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery¬†on August 8, was private and attended by only her closest associates.The service was arranged by Joe DiMaggio, Monroe’s half-sister¬†Berniece Baker Miracle¬†and Monroe’s business manager Inez Melson.Hundreds of spectators crowded the streets around the cemetery.¬†Monroe was later entombed at Crypt No. 24 at the Corridor of Memories.

In the following decades, several¬†conspiracy theories, including murder and accidental overdose, have been introduced to contradict suicide as the cause of Monroe’s death.The speculation that Monroe had been murdered first gained mainstream attention with the publication of¬†Norman Mailer’s¬†Marilyn: A Biography¬†in 1973, and in the following years became widespread enough for the¬†Los Angeles County District Attorney¬†John Van de Kamp¬†to conduct a “threshold investigation” in 1982 to see whether a criminal investigation should be opened.No evidence of foul play was found.

According to¬†The Guide to United States Popular Culture, “as an icon of American popular culture, Monroe’s few rivals in popularity include¬†Elvis Presley¬†and¬†Mickey Mouse¬†… no other star has ever inspired such a wide range of emotions‚ÄĒfrom lust to pity, from envy to remorse.”Art historian¬†Gail Levin¬†stated that Monroe may have been “the most photographed person of the 20th century”,¬†and The American Film Institute has named her¬†the sixth greatest female screen legend¬†in¬†American film history. The¬†Smithsonian Institution¬†has included her on their list of “100 Most Significant Americans of All Time”,¬†and both¬†Variety¬†and¬†VH1¬†have placed her in the top ten in their rankings of the greatest popular culture icons of the twentieth century.

Hundreds of books have been written about Monroe. She has been the subject of films, plays, operas, and songs, and has influenced artists and entertainers such as Andy Warhol and Madonna.She also remains a valuable brand: her image and name have been licensed for hundreds of products, and she has been featured in advertising for brands such as Max Factor, Chanel, Mercedes-Benz, and Absolut Vodka.

Monroe’s enduring popularity is linked to her conflicted public image.¬†On the one hand, she remains a sex symbol, beauty icon and one of the most famous stars of¬†classical Hollywood cinema.On the other, she is also remembered for her troubled private life, unstable childhood, struggle for professional respect, as well as her death and the conspiracy theories that surrounded it.She has been written about by scholars and journalists who are interested in gender and feminism;these writers include¬†Gloria Steinem,¬†Jacqueline Rose,Molly Haskell,¬†Sarah Churchwell,¬†and Lois Banner.Some, such as Steinem, have viewed her as a victim of the studio system.Others, such as Haskell,Rose,and Churchwell,have instead stressed Monroe’s proactive role in her career and her participation in the creation of her public persona.

In September 1954, Monroe began filming¬†Billy Wilder’s comedy¬†The Seven Year Itch, starring opposite¬†Tom Ewell¬†as a woman who becomes the object of her married neighbor’s sexual fantasies. Although the film was shot in Hollywood, the studio decided to generate advance publicity by staging the filming of a scene in which Monroe is standing on a subway grate with the air blowing up the skirt of¬†her white dress¬†on¬†Lexington Avenue¬†in Manhattan.The shoot lasted for several hours and attracted nearly 2,000 spectators.The “subway grate scene” became one of Monroe’s most famous and¬†The Seven Year Itch¬†became one of the biggest commercial successes of the year after its release in June 1955.

The publicity stunt placed Monroe on international front pages, and it also marked the end of her marriage to DiMaggio, who was infuriated by it.The union had been troubled from the start by his jealousy and controlling attitude; he was also physically abusive.After returning from NYC to Hollywood in October 1954, Monroe filed for divorce, after only nine months of marriage.

Left panel from pop artistJames Gill‘s painting¬†Marilyn Triptych¬†(1962)

Due to the contrast between her stardom and troubled private life, Monroe is closely linked to broader discussions about modern phenomena such as mass media, fame, and consumer culture.According to academic Susanne Hamscha, Monroe has continued relevance to ongoing discussions about modern society, and she is “never completely situated in one time or place” but has become “a surface on which narratives of American culture can be (re-)constructed”, and “functions as a cultural type that can be reproduced, transformed, translated into new contexts, and enacted by other people”.¬†Similarly, Banner has called Monroe the “eternal shapeshifter” who is re-created by “each generation, even each individual¬†… to their own specifications”.

Monroe remains a cultural icon, but critics are divided on her legacy as an actress.¬†David Thomson¬†called her body of work “insubstantial”and¬†Pauline Kael¬†wrote that she could not act, but rather “used her lack of an actress’s skills to amuse the public. She had the wit or crassness or desperation to turn cheesecake into acting‚ÄĒand vice versa; she did what others had the ‘good taste’ not to do”.In contrast,¬†Peter Bradshaw¬†wrote that Monroe was a talented comedian who “understood how comedy achieved its effects”,and¬†Roger Ebert¬†wrote that “Monroe’s eccentricities and neuroses on sets became notorious, but studios put up with her long after any other actress would have been blackballed because what they got back on the screen was magical”.Similarly,¬†Jonathan Rosenbaum¬†stated that “she subtly subverted the sexist content of her material” and that “the difficulty some people have discerning Monroe’s intelligence as an actress seems rooted in the ideology of a repressive era, when super feminine women weren’t supposed to be smart”.


Monroe in Niagara. A close-up of her face and shoulders; she is wearing gold hoop earrings and a shocking pink top
In the film noir Niagara (1953), which dwelt on her sex appeal.
Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. She is wearing a shocking pink dress with matching gloves and diamond jewelry, and is surrounded by men in tuxedos
Performing “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend” in¬†Gentlemen Prefer Blondes¬†(1953)
Monroe with co-star¬†Jane Russell¬†after pressing their hands in wet concrete at¬†Grauman’s Chinese Theatre
Monroe in How to Marry a Millionaire. She is wearing an orange swimsuit and is seated next to Betty Grable, who is wearing shorts and a shirt, and Lauren Bacall, who is wearing a blue dress.
Monroe, Betty Grable, and Lauren Bacall in How to Marry a Millionaire, her biggest box office success of 1953


Publicity photo of Monroe, 1953A headshot of Monroe holding a bottle of shampoo, accompanying text box says that "LUSTRE-CREME is the favorite beauty shampoo of 4 out of 5 top Hollywood stars...and you'll love it in its new Lotion Form, too!" Below, three smaller images show a brunette model using the shampoo. Next to them, there are images of the two different containers that the shampoo comes in.Monroe in a Lustre-Creme shampoo advertisement in 1953Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. She is wearing a white dressing gown and is holding a phone. She looks shocked, with wide eyes and an open mouth.Monroe portrayed a sexually attractive and na√Įve “dumb blonde” in¬†Gentlemen Prefer Blondes¬†(1953).

An almost full-body shot of Monroe in a figure-hugging light-colored strapless dress with a white fur stole and long white gloves. She is glancing to her left while smiling.Close-up of smiling Monroe and Laurence Olivier, cheek-to-cheek. She is wearing long diamond earrings.Laurence Olivier¬†and Monroe during a press conference to announce their joint project,¬†The Prince and the Showgirl¬†(1957)Cropped photo of Monroe and Miller cutting the cake at their wedding. Her veil is lifted from her face and he is wearing a white shirt with a dark tie.Arthur Miller and Monroe at their wedding in June 1956Monroe and Don Murray in Bus Stop. She is wearing a ragged coat and a small hat tied with ribbons and is having an argument with Murray, who is wearing jeans, a denim jacket and a cowboy hat.Monroe’s dramatic performance in¬†Bus Stop¬†(1956) marked a departure from her earlier comedies.
Close-up of Monroe and DiMaggio kissing; she is wearing a dark suit with a white fur-collar and he a dark suitJoe DiMaggio and Monroe after getting married at San Francisco City Hall, January 1954
Monroe standing on a podium wearing a tight dress and high-heeled sandals, greeting a crowd of US MarinesPosing for soldiers in Korea after a USO performance in February 1954Monroe is posing for photographers, wearing a white halterneck dress, which hem is blown up by air from a subway grate on which she is standing.Posing for photographers while filming the subway grate scene in Manhattan for The Seven Year Itch
Monroe arriving at a party celebrating¬†Louella Parsons¬†at¬†Ciro’s¬†nightclub in May 1953Poster for Jean Harlow's film The Girl From Missouri. The background is lilac, with large black letters on top stating "Jean Harlow" and below them, the title of the film in blue. Her co-stars (Lionel Barrymore, Franchot Tone, Lewis Stone) are listed below the title in much smaller font, with director Jack Conway's name in even smaller print below them. The two lower thirds of the poster are taken up by Harlow's head shot: she is pictured with her head thrown backwards in laughter. She has curled, platinum blonde hair, thin, arched eyebrows and red lips, and she is wearing a lilac gown that exposes her shoulders. Next to her on the left is the text "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures".
Monroe took inspiration from 1930s film star Jean Harlow when developing her star image.Monroe wearing a form-fitting white dress with flowers and an open back. She is standing and smiling over her shoulder at the camera.
Monroe on the set of¬†Something’s Got to Give. She was absent for most of the production due to illness and was fired by Fox in June 1962, two months before her deathMonroe in The Misfits, holding a wide-brimmed hat filled with dollar bills and standing next to Clark Gable and Thelma Ritter. Behind them is a sign spelling "BAR" and a crowd of people.Estelle Winwood,¬†Eli Wallach,¬†Montgomery Clift, Monroe, and¬†Clark Gable¬†in¬†The Misfits (1961). It was the last completed film for Monroe and Gable, who both died within two yearMonroe and Montand standing next to a piano in a studio-type setting and looking at sheet music.Yves Montand¬†and Monroe in the musical comedy¬†Let’s Make Love¬†(1960), which she agreed to make only to fulfill her contract with FoxMonroe, Curtis and Lemmon playing instruments with other musicians in the orchestraWith¬†Tony Curtis¬†and¬†Jack Lemmon¬†in¬†Billy Wilder’s¬†Some Like It Hot¬†(1959), for which she won a¬†Golden Globe



  • Dangerous Years¬†(1947)
  • Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!¬†(1948)
  • Ladies of the Chorus¬†(1948)
  • Love Happy¬†(1949)
  • A Ticket to Tomahawk¬†(1950)
  • The Asphalt Jungle¬†(1950)
  • All About Eve¬†(1950)
  • The Fireball¬†(1950)
  • Right Cross¬†(1951)
  • Home Town Story¬†(1951)
  • As Young as You Feel¬†(1951)
  • Love Nest¬†(1951)
  • Let’s Make It Legal¬†(1951)
  • Clash by Night¬†(1952)
  • We’re Not Married!¬†(1952)
  • Don’t Bother to Knock¬†(1952)
  • Monkey Business¬†(1952)
  • O. Henry’s Full House¬†(1952)
  • Niagara¬†(1953)
  • Gentlemen Prefer Blondes¬†(1953)
  • How to Marry a Millionaire¬†(1953)
  • River of No Return¬†(1954)
  • There’s No Business Like Show Business¬†(1954)
  • The Seven Year Itch¬†(1955)
  • Bus Stop¬†(1956)
  • The Prince and the Showgirl¬†(1957)
  • Some Like It Hot¬†(1959)
  • Let’s Make Love¬†(1960)
  • The Misfits¬†(1961)
  • Something’s Got to Give¬†(1962‚Äďunfinished)

Dyed Blondes (2-CD)

Tracks of Disc 1

  • 1.That Makes It
  • 2.Too Hot to Handle
  • 3.Little Things Mean a Lot
  • 4.As the Clouds Drift By
  • 5.Suey
  • 6.You Were Made For Me
  • 7.Wo Ist der Mann
  • 8.Snicksnack-Snuckelchen
  • 9.It’s a Living
  • 10.I Wanna Be Loved by You
  • 11.Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend
  • 12.Bye Bye
  • 13.Kiss
  • 14.Do It Again
  • 15.She Acts Like a Woman Should
  • 16.After You Get What You Want, You Don’t Want It
  • 17.Heat Wave
  • 18.Every Baby Needs a da-da-Daddy
  • 19.River of No Return

Tracks of Disc 2

  • 1.Down in the Meadow
  • 2.A Fine Romance
  • 3.Runnin’ Wild
  • 4.When I Fall in Love
  • 5.Lazy
  • 6.My Heart Belongs to Daddy
  • 7.Anyone Can See I Love You
  • 8.You’d Be Surprised
  • 9.Gonna File My Claim
  • 10.I’m Through With Love
  • 11.One Silver Dollar
  • 12.Some Like It Hot
  • 13.Happy Birthday Mr. President
  • 14.I Think I’m Gonna Like It Here
  • 15.Plain Jayne
  • 16.Plenty of Love and 20 Calories
  • 17.We’re Cultural, Not Sexual
  • 18.Let’s Do It

The¬†Monroe biopic, Blonde, is set to premiere on Netflix sometime this year. The film follows a fictional account of the late¬†movie¬†star’s life, while still including¬†Monroe’s¬†famous former lovers Arthur Miller, Joe DiMaggio, and President John F. Kennedy. Ana de Armas as¬†Marilyn Monroe¬†on the set of “Blonde.”

DOROTHY LEVITTDorothy Levitt Frontspiece to The Woman and the Car.jpg
‚ÄúThere is only one trouble regarding which you are really justified in feeling angry‚ÄĒthat is a punctured or burst tyre. It is possible for a woman to repair a tyre, but I am sure I am correct in saying that not one woman in a thousand would want to ruin her hands in this way.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē¬†Dorothy Levitt,¬†The Woman and the Car: A Chatty Little Handbook for the Edwardian Motoriste

Dorothy Elizabeth Levitt, (born¬†Elizabeth Levi; 5 January 1882 ‚Äď 17 May 1922) was the first British woman racing driver, holder of the world’s first water speed record, the women’s world land speed record holder, and an author. She was a pioneer of female independence and female motoring, and taught Queen Alexandra and the Royal Princesses how to drive. In 1905 she established the record for the longest drive achieved by a lady driver by driving a De Dion-Bouton from London to Liverpool and back over two days, receiving the sobriquets in the press of the Fastest Girl on Earth, and the Champion Lady Motorist of the World.

Levitt’s book¬†The Woman and the Car: A Chatty Little Handbook for all Women who Motor or Who Want to Motor, recommended that women should “carry a little hand-mirror in a convenient place when driving” so they may “hold the mirror aloft from time to time in order to see behind while driving in traffic”, thus inventing the¬†rear-view mirror¬†before it was introduced by manufacturers in 1914. She also advised women travelling alone to carry a handgun; her recommendation was an automatic¬†Colt, as in her opinion its relative lack of recoil made it particularly suitable for women.The turn of the 20th-century saw a transition from the more austere¬†Victorian era¬†towards the dynamics of¬†Edwardian times; transport methods were beginning to change yet there remained little opportunity for men to race motors so women driving was almost unheard of.¬†Levitt had to be taught to drive and Leslie Callingham, a young salesman employed by Napiers, was instructed to undertake the task during his day off work.Fortunately Levitt was a fast learner as Callingham disliked her intensely and was affronted at having to teach a woman to drive.¬†Cars were entered in official trials to accumulate performance information for possible buyers; only the company driver and an official were permitted in the vehicle.The driver was required to undertake any necessary maintenance during the proceedings so Edge had to ensure Levitt was also proficient in mechanics.In later interviews, Levitt described how after Edge advised her to make a career in automobiles, he arranged a six-month apprenticeship to a French automobile maker in Paris, where she learned all aspects of building and driving cars. On her return to London she began teaching women how to drive, reportedly teaching¬†Queen Alexandra, the Royal Princesses (Louise,¬†Victoria¬†and¬†Maud), other ladies of nobility and female American tourists.In July 1903 (possibly the 12th), Levitt won the inaugural British International¬†Harmsworth Trophy¬†for motor-boats, defeating the French entry¬†Trefle-A-Quatre. The event was officiated by the¬†Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland¬†and the¬†Royal Victoria Yacht Club¬†and took place at the¬†Royal Cork Yacht Club¬†at¬†Cork Harbour¬†in Ireland. Levitt set the world’s first Water Speed Record when she achieved 19.3¬†mph (31.1¬†km/h) in a 40-foot (12¬†m) steel-hulled, 75-horsepower¬†Napier¬†speedboat fitted with a 3-blade propeller.¬†Selwyn Edge¬†was both the owner and entrant of the boat, and thus “S. F. Edge” is engraved on the trophy as the winner. The third crew member, Campbell Muir, may also have taken the controls. An article in the¬†Cork Constitution on 13 July reported “A large number of spectators viewed the first mile from the promenade of the Yacht Club, and at Cork several thousand people collected at both sides of the river to see the finishes.”On 8 August 1903, Levitt drove the Napier motor-boat at¬†Cowes¬†and won the race. She was then commanded to the¬†Royal yacht¬†Albert & Victoria¬†by¬†King Edward VII where he congratulated her on her pluck and skill, and they discussed, among other things, the performance of the boat and its potential for British government despatch work.Later in August she went to Trouville, France, and won the¬†Gaston Menier Cup. This was reported as “a very competitive race, ‘against the world’s cracks'”, and she won what was described as the “five-mile world’s championship of the sea” and the $1,750 prize.
Levitt became the leading exponent of a woman’s “right to motor” and in 1909 published¬†The Woman and the Car: A Chatty Little¬†Hand Book¬†for Women Who Motor or Want to Motor, based on her¬†newspaper column¬†in¬†The Graphic.¬†She also gave many lectures to encourage women to take up motoring.She tried to counter the clich√©s about mechanically ignorant females:

I am constantly asked by some astonished people “Do you really understand all the horrid machinery of a motor, and could you mend it if it broke down?¬†… the details of an engine may sound complicated and look “horrid”, but an engine is easily mastered.

Her book contained many tips, including carrying a ladies hand mirror, to “occasionally hold up to see what is behind you”. Thus, she can be said to have pioneered the rearview mirror seven years before it was adopted by manufacturers.In 1912 she received a byline for a column in the¬†Yorkshire Evening Post on Saturday 3 August 1912 entitled “Motoring for Ladies¬†: Some Common Sense Hints to Amateurs.”Later in August she went to Trouville, France, and won the¬†Gaston Menier Cup. This was reported as “a very competitive race, ‘against the world’s cracks'”, and she won what was described as the “five-mile world’s championship of the sea” and the $1,750 prize.

Levitt’s career reflected that of several of her contemporaries with a meteoric rise to prominence before abruptly vanishing from public engagements,¬†and her life after 1910 is undocumented.¬†She was found dead in her bed at 50 Upper Baker Street on 17 May 1922 in Marylebone, according to¬†probate¬†granted on 27 September 1922. The¬†death certificate¬†named her as Dorothy Elizabeth Levi, unmarried, and stated that “the cause of death was¬†morphine¬†poisoning while suffering from¬†heart disease¬†and an attack of¬†measles. The inquest recorded a verdict of¬†misadventure.”The beneficiary of her estate, valued at ¬£224 2s 5d (equivalent to ¬£12,300 in 2019), was her sister Elsie.



Dorothy Levitt, in a 26 hp Napier, at Brooklands, 1908

Hubert Latham and his Antoinette IV monoplane at the¬†Grande Quinzaine de Paris, 3‚Äď17 October 1909. This was the type of aircraft in which Dorothy Levitt attempted to qualify for her pilot’s licence.Dorothy Levitt driving a Napier at the inaugural Brighton Speed Trials in July 1905, setting a new Ladies World Land Speed record of 79.75 miles an hour, as well as winning her class and the Autocar Challenge TrophyDorothy Levitt and the 12¬†hp Gladiator car she drove in a series of reliability trials in 1903
Dorothy Levitt driving the Napier motor yacht, 1903

Dorothy Levitt, in a 26 hp Napier, at Brooklands, 1908


  • Bouzanquet, Jean Fran√ßois (2009),¬†Fast Ladies: Female Racing Drivers 1888 to 1970, Veloce,¬†
  • Bullock, John (2002),¬†Fast Women, Robson,¬†
  • Burman, Barbara (2000), “Racing bodies: dress and pioneer women aviators and racing drivers”,¬†Women’s History Review, Routledge,¬†9 (2): 299‚Äď326,
  • Davis, S. C. H. (1960),¬†Atalanta: Women as Racing Drivers, Foulis
  • Kramer, Ann (2007),¬†Sussex Women, Snake River Press,¬†
  • Lebow, Eileen F. (2002),¬†Before Amelia:Women Pilots in the Early Days of Aviation, Potomac,¬†
  • Levitt, Dorothy (1909),¬†The Woman and the Car¬†‚Äď A chatty little handbook for all women who motor or who want to motor
  • O’Connell, Sean (1998),¬†The Car and British Society: Class, Gender and Motoring, 1896‚Äď1939, Manchester University Press,¬†
  • Williams, Jean (2014),¬†A Contemporary History of Women’s Sport, Part One: Sporting Women, 1850-1960, Routledge,
  • Wosk, Julie (2003),¬†Women and the Machine: Representations from the Spinning Wheel to the Electronic Age, JHU Press,¬†
Aretha Franklin Is As Immortal As Can Be | The New Yorker

Aretha Louise Franklin¬†(March 25, 1942¬†‚Äď August 16, 2018) was an American singer, songwriter, actress, pianist, and civil rights activist.Franklin began her career as a child singing¬†gospel¬†at¬†New Bethel Baptist Church¬†in¬†Detroit, Michigan, where her father¬†C. L. Franklin¬†was a minister. At the age of 18, she embarked on a secular-music career as a recording artist for¬†Columbia Records. While Franklin’s career did not immediately flourish, she found acclaim and commercial success after signing with¬†Atlantic Records¬†in 1966. Hit songs such as “I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)”, “Respect”, “(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman”, “Chain of Fools”, “Think”, and “I Say a Little Prayer” propelled her past her musical peers. By the end of the 1960s, Aretha Franklin had come to be known as the “Queen of Soul”.

Franklin continued to record acclaimed albums such as¬†I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You¬†(1967),¬†Lady Soul¬†(1968),¬†Spirit in the Dark¬†(1970),¬†Young, Gifted and Black¬†(1972),¬†Amazing Grace¬†(1972), and¬†Sparkle¬†(1976) before experiencing problems with her record company. Franklin left Atlantic in 1979 and signed with¬†Arista Records. She appeared in the 1980 film¬†The Blues Brothers¬†before releasing the successful albums¬†Jump to It¬†(1982),¬†Who’s Zoomin’ Who?¬†(1985), and¬†Aretha¬†(1986) on the Arista label. In 1998, Franklin returned to the Top 40 with the¬†Lauryn Hill-produced song “A Rose Is Still a Rose”; later, she released an¬†album of the same name¬†which was certified gold. That same year, Franklin earned international acclaim for her performance of “Nessun dorma” at the¬†Grammy Awards¬†where she filled in at the last minute for¬†Luciano Pavarotti, who canceled his appearance after the show had already begun.¬†In a widely noted performance, she paid tribute to 2015 honoree¬†Carole King¬†by singing “(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman” at the¬†Kennedy Center Honors.

Franklin recorded 112 charted singles on¬†Billboard, including 77¬†Hot 100¬†entries, 17 top-ten pop singles, 100¬†R&B entries, and 20 number-one R&B singles. Besides the foregoing, Franklin’s well-known hits also include “Ain’t No Way”, “Call Me”, “Don’t Play That Song (You Lied)”, “Spanish Harlem”, “Rock Steady”, “Day Dreaming”, “Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)”, “Something He Can Feel”, “Jump to It”, “Freeway of Love”, “Who’s Zoomin’ Who”, and “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” (a duet with¬†George Michael). She won 18¬†Grammy Awards, including the first eight awards given for¬†Best Female R&B Vocal Performance¬†(1968‚Äď1975). Franklin is one of the¬†best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 75¬†million records worldwide.

Franklin received numerous honors throughout her career. She was awarded the¬†National Medal of Arts¬†and the¬†Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 1987, she became the first female performer to be inducted into the¬†Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. She also was inducted into the¬†UK Music Hall of Fame¬†in 2005 and into the¬†Gospel Music Hall of Fame¬†in 2012. In 2010,¬†Rolling Stone¬†magazine ranked her number one on its list of the “100 Greatest Singers of All Time” and number nine on its list of “100 Greatest Artists of All Time”. The¬†Pulitzer Prize¬†jury in 2019 awarded Franklin a posthumous¬†special citation¬†“for her indelible contribution to American music and culture for more than five decades”. In 2020, she was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame.

According to¬†Richie Unterberger, Franklin was “one of the giants of soul music, and indeed of American pop as a whole. More than any other performer, she epitomized soul at its most gospel-charged”.She had often been described as a great singer and musician due to “vocal flexibility, interpretive intelligence, skillful piano-playing, her ear, her experience”.¬†Franklin’s voice was described as being a “powerful¬†mezzo-soprano¬†voice”. She was praised for her arrangements and interpretations of other artists’ hit songs.According to¬†David Remnick, what “distinguishes her is not merely the breadth of her catalog or the cataract force of her vocal instrument; it’s her musical intelligence, her way of singing behind the beat, of spraying a wash of notes over a single word or syllable, of constructing, moment by moment, the emotional power of a three-minute song. ‘Respect’ is as precise an artifact as a Ming vase”.¬†Describing Franklin’s voice as that of a youngster on her first album,¬†Songs of Faith, released in 1956 when she was just 14, Jerry Wexler explained that it “was not that of a child but rather of an ecstatic¬†hierophant”.¬†Critic Randy Lewis assessed her skills as a pianist as “magic” and “inspirational”. Musicians and professionals alike such as Elton John,¬†Keith Richards, Carole King, and Clive Davis were fans of her piano performances

In 2015, then-President Barack Obama wrote the following regarding Franklin:

Nobody embodies more fully the connection between the African-American spiritual, the blues, R. & B., rock and roll ‚ÄĒ the way that hardship and sorrow were transformed into something full of beauty and vitality and hope. American history wells up when Aretha sings. That’s why, when she sits down at a piano and sings ‘A Natural Woman,’ she can move me to tears ‚ÄĒ the same way that Ray Charles’s version of ‘America the Beautiful’ will always be in my view the most patriotic piece of music ever performed ‚ÄĒ because it captures the fullness of the American experience, the view from the bottom as well as the top, the good and the bad, and the possibility of synthesis, reconciliation, transcendence

Franklin received a star on the¬†Hollywood Walk of Fame¬†in 1979, had her voice declared a Michigan “natural resource” in 1985, and became the first woman inducted into the¬†Rock and Roll Hall of Fame¬†in 1987. The¬†National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences¬†awarded her a¬†Grammy Legend Award¬†in 1991, then the¬†Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award¬†in 1994. Franklin was a Kennedy Center Honoree in 1994, recipient of the¬†National Medal of Arts¬†in 1999, recipient of the¬†American Academy of Achievement‚Äôs Golden Plate Award presented by Awards Council member¬†Coretta Scott King,¬†and was bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005.She was inducted into the Michigan Rock and Roll Legends Hall of Fame in 2005,and the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in 2015.Franklin became the second woman inducted to the¬†UK Music Hall of Fame¬†in 2005. She was the 2008¬†MusiCares Person of the Year, performing at the¬†Grammys¬†days later. In 2019 she was awarded a¬†Pulitzer Prize Special Citation¬†“[f]or her indelible contribution to American music and culture for more than five decades”.¬†Franklin was the first individual woman to receive a Pulitzer Prize Special Citation.

In 2010 Franklin was ranked first on¬†Rolling Stone¬†magazine’s list of the “100 Greatest Singers of All Time”¬†and ninth on their list of “100 Greatest Artists of All Time”.¬†Following news of Franklin’s surgery and recovery in February 2011, the¬†Grammys ceremony¬†paid tribute to the singer with a medley of her classics performed by¬†Christina Aguilera,¬†Florence Welch,¬†Jennifer Hudson,¬†Martina McBride, and¬†Yolanda Adams.¬†That same year she was ranked 19th among the¬†Billboard¬†Hot 100 All-Time top artists.

When¬†Rolling Stone¬†listed the “Women in Rock: 50 Essential Albums” in 2002 and again 2012, it listed Franklin’s 1967, “I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You”, number one.¬†Inducted to the¬†GMA¬†Gospel Music Hall of Fame¬†in 2012, Franklin was described as “the voice of the civil rights movement, the voice of black America”.Asteroid¬†249516 Aretha¬†was named in her honor in 2014.¬†The next year,¬†Billboard¬†named her the greatest female R&B artist of all time. In 2018, Franklin was inducted into the¬†Memphis Music Hall of Fame.

“American history wells up when Aretha sings”, President Obama explained in response to her performance of “A Natural Woman” at the 2015 Kennedy Center Honors. “Nobody embodies more fully the connection between the African-American spiritual, the blues, R&B, rock and roll‚ÄĒthe way that hardship and sorrow were transformed into something full of beauty and vitality and hope”.¬†Franklin later recalled the 2015 Kennedy Center Honors as one of the best nights of her life.¬†On June 8, 2017, the City of Detroit honored Franklin’s legacy by renaming a portion of Madison Street, between Brush and Witherell Streets, “Aretha Franklin Way”.¬†The Aretha Franklin Post Office Building was named in 2021, and is located at 12711 East Jefferson Avenue in Detroit, Michigan.

Franklin received honorary degrees from¬†Harvard University¬†and¬†New York University¬†in 2014,¬†as well as honorary doctorates in music from¬†Princeton University, 2012;¬†Yale University, 2010;Brown University, 2009;¬†University of Pennsylvania, 2007;¬†Berklee College of Music, 2006;¬†New England Conservatory of Music, 1997;and¬†University of Michigan, 1987.¬†She was awarded an honorary¬†Doctor of Humane Letters¬†by¬†Case Western Reserve University¬†2011¬†and¬†Wayne State University¬†in 1990 and an honorary¬†Doctor of Law¬†degree by¬†Bethune‚ÄďCookman University¬†in 1975.


After Franklin’s death, fans added unofficial tributes to two¬†New York City Subway¬†stations: the¬†Franklin Street¬†station in¬†Manhattan, served by the¬†1¬†train, and the¬†Franklin Avenue¬†station in¬†Brooklyn, served by the¬†C‚Äč and¬†S¬†trains. Both stations were originally named after other people. Although the fan tributes were later taken down, the subway system’s operator, the¬†Metropolitan Transportation Authority, placed temporary black-and-white stickers with the word “Respect” next to the “Franklin” name signs in each station.

During the¬†American Music Awards¬†on October 9, 2018, the show was closed by bringing¬†Gladys Knight,¬†Donnie McClurkin,¬†Ledisi,¬†Cece Winans, and¬†Mary Mary¬†together to pay tribute to Aretha Franklin. The “all-star” group performed gospel songs, including renditions from Franklin’s 1972 album,¬†Amazing Grace.

A tribute concert, “Aretha! A Grammy Celebration for the Queen of Soul”, was organized by¬†CBS¬†and¬†The Recording Academy[¬†on January 13, 2019, at the¬†Shrine Auditorium¬†in Los Angeles. The concert included performances by¬†Smokey Robinson,¬†Janelle Mon√°e,¬†Alicia Keys,¬†John Legend,¬†Kelly Clarkson,¬†Celine Dion,¬†Alessia Cara,¬†Patti LaBelle,¬†Jennifer Hudson,¬†Chloe x Halle,¬†H.E.R.,¬†SZA,¬†Brandi Carlile,¬†Yolanda Adams¬†and¬†Shirley Caesar,and was recorded for television, airing on March 10

At the¬†61st Annual Grammy Awards, the ceremony was ended with a memorial tribute to the life and career of Franklin. The tribute concluded with a rendition of her 1968 hit, “A Natural Woman (You Make Me Feel Like),” performed by¬†Fantasia Barrino-Taylor,¬†Andra Day¬†and¬†Yolanda Adams

On January 29, 2018,¬†Gary Graff¬†confirmed that¬†Jennifer Hudson will play Franklin in an upcoming biopic.¬†Franklin’s biopic¬†RESPECT¬†is expected to be released in August 2021 in various countries.

On February 10, 2019, it was announced that the subject of the third season of the American¬†National Geographic¬†anthology¬†television series¬†Genius¬†would be Franklin, in the “first-ever, definitive scripted miniseries on the life of the universally acclaimed Queen of Soul”. Filming commenced in mid-2019, for a March 2021 release.

Studio albums

  • Aretha: With The Ray Bryant Combo¬†(1961)
  • The Electrifying Aretha Franklin¬†(1962)
  • The Tender, the Moving, the Swinging Aretha Franklin¬†(1962)
  • Laughing on the Outside¬†(1963)
  • Unforgettable: A Tribute to Dinah Washington¬†(1964)
  • Runnin’ Out of Fools¬†(1964)
  • Yeah!!!¬†(1965)
  • Soul Sister¬†(1966)
  • Take It Like You Give It¬†(1967)
  • I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You¬†(1967)
  • Aretha Arrives¬†(1967)
  • Lady Soul¬†(1968)
  • Aretha Now¬†(1968)
  • Soul ’69¬†(1969)
  • Soft and Beautiful¬†(1969)
  • This Girl’s in Love with You¬†(1970)
  • Spirit in the Dark¬†(1970)
  • Young, Gifted & Black¬†(1972)
  • Hey Now Hey (The Other Side of the Sky)¬†(1973)
  • Let Me in Your Life¬†(1974)
  • With Everything I Feel in Me¬†(1974)
  • You¬†(1975)
  • Sparkle¬†(1976, soundtrack)
  • Sweet Passion¬†(1977)
  • Almighty Fire¬†(1978)
  • La Diva¬†(1979)
  • Aretha¬†(1980)
  • Love All the Hurt Away¬†(1981)
  • Jump to It¬†(1982)
  • Get It Right¬†(1983)
  • Who’s Zoomin’ Who?¬†(1985)
  • Aretha¬†(1986)
  • Through the Storm¬†(1989)
  • What You See Is What You Sweat¬†(1991)
  • A Rose Is Still a Rose¬†(1998)
  • So Damn Happy¬†(2003)
  • This Christmas, Aretha¬†(2008)
  • Aretha: A Woman Falling Out of Love¬†(2011)
  • Aretha Franklin Sings the Great Diva Classics¬†(2014)


  • 1972:¬†Black Rodeo¬†(documentary)
  • 1980:¬†The Blues Brothers¬†(as Mrs. Murphy)
  • 1990:¬†Listen Up: The Lives of Quincy Jones¬†(documentary)
  • 1998:¬†Blues Brothers 2000¬†(as Mrs. Murphy)
  • 2003:¬†Tom Dowd & the Language of Music¬†(documentary)
  • 2012:¬†The Zen of Bennett¬†(documentary)
  • 2013:¬†Muscle Shoals¬†(documentary)
  • 2018:¬†Amazing Grace¬†(documentary)
Betty GrableBETTYGrable.jpg


I have got two reasons for success and I’m standing on both of them.
The practice of putting women on pedestals began to die out when it was discovered that they could give orders better from there.
I’m a song and dance girl. I can act enough to get by. But that’s the limit of my talents.
With the man the world is his heart, with the woman the heart is her world.
You’re better off betting on a horse than betting on a man. A horse may not be able to hold you tight, but he doesn’t wanna wander from the stable at night.


Elizabeth Ruth Grable¬†(December 18, 1916 ‚Äď July 2, 1973) was an American actress,¬†pin-up girl, dancer, model, and singer. Her 42 films during the 1930s and 1940s grossed more than $100 million; for 10 consecutive years (1942‚Äď1951) she reigned in the¬†Quigley Poll’s Top 10 box office stars (a feat only matched by¬†Doris Day¬†and¬†Barbra Streisand). The¬†U.S. Treasury Department¬†in 1946 and 1947 listed her as the highest-salaried American woman; she earned more than $3 million during her career. ($22 million in 2021 dollars)¬†

Grable began her film career in 1929 at age 12, after which she was fired from a contract when it was learned she signed up under false identification. She had contracts with RKO and Paramount Pictures during the 1930s, and appeared in a string of B movies, mostly portraying college students. Grable came to prominence in the Broadway musical DuBarry Was a Lady (1939), which brought her to the attention of 20th Century-Fox.

She replaced¬†Alice Faye¬†in¬†Down Argentine Way¬†(1940), her first major Hollywood film, and became Fox’s biggest film star throughout the next decade. Fox cast Grable in a succession of¬†Technicolor¬†musicals during the decade that were immensely popular, co-starring with such leading men as¬†Victor Mature,¬†Don Ameche,¬†John Payne, and¬†Tyrone Power. In 1943, she was the number-one box office draw in the world and, in 1947, she was the highest-paid entertainer in the United States. Two of her biggest film successes were the musical¬†Mother Wore Tights¬†(1947) and the comedy¬†How to Marry a Millionaire¬†(1953), one of her last films. Grable retired from screen acting in 1955 after she withdrew from her Fox contract, although she continued to perform on the stage and on television.

Throughout her career, Grable was a celebrated¬†sex symbol. Her bathing suit poster made her the number-one pin-up girl of¬†World War II, surpassing¬†Rita Hayworth. It was later included in the¬†Life¬†magazine project “100 Photographs That Changed the World”. Hosiery specialists of the era often noted the ideal proportions of her legs as thigh (18.5¬†in (47¬†cm)), calf (12¬†in (30¬†cm)), and ankle (7.5¬†in (19¬†cm)).[3]¬†Grable’s legs were insured by her studio for $1 million as a publicity stunt.Describing her film career, Grable said “I became a star for two reasons, and I’m standing on them.”

List of acting credits in film, with directors and principal cast members

Title Year Role Director Co-stars Notes
Happy Days 1929 Chorus Girl Benjamin Stoloff
  • Charles E. Evans
  • Marjorie White
  • Richard Keene
Let’s Go Places 1930 Chorine Frank R. Strayer
  • Joseph Wagstaff
  • Lola Lane
New Movietone Follies of 1930 1930 Chorine Benjamin Stoloff
  • El Brendel
  • Marjorie White
Whoopee! 1930 Goldwyn Girl Thornton Freeland
  • Eddie Cantor
  • Ethel Shutta
  • Eleanor Hunt
Kiki 1931 Goldwyn Girl Sam Taylor Mary Pickford Uncredited
Palmy Days 1931 Goldwyn Girl A. Edward Sutherland
  • Charlotte Greenwood
  • Barbara Weeks
  • Spencer Charters
The Greeks Had a Word for Them 1932 Hat Check Girl Lowell Sherman
  • Joan Blondell
  • Madge Evans
  • Ina Claire
Probation 1932 Ruth Jarrett Richard Thorpe
  • John Darrow
  • Sally Blane
Grable’s first credited role
The Age of Consent 1932 Student at Dormitory Gregory La Cava
  • Dorothy Wilson
  • Arline Judge
Hold ‘Em Jail 1932 Barbara Jones Norman Taurog
  • Bert Wheeler
  • Robert Woolsey
  • Edna May Oliver
The Kid from Spain 1932 Goldwyn Girl Leo McCarey
  • Eddie Cantor
  • Lyda Roberti
  • Robert Young
Cavalcade 1933 Girl on couch Frank Lloyd
  • Diana Wynyard
  • Clive Brook
  • Una O’Connor
Child of Manhattan 1933 Lucy McGonegle Edward Buzzell
  • Nancy Carroll
  • John Boles
Melody Cruise 1933 First Stewardess Mark Sandrich
  • Charles Ruggles
  • Phil Harris
What Price Innocence? 1933 Beverly Bennett Willard Mack
  • Jean Parker
  • Minna Gombell
  • Willard Mack
The Sweetheart of Sigma Chi 1933 Band Singer with Ted Fio Rito Edwin L. Marin
  • Mary Carlisle
  • Buster Crabbe
The Gay Divorcee 1934 Dance Specialty Mark Sandrich
  • Fred Astaire
  • Ginger Rogers
Student Tour 1934 Cayenne Charles Reisner
  • Jimmy Durante
  • Charles Butterworth
  • Maxine Doyle
By Your Leave 1934 Frances Gretchell Lloyd Corrigan
  • Frank Morgan
  • Genevieve Tobin
The Nitwits 1935 Mary Roberts George Stevens
  • Bert Wheeler
  • Robert Woolsey
Old Man Rhythm 1935 Sylvia Edward Ludwig
  • Charles ‘Buddy’ Rogers
  • George Barbier
Collegiate 1936 Dorothy Ralph Murphy
  • Joe Penner
  • Jack Oakie
  • Ned Sparks
Follow the Fleet 1936 Trio Singer Mark Sandrich
  • Fred Astaire
  • Ginger Rogers
Don’t Turn ‘Em Loose 1936 Mildred Webster Benjamin Stoloff
  • Lewis Stone
  • James Gleason
  • Bruce Cabot
Pigskin Parade 1936 Laura Watson David Butler
  • Stuart Erwin
  • Patsy Kelly
  • Judy Garland
  • Jack Haley
This Way Please 1937 Jane Morrow Robert Florey Charles ‘Buddy’ Rogers ¬†
Thrill of a Lifetime 1937 Gwen George Archainbaud The Yacht Club Boys  
College Swing 1938 Betty Raoul Walsh
  • George Burns
  • Gracie Allen
  • Martha Raye
  • Bob Hope
  • Edward Everett Horton
Give Me a Sailor 1938 Nancy Larkin Elliott Nugent
  • Bob Hope
  • Jack Whiting
  • Martha Raye
Campus Confessions 1938 Joyce Gilmore George Archainbaud
  • Eleanore Whitney
  • William Henry
Grable received top billing for the first time
Man About Town 1939 Susan Hayes Mark Sandrich
  • Jack Benny
  • Dorothy Lamour
Million Dollar Legs 1939 Carol Parker Nick Grinde
  • John Hartley
  • Donald O’Connor
  • Jackie Coogan
  • Dorothea Kent
The Day the Bookies Wept 1939 Ina Firpo Leslie Goodwins Joe Penner  
Down Argentine Way 1940
  • Glenda Crawford
  • Glenda Cunningham
Irving Cummings
  • Don Ameche
  • Carmen Miranda
  • Charlotte Greenwood
Tin Pan Alley 1940 Lily Blane Walter Lang
  • Alice Faye
  • John Payne
  • Jack Oakie
Moon Over Miami 1941 Kathryn ‘Kay’ Latimer Walter Lang
  • Don Ameche
  • Robert Cummings
  • Carole Landis
  • Jack Haley
A Yank in the RAF 1941 Carol Brown Henry King Tyrone Power  
I Wake Up Screaming 1941 Jill Lynn H. Bruce Humberstone
  • Victor Mature
  • Carole Landis
Song of the Islands 1942 Eileen O’Brien Walter Lang
  • Victor Mature
  • Jack Oakie
Footlight Serenade 1942 Pat Lambert Gregory Ratoff
  • John Payne
  • Victor Mature
  • Jane Wyman
Springtime in the Rockies 1942 Vicky Lane Irving Cummings
  • John Payne
  • Carmen Miranda
  • Cesar Romero
  • Harry James
Coney Island 1943 Kate Farley Walter Lang
  • George Montgomery
  • Cesar Romero
Sweet Rosie O’Grady 1943
  • Madeline Marlowe
  • Rosie O’Grady
Irving Cummings
  • Robert Young
  • Adolphe Menjou
Four Jills in a Jeep 1944 Herself William A. Seiter
  • Kay Francis
  • Carole Landis
  • Alice Faye
  • Martha Raye
  • Carmen Miranda
Pin Up Girl 1944
  • Lorry Jones
  • Laura Lorraine
H. Bruce Humberstone
  • John Harvey
  • Martha Raye
Billy Rose’s Diamond Horsehoe 1945 Bonnie Collins George Seaton
  • Dick Haymes
  • Phil Silvers
  • William Gaxton
The Dolly Sisters 1945 Yansci ‘Jenny’ Dolly Irving Cummings
  • John Payne
  • June Haver
Do You Love Me 1946 Girl in Taxi (cameo) Gregory Ratoff
  • Maureen O’Hara
  • Dick Haymes
  • Harry James
Grable had a cameo as a fan of Harry James’s character
The Shocking Miss Pilgrim 1947 Cynthia Pilgrim George Seaton
  • Dick Haymes
  • Anne Revere
Mother Wore Tights 1947 Myrtle McKinley Burt Walter Lang
  • Dan Dailey
  • Mona Freeman
Hollywood Bound 1947 Various Various Various Astor Pictures compilation of three 1930s RKO short subjects, Ferry-Go-Round (1934), A Night at the Biltmore Bowl (1935), and The Spirit of 1976 (1935).
That Lady in Ermine 1948
  • Francesca
  • Angelina
  • Ernst Lubitsch
  • Otto Preminger¬†(uncredited)
  • Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.
  • Cesar Romero
  • Lubitsch died early into production.
  • Preminger finished the film but insisted on Lubitsch receiving full credit.
When My Baby Smiles at Me 1948 Bonny Kaye Walter Lang
  • Dan Dailey
  • Jack Oakie
  • June Havoc
The Beautiful Blonde from Bashful Bend 1949 Winifred Jones Preston Sturges
  • Cesar Romero
  • Rudy Vallee
Wabash Avenue 1950 Ruby Summers Henry Koster
  • Victor Mature
  • Phil Harris
Remake of Grable’s earlier hit¬†Coney Island
My Blue Heaven 1950 Kitty Moran Henry Koster
  • Dan Dailey
  • David Wayne
  • Jane Wyatt
  • Mitzi Gaynor
Call Me Mister 1951 Kay Hudson Lloyd Bacon
  • Dan Dailey
  • Danny Thomas
Remake of Grable’s earlier hit¬†A Yank in the RAF
Meet Me After the Show 1951 Delilah Lee Richard Sale
  • Macdonald Carey
  • Rory Calhoun
  • Eddie Albert
The Farmer Takes a Wife 1953 Molly Larkins Henry Levin
  • Dale Robertson
  • Thelma Ritter
How to Marry a Millionaire 1953 Loco Dempsey Jean Negulesco
  • Marilyn Monroe
  • Lauren Bacall
Three for the Show 1955 Julie Lowndes H.C. Potter
  • Jack Lemmon
  • Marge Champion
  • Gower Champion
How to Be Very, Very Popular 1955 Stormy Tornado Nunnally Johnson
  • Sheree North
  • Robert Cummings
  • Charles Coburn
  • Tommy Noonan

For a number of years exhibitors voted Grable among the most popular stars in the country in the Quigley Moving Picture Poll.

  • 1941 ‚Äď 16th (US)
  • 1942 ‚Äď 8th (US)
  • 1943 ‚Äď 1st (US), 5th (UK international stars)
  • 1944 ‚Äď 4th (US), 2nd (UK international stars)
  • 1945 ‚Äď 4th (US), 6th (UK international stars)
  • 1946 ‚Äď 9th (US)
  • 1947 ‚Äď 2nd (US)
  • 1948 ‚Äď 2nd (US)
  • 1949 ‚Äď 7th (US), 10th (UK international stars)
  • 1950 ‚Äď 4th (US)
  • 1951 ‚Äď 3rd (US)
  • 1952 ‚Äď 20th (US)

Short subjects

Stage work

  • Du Barry Was a Lady¬†(1939)
  • Guys and Dolls¬†(1962; 1968)
  • Hello, Dolly!¬†(1965‚Äď1967)
  • Born Yesterday¬†(1968‚Äď1970; 1973)
  • Belle Starr¬†(1969)
Lauren Bacall Lauren Bacall in black and white, her head tilted down with her eyes pointed up at the camera
I think your whole life shows in your face and you should be proud of that.
I am not a has-been. I am a will be.
Imagination is the highest kite one can fly.
A woman isn’t complete without a man. But where do you find a man – a real man – these days?
You can’t start worrying about what’s going to happen. You get spastic enough worrying about what’s happening now.
I figure if I have my health, can pay the rent and I have my friends, I call it ’content.’
A man’s illness is his private territory and, no matter how much he loves you and how close you are, you stay an outsider. You are healthy.
In Hollywood, an equitable divorce settlement means each party getting fifty percent of publicity.

Lauren Bacall¬†(¬†Betty Joan Perske; September 16, 1924 ‚Äď August 12, 2014) was an American actress. She was named the¬†20th-greatest female star¬†of classic Hollywood cinema by the¬†American Film Institute¬†and received an¬†Academy Honorary Award¬†from the¬†Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences¬†in 2009 in recognition of her contribution to the Golden Age of motion pictures.She was known for her distinctive voice and sultry looks.

Bacall began a career as a model[2]¬†before making her film debut as the leading lady in¬†To Have and Have Not¬†(1944) at the age of 19. She continued in the¬†film noir¬†genre with appearances alongside husband¬†Humphrey Bogart¬†in¬†The Big Sleep¬†(1946),¬†Dark Passage¬†(1947), and¬†Key Largo¬†(1948), and she starred in the romantic comedies¬†How to Marry a Millionaire¬†(1953) with¬†Marilyn Monroe¬†and¬†Betty Grable, and¬†Designing Woman¬†(1957) with¬†Gregory Peck. She co-starred with¬†John Wayne¬†in his final film¬†The Shootist¬†(1976) by Wayne’s personal request. She also worked on Broadway in musicals, earning Tony Awards for¬†Applause¬†(1970) and¬†Woman of the Year¬†(1981). She won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Academy Award for her performance in¬†The Mirror Has Two Faces¬†(1996).

On May 21, 1945, Bacall married Humphrey Bogart. Their wedding and honeymoon took place at Malabar Farm, Lucas, Ohio, the country home of Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield, a close friend of Bogart.She was married to Bogart until he died in 1957.

During the filming of The African Queen (1951), Bacall and Bogart became friends with Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy. She began to mix in non-acting circles, becoming friends with the historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr. and the journalist Alistair Cooke. In 1952, she gave campaign speeches for Democratic presidential contender Adlai Stevenson. Along with other Hollywood figures, Bacall was a strong opponent of McCarthyism.[73][74]

Bacall had a relationship with¬†Frank Sinatra¬†after Bogart’s death. During an interview with¬†Turner Classic Movies’s¬†Robert Osborne, Bacall stated that she had ended the romance, but, in her autobiography¬†Lauren Bacall by Myself, she wrote that Sinatra ended the relationship abruptly after becoming upset that his marriage proposal had been leaked to the press, believing Bacall to be responsible. However, Bacall states in¬†Lauren Bacall by Myself¬†that when she was out with her friend¬†Irving “Swifty” Lazar, they encountered the gossip columnist¬†Louella Parsons, to whom Lazar revealed the news. Bacall wrote in¬†By Myself¬†that Sinatra only found out the truth years later.

Bacall then met and began a relationship with¬†Jason Robards. Their wedding was originally scheduled to take place in¬†Vienna,¬†Austria, on June 16, 1961; however, the plans were shelved after Austrian authorities refused to grant the couple a marriage license.They were refused a marriage also in¬†Las Vegas,¬†Nevada.On July 4, 1961, the couple drove to¬†Ensenada,¬†Mexico, where they wed. The couple divorced in 1969. According to Bacall’s autobiography, she divorced Robards mainly because of his alcoholism.


Bacall had two children with Bogart and one with Robards. Son¬†Stephen Humphrey Bogart¬†(born January 6, 1949) is a news producer, documentary film maker, and author who is named after Bogart’s character in¬†To Have and Have Not.¬†Their daughter Leslie Howard Bogart (born August 23, 1952) is named after the actor¬†Leslie Howard. A nurse and¬†yoga¬†instructor, she is married to¬†Erich Schiffmann. In his 1995 memoir, Stephen Bogart wrote, “My mother was a lapsed Jew, and my father was a lapsed Episcopalian”, and that he and his sister were raised Episcopalian “because my mother felt that would make life easier for Leslie and me during those post-World War II years”.¬†Sam Robards¬†(born December 16, 1961), Bacall’s son with Robards, is an actor.

Bacall wrote two autobiographies, Lauren Bacall by Myself (1978) and Now (1994). In 2006, the first volume of Lauren Bacall by Myself was reprinted as By Myself and Then Some with an extra chapter.

In a 1996 interview, Bacall, reflecting on her life, told the interviewer Jeremy Isaacs that she had been lucky:

I had one great marriage, I have three great children and four grandchildren. I am still alive. I still can function. I still can work … You just learn to cope with whatever you have to cope with. I spent my childhood in New York, riding on subways and buses. And you know what you learn if you’re a New Yorker? The world doesn’t owe you a damn thing.

Lacall died on August 12, 2014, one month before her 90th birthday, at her longtime apartment in The Dakota, the¬†Upper West Side¬†building near¬†Central Park¬†in¬†Manhattan.¬†According to her grandson Jamie Bogart, Bacall died after suffering a massive stroke.[2]¬†She was confirmed dead at¬†New York‚ÄďPresbyterian Hospital.

Bacall had an estimated $26.6 million estate. The bulk of her estate was divided among her three children: Leslie Bogart, Stephen Humphrey Bogart, and Sam Robards. Additionally, Bacall left $250,000 each to her youngest grandsons, the sons of Sam Robards, for college.

  • 1942 The film “Casablanca” starring with Humphrey Bogart and Paul Henreid. The 1980 television film¬†Bogie, directed by¬†Vincent Sherman¬†and based on a book by¬†Joe Hyams, tells the story of Bogart meeting Bacall while making¬†To Have and Have Not¬†in 1943, and beginning the affair with her that led to the dissolution of Bogart’s marriage to¬†Mayo Methot. Bacall is portrayed by¬†Kathryn Harrold¬†in the film;¬†Kevin O’Connor¬†plays Bogart; and Methot is played by¬†Ann Wedgeworth.
  • She appeared in The Sopranos season sixth ‚ÄúLuxury Lounge‚ÄĚ episode 7 as herself.
  • Bacall and Bogart are parodied in the Warner Brothers¬†Merrie Melodies¬†shorts¬†Bacall to Arms¬†(1946) and¬†Slick Hare¬†(1947).
  • Bacall and Bogart are referenced in¬†Bertie Higgins’ song “Key Largo” (1981).
  • Bacall is referenced in¬†The Clash’s song “Car Jamming” (1982).
  • Bacall and Bogart are referenced in¬†Suzanne Vega’s song “Freeze Tag” (1985).
  • She is referenced in “Vogue”, the 1990 song by¬†Madonna. Bacall was the last to die of the celebrities¬†mentioned¬†in the¬†lyrics.
  • She is the subject of the song “Just Like Lauren Bacall” (2008) written by¬†Kevin Roth.
  • Bacall and her Manhattan apartment are featured in¬†The Dakota Scrapbook¬†(2014), a photo-journalism volume on the history of the¬†Dakota apartment building¬†in New York City, and its famous residents over the years.
  • In the novel¬†Forgive Me, Leonard Peacock, a character named Lauren is often recognized by the protagonist, Leonard, as having a striking resemblance to Lauren Bacall









To Have and Have Not

Marie “Slim” Browning



Confidential Agent

Rose Cullen



Two Guys from Milwaukee

Herself (cameo)



The Big Sleep

Vivian Sternwood Rutledge



Dark Passage

Irene Jansen



Key Largo

Nora Temple



Young Man with a Horn

Amy North



Bright Leaf

Sonia Kovac



How to Marry a Millionaire

Schatze Page



Woman’s World

Elizabeth Burns

Alternate title: A Woman’s World



The Cobweb

Meg Faversen Rinehart



Blood Alley

Cathy Grainger



Written on the Wind

Lucy Moore Hadley



Designing Woman

Marilla Brown Hagen



The Gift of Love

Julie Beck



North West Frontier

Catherine Wyatt

Alternate title: Flame Over India



Shock Treatment

Dr. Edwina Beighley



Sex and the Single Girl

Sylvia Broderick




Elaine Sampson

Alternate title: The Moving Target



Murder on the Orient Express

Mrs. Harriet Belinda Hubbard



The Shootist

Bond Rogers




Esther Brill



The Fan

Sally Ross



Appointment with Death

Lady Westholme



Mr. North

Amelia Cranston



John Huston: The Man, the Movies, the Maverick


Documentary film



Tree of Hands

Marsha Archdale

Alternate title: Innocent Victim




Marcia Sindell



A Star for Two




All I Want for Christmas

Lillian Brooks



Ready to Wear (Prêt-à-Porter)

Slim Chrysler



The Mirror Has Two Faces

Hannah Morgan



My Fellow Americans

Margaret Kramer



Day and Night


French title: Le Jour et la Nuit



Get Bruce


Documentary film



Madeline: Lost in Paris

Madame Lacroque (voice)

Animated film







The Venice Project

Countess Camilla Volta



Presence of Mind

Mado Remei



A Conversation with Gregory Peck


Documentary film




Ma Ginger



Gone Dark

May Markham

Alternate title: The Limit



Howl’s Moving Castle

Witch of the Waste (voice)

Animated film







Am√°lia Tra√Įda

TV Announcer

Short film







These Foolish Things

Dame Lydia



The Walker

Natalie Van Miter





Short film



Scooby-Doo! and the Goblin King

The Grand Witch (voice)

Animated film



Wide Blue Yonder




Ernest & Celestine

The Grey One (voice)

Animated film



The Forger

Anne-Marie Cole

Alternate title: Carmel-by-the-Sea (final film role)









What’s My Line?

Herself ‚Äď Mystery Guest

3 episodes



Light’s Diamond Jubilee

Herself ‚Äď Guest Star

Television special



Producers’ Showcase

Gabby Maple

Episode: “The Petrified Forest



Ford Star Jubilee

Elvira Condomine

Episode: “Blithe Spirit



The DuPont Show of the Week

Lorraine Boswell

Episode: “A Dozen Deadly Roses”



Dr. Kildare

Virginia Herson

Episode: “The Oracle



Mr. Broadway

Barbara Lake

Episodes: “Take a Walk Through a Cemetery”, “Something to Sing About”



Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre

Amanda / Barbara

Episode: “Double Jeopardy”




Margo Channing

Television film (videotaped stage performance)



Perfect Gentlemen

Lizzie Martin

Television film



The Rockford Files

Kendall Warren

Episodes: “Lions, Tigers, Monkeys and Dogs: Part 1 & 2



Dinner at Eight

Carlotta Vance

Television film



A Little Piece of Sunshine

Beatrix Coltrane

Television film



HBO Storybook Musicals

Freezelda (voice)

Episode: “The Ice Queen’s Mittens”



The Portrait

Fanny Church

Television film



General Motors Playwrights Theater

Herself ‚Äď Host

10 episodes



A Foreign Field


Television film



Great Performances

Narrator (voice)

Episode: “Leonard Bernstein: The Gift of Music



From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler

Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler

Television film



Chicago Hope

Samara Visco Klein

Episodes: “Risky Business”, “Absent Without Leave



Too Rich: The Secret Life of Doris Duke

Doris Duke

Television miniseries



The Sopranos

Herself ‚Äď Guest Star

Episode: “Luxury Lounge



Empire State Building Murders

Penny Baxter

Television film



Family Guy

Evelyn (voice)

Episode: “Mom’s the Word” (final television role)









Johnny 2×4


Broadway (credited as Betty Bacall)



Franklin Street

Unnamed teenager




Goodbye Charlie





Cactus Flower






Margo Channing

Broadway and West End



Wonderful Town

Ruth Sherwood

Summer stock



V.I.P. Night on Broadway


Broadway (benefit concert)



Woman of the Year

Tess Harding




Sweet Bird of Youth

The Princess Kosmonopolis

West End



The Players Club Centennial Salute


Broadway (benefit concert)



The Visit

Claire Zachanassian

Chichester Festival



Angela Lansbury: A Celebration


Broadway (benefit concert)



Waiting in the Wings

Lotta Bainbridge


Year Program Episode/source
1946 Lux Radio Theatre To Have and Have Not
1951‚Äď52 Bold Venture Entire series

Major awards

Organizations Year Category Work Result
Academy Awards 1997 Best Supporting Actress The Mirror Has Two Faces Nominated
Academy Awards 2010 Academy Honorary Award Indicates non-competitive categories Lauren Bacall Won
British Academy Film Awards 1977 Best Actress in a Leading Role The Shootist Nominated
British Academy Film Awards 1997 Best Actress in a Supporting Role The Mirror Has Two Faces Nominated
Critics’ Choice Movie Awards 1997 Lifetime Achievement Award¬†Indicates non-competitive categories Lauren Bacall Won
Golden Globe Awards 1993 Cecil B. DeMille Award Indicates non-competitive categories Lauren Bacall Won
Golden Globe Awards 1997 Best Supporting Actress ‚Äď Motion Picture The Mirror Has Two Faces Won
Grammy Awards 1988 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Recording Lauren Bacall: By Myself Nominated
Grammy Awards 1997 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album Harry S. Truman: A Journey to Independence (with Martin Landau, Jack Lemmon, and Gregory Peck) Nominated
Primetime Emmy Awards 1973 Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role Applause Nominated
Primetime Emmy Awards 1980 Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series The Rockford Files Nominated
Primetime Emmy Awards 1988 Outstanding Informational Special Bacall on Bogart Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards 1997 Best Female Actor in a Supporting Role The Mirror Has Two Faces Won
Tony Awards 1970 Best Actress in a Musical Applause Won
Tony Awards 1981 Best Actress in a Musical Woman of the Year Won

Here are the women who changed the world:

Which woman has had the biggest impact on world history?Marie Curie has had the most significant impact on world history, according to a BBC poll of women who changed the world. The pioneering scientist was voted in at number one, higher than Margaret Thatcher, Emmeline Pankhurst and the Virgin Mary, according to a reader poll conducted by BBC History Magazine .

Who was the first woman in the world?Shikha Goyal

Name of Female PersonalitiesRole
Valentina TereshkovaFirst Woman in the World as Cosmonaut in Space
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (Sri Lanka)First Female to be elected as Head of Government (Prime Minister) in the World
Isabel Perón (1974-1976) from ArgentineFirst Female President in the World

1. Jane Austen (1775 ‚Äď 1817)

‚ÄúThe person, be it gentleman or lady, who has not pleasure in a good novel, must be intolerably stupid.‚ÄĚ

Jane Austen ( 16 December 1775 ‚Äď 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Austen’s plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favourable social standing and economic security. Her works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism.Her use of biting irony, along with her realism, humour, and social commentary, have long earned her acclaim among critics, scholars, and popular audiences alike.

With the publication of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two other novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began another, eventually titled Sanditon, but died before its completion. She also left behind three volumes of juvenile writings in manuscript, the short epistolary novel Lady Susan, and another unfinished novel, The Watsons. Her six full-length novels have rarely been out of print, although they were published anonymously and brought her moderate success and little fame during her lifetime.

A significant transition in her posthumous reputation occurred in 1833, when her novels were republished in Richard Bentley’s Standard Novels series, illustrated by Ferdinand Pickering, and sold as a set.They gradually gained wider acclaim and popular readership. In 1869, fifty-two years after her death, her nephew’s publication of A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced a compelling version of her writing career and supposedly uneventful life to an eager audience.

Austen has inspired many critical essays and literary anthologies. Her novels have inspired many films, from 1940’s Pride and Prejudice to more recent productions like Sense and Sensibility (1995), Emma (1996), Mansfield Park (1999), Pride & Prejudice (2005), Love & Friendship (2016), and Emma. (2020).

Jane Austen was born in the Hampshire village of Steventon, where her father, the Reverend George Austen, was rector. She was the second daughter and seventh child in a family of eight‚ÄĒsix boys and two girls. Her closest companion throughout her life was her elder sister, Cassandra; neither Jane nor Cassandra married. Their father was a scholar who encouraged the love of learning in his children. His wife, Cassandra (n√©e Leigh), was a woman of ready wit, famed for her impromptu verses and stories. The great family amusement was acting.

Austen was feeling unwell by early 1816, but ignored the warning signs. By the middle of that year, her decline was unmistakable, and she began a slow, irregular deterioration. The majority of biographers rely on Zachary Cope’s 1964 retrospective diagnosis and list her cause of death as Addison’s disease, although her final illness has also been described as resulting from Hodgkin’s lymphoma.When her uncle died and left his entire fortune to his wife, effectively disinheriting his relatives, she suffered a relapse, writing, “I am ashamed to say that the shock of my Uncle’s Will brought on a relapse … but a weak Body must excuse weak Nerves”.

She continued to work in spite of her illness. Dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliots, she rewrote the final two chapters, which she finished on 6 August 1816.In January 1817, Austen began The Brothers (titled Sanditon when published in 1925), and completed twelve chapters before stopping work in mid-March 1817, probably due to illness.Todd describes Sanditon‘s heroine, Diana Parker, as an “energetic invalid”. In the novel, Austen mocked hypochondriacs and though she describes the heroine as “bilious”, five days after abandoning the novel she wrote of herself that she was turning “every wrong colour” and living “chiefly on the sofa”.She put down her pen on 18 March 1817, making a note of it.

Winchester Cathedral, where Austen is buried, and her memorial gravestone in the nave of the Cathedral

Austen made light of her condition, describing it as “bile” and rheumatism. As her illness progressed, she experienced difficulty walking and lacked energy; by mid-April she was confined to bed. In May, Cassandra and Henry brought her to Winchester for treatment, by which time she suffered agonising pain and welcomed death. Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 at the age of 41. Henry, through his clerical connections, arranged for his sister to be buried in the north aisle of the nave of Winchester Cathedral. The epitaph composed by her brother James praises Austen’s personal qualities, expresses hope for her salvation and mentions the “extraordinary endowments of her mind”, but does not explicitly mention her achievements as a writer.

List of works


  • Sense and Sensibility (1811)
  • Pride and Prejudice (1813)
  • Mansfield Park (1814)
  • Emma (1815)
  • Northanger Abbey (1818, posthumous)
  • Persuasion (1818, posthumous)
  • Lady Susan (1871, posthumous)

Unfinished fiction

  • The Watsons (1804)
  • Sanditon (1817)

Other works

  • Sir Charles Grandison (adapted play) (1793, 1800)
  • Plan of a Novel (1815)
  • Poems (1796‚Äď1817)
  • Prayers (1796‚Äď1817)
  • Letters (1796‚Äď1817)

Juvenilia‚ÄĒVolume the First (1787‚Äď1793)

  • Frederic & Elfrida
  • Jack & Alice
  • Edgar & Emma
  • Henry and Eliza
  • The Adventures of Mr. Harley
  • Sir William Mountague
  • Memoirs of Mr. Clifford
  • The Beautifull Cassandra
  • Amelia Webster
  • The Visit
  • The Mystery
  • The Three Sisters
  • A beautiful description
  • The generous Curate
  • Ode to Pity

Juvenilia‚ÄĒVolume the Second (1787‚Äď1793)

  • Love and Freindship
  • Lesley Castle
  • The History of England
  • A Collection of Letters
  • The female philosopher
  • The first Act of a Comedy
  • A Letter from a Young Lady
  • A Tour through Wales
  • A Tale

Juvenilia‚ÄĒVolume the Third (1787‚Äď1793)

  • Evelyn
  • Catharine, or The Bower
Family tree of Rev. George Austen, Jane Austen's father, showing Jane's married brothers and their descendants

2. Maya Angelou (1928 ‚Äď 2014)

‚ÄúI’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.‚ÄĚ

Maya Angelou ( born Marguerite Annie Johnson; April 4, 1928 ‚Äď May 28, 2014) was an American poet, memoirist, and civil rights activist. She published seven autobiographies, three books of essays, several books of poetry, and is credited with a list of plays, movies, and television shows spanning over 50 years. She received dozens of awards and more than 50 honorary degrees. Angelou is best known for her series of seven autobiographies, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), tells of her life up to the age of 17 and brought her international recognition and acclaim.

She became a poet and writer after a string of odd jobs during her young adulthood. These included fry cook, sex worker, nightclub performer, Porgy and Bess cast member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference coordinator, and correspondent in Egypt and Ghana during the decolonization of Africa. She was also an actress, writer, director, and producer of plays, movies, and public television programs. In 1982, she was named the first Reynolds Professor of American Studies at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She was active in the Civil Rights Movement and worked with Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Beginning in the 1990s, she made approximately 80 appearances a year on the lecture circuit, something she continued into her eighties. In 1993, Angelou recited her poem “On the Pulse of Morning” (1993) at the first inauguration of Bill Clinton, making her the first poet to make an inaugural recitation since Robert Frost at the inauguration of John F. Kennedy in 1961.

With the publication of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Angelou publicly discussed aspects of her personal life. She was respected as a spokesperson for Black people and women, and her works have been considered a defense of Black culture. Her works are widely used in schools and universities worldwide, although attempts have been made to ban her books from some US libraries. Angelou’s most celebrated works have been labeled as autobiographical fiction, but many critics consider them to be autobiographies. She made a deliberate attempt to challenge the common structure of the autobiography by critiquing, changing and expanding the genre. Her books center on themes including racism, identity, family and travel.

Marguerite Annie Johnson was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on April 4, 1928, the second child of Bailey Johnson, a doorman and navy dietitian, and Vivian (Baxter) Johnson, a nurse and card dealer. Angelou’s older brother, Bailey Jr., nicknamed Marguerite “Maya”, derived from “My” or “Mya Sister”. When Angelou was three and her brother four, their parents’ “calamitous marriage”ended, and their father sent them to Stamps, Arkansas, alone by train, to live with their paternal grandmother, Annie Henderson. In “an astonishing exception” to the harsh economics of African Americans of the time, Angelou’s grandmother prospered financially during the Great Depression and World War II because the general store she owned sold needed basic commodities and because “she made wise and honest investments”.

Four years later, when Angelou was seven and her brother eight, the children’s father “came to Stamps without warning” and returned them to their mother’s care in St. Louis.

At the age of eight, while living with her mother, Angelou was sexually abused and raped by her mother’s boyfriend, a man named Freeman. She told her brother, who told the rest of their family. Freeman was found guilty but was jailed for only one day. Four days after his release, he was murdered, probably by Angelou’s uncles. Angelou became mute for almost five years, believing, as she stated, “I thought, my voice killed him; I killed that man, because I told his name. And then I thought I would never speak again, because my voice would kill anyone.”According to Marcia Ann Gillespie and her colleagues, who wrote a biography about Angelou, it was during this period of silence when Angelou developed her extraordinary memory, her love for books and literature, and her ability to listen and observe the world around her.

Shortly after Freeman’s murder, when Angelou was eight and her brother nine, Angelou and her brother were sent back to their grandmother. Angelou recalls attending the Lafayette County Training School, in Stamps, Arkansas, a Rosenwald School.” I went downtown sometimes, and I saw the white school. But I don’t remember envying that. I thought my school was grand, so there!”  Angelou credits a teacher and friend of her family, Mrs. Bertha Flowers, with helping her speak again. Flowers introduced her to authors such as Charles Dickens, William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, Georgia Douglas Johnson, and James Weldon Johnson, authors who would affect her life and career, as well as Black female artists like Frances Harper, Anne Spencer, and Jessie Fauset.

Angelou died on the morning of May 28, 2014 at the age 86. She was found by her nurse. Although Angelou had reportedly been in poor health and had canceled recent scheduled appearances, she was working on another book, an autobiography about her experiences with national and world leaders.During her memorial service at Wake Forest University, her son Guy Johnson stated that despite being in constant pain due to her dancing career and respiratory failure, she wrote four books during the last ten years of her life. He said, “She left this mortal plane with no loss of acuity and no loss in comprehension.”

Tributes to Angelou and condolences were paid by artists, entertainers, and world leaders, including Obama, whose sister was named after Angelou, and Bill Clinton.Harold Augenbraum, from the National Book Foundation, said that Angelou’s “legacy is one that all writers and readers across the world can admire and aspire to.” The week after Angelou’s death, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings rose to number 1 on Amazon.com‘s bestseller list.

On May 29, 2014, Mount Zion Baptist Church in Winston-Salem, of which Angelou was a member for 30 years, held a public memorial service to honor her.On June 7, a private memorial service was held at Wait Chapel on the campus of Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem. The memorial was shown live on local stations in the Winston-Salem/Triad area and streamed live on the university web site with speeches from her son, Oprah Winfrey, Michelle Obama, and Bill Clinton. On June 15, a memorial was held at Glide Memorial Church in San Francisco, where Angelou was a member for many years. Rev. Cecil Williams, Mayor Ed Lee, and former mayor Willie Brown spoke

When I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was published in 1969, Angelou was hailed as a new kind of memoirist, one of the first African-American women who were able to publicly discuss their personal lives. According to scholar Hilton Als, up to that point, Black female writers were marginalized to the point that they were unable to present themselves as central characters in the literature they wrote. Linguist John McWhorter agreed, seeing Angelou’s works, which he called “tracts”, as “apologetic writing”. He placed Angelou in the tradition of African-American literature as a defense of Black culture, which he called “a literary manifestation of the imperative that reigned in the black scholarship of the period”.Writer Julian Mayfield, who called Caged Bird “a work of art that eludes description”, argued that Angelou’s autobiographies set a precedent for not only other Black women writers, but also African-American autobiography as a whole. Als said that Caged Bird marked one of the first times that a Black autobiographer could, as he put it, “write about blackness from the inside, without apology or defense”.Through the writing of her autobiography, Angelou became recognized and highly respected as a spokesperson for Blacks and women.It made her “without a doubt, … America’s most visible black woman autobiographer”,and “a major autobiographical voice of the time”.As writer Gary Younge said, “Probably more than almost any other writer alive, Angelou’s life literally is her work.”

Als said that Caged Bird helped increase Black feminist writings in the 1970s, less through its originality than “its resonance in the prevailing Zeitgeist”, or the time in which it was written, at the end of the American Civil Rights Movement. Als also claimed that Angelou’s writings, more interested in self-revelation than in politics or feminism, have freed other female writers to “open themselves up without shame to the eyes of the world”.Angelou critic Joanne M. Braxton stated that Caged Bird was “perhaps the most aesthetically pleasing” autobiography written by an African-American woman in its era.Angelou’s poetry has influenced the modern hip-hop music community, including artists such as Kanye West, Common, Tupac Shakur, and Nicki Minaj.

3. Queen Elizabeth I (1533 ‚Äď 1603)

‚ÄúThough the sex to which I belong is considered weak you will nevertheless find me a rock that bends to no wind.‚ÄĚ

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 ‚Äď 24 March 1603)was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Sometimes called the Virgin QueenGloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.

Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth’s birth. Anne’s marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, the Roman Catholic Mary and the younger Elizabeth, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward’s will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary’s reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.

Upon the death of her half-sister, in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne, and set out to rule by good counsel.She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the supreme governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir; however, despite numerous courtships, she never did. She was eventually succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, laying the foundation for the Kingdom of Great Britain. She had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James’s mother, Mary, Queen of Scots.

In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been.One of her mottoes was “video et taceo” (“I see and keep silent”). In religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers’ secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, and Ireland. By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England’s victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history.

As she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult of personality grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. Elizabeth’s reign became known as the Elizabethan era. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler,who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.

Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the medieval political theology of the sovereign’s “two bodies”: the body natural and the body politic:

My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God’s creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me. And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all … to be assistant to me, that I with my ruling and you with your service may make a good account to Almighty God and leave some comfort to our posterity on earth. I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.

As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth’s open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were “wonderfully ravished”. The following day, 15 January 1559, a date chosen by her astrologer John Dee,Elizabeth was crowned and anointed by Owen Oglethorpe, the Catholic bishop of Carlisle, in Westminster Abbey. She was then presented for the people’s acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.Although Elizabeth was welcomed as queen in England, the country was still in a state of anxiety over the perceived Catholic threat at home and overseas, as well as the choice of whom she would marry.

Elizabeth’s unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity related to that of the Virgin Mary. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman.At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her ostensible virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, “And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin”.Later on, poets and writers took up the theme and developed an iconography that exalted Elizabeth. Public tributes to the Virgin by 1578 acted as a coded assertion of opposition to the queen’s marriage negotiations with the Duke of Alen√ßon.

Ultimately, Elizabeth would insist she was married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection. In 1599, she spoke of “all my husbands, my good people”.

This claim of virginity was not universally accepted. Catholics accused her of engaging in “filthy lust” that symbolically defiled the nation along with her body. Henry IV of France said that one of the great questions of Europe was “whether Queen Elizabeth was a maid or no”.

A central issue, when it comes to that question of her virginity, was whether she ever consummated her love affair with Robert Dudley. In 1559, Elizabeth had Dudley’s bedchambers moved next to her own apartments. In 1561, she was mysteriously bedridden with an illness that caused her body to swell.

In 1587, a young man calling himself Arthur Dudley was arrested on the coast of Spain under suspicion of being a spy. The man claimed to be the illegitimate son of Elizabeth and Robert Dudley, with his age being consistent with birth during the 1561 illness. He was taken to Madrid for investigation, where he was examined by Francis Englefield, a Catholic aristocrat exiled to Spain and secretary to King Philip II. Three letters exist today describing the interview, detailing what Arthur proclaimed to be the story of his life, from birth in the royal palace to the time of his arrival in Spain.However, this failed to convince the Spanish: Englefield admitted to the King that Arthur’s “claim at present amounts to nothing”, but suggested that “he should not be allowed to get away, but […] kept very secure.” The King agreed, and Arthur was never heard from again.Modern scholarship dismisses the story’s basic premise as “impossible”,and asserts that Elizabeth’s life was so closely observed by contemporaries that she could not have hidden a pregnancy.

Elizabeth was lamented by many of her subjects, but others were relieved at her death. Expectations of King James started high but then declined. By the 1620s, there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court. The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties, was taken at face value and her reputation inflated. Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: “When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. Then was her memory much magnified.” Elizabeth’s reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.

The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential.Her memory was also revived during the Napoleonic Wars, when the nation again found itself on the brink of invasion. In the Victorian era, the Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the day,and in the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat. Historians of that period, such as J. E. Neale (1934) and A. L. Rowse (1950), interpreted Elizabeth’s reign as a golden age of progress.Neale and Rowse also idealised the Queen personally: she always did everything right; her more unpleasant traits were ignored or explained as signs of stress.

Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on C√°diz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea. In Ireland, Elizabeth’s forces ultimately prevailed, but their tactics stain her record. Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies. She offered very limited aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad.Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today.Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all practices of Catholic origin from the Church of England. Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise. In fact, Elizabeth believed that faith was personal and did not wish, as Francis Bacon put it, to “make windows into men’s hearts and secret thoughts”.

Though Elizabeth followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England’s status abroad. “She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island,” marvelled Pope Sixtus V, “and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all”.Under Elizabeth, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty, as Christendom fragmented. Elizabeth was the first Tudor to recognise that a monarch ruled by popular consent.She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth‚ÄĒa style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow. Some historians have called her lucky;she believed that God was protecting her. Priding herself on being “mere English”, Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule. In a prayer, she offered thanks to God that:

[At a time] when wars and seditions with grievous persecutions have vexed almost all kings and countries round about me, my reign hath been peaceable, and my realm a receptacle to thy afflicted Church. The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.

4. Catherine the Great (1729 ‚Äď 1796)

‚ÄúPower without a nation’s confidence is nothing.‚ÄĚ

As empress, Catherine westernized Russia. She led her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe. She championed the arts and reorganized the Russian law code. She also significantly expanded Russian territory.

Catherine II (born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; 2 May 1729 ‚Äď 17 November 1796), most commonly known as Catherine the Great, was Empress of All Russia from 1762 until 1796 ‚Äď the country’s longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d’√©tat that overthrew her husband and second cousin, Peter III. Under her reign, Russia grew larger, its culture was revitalised, and it was recognized as one of the great powers of Europe.

In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Count Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by highly successful generals such as Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev, and admirals such as Samuel Greig and Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding rapidly by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Bar confederation and Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War, 1768‚Äď1774 due to the support of the United Kingdom, and Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas. In the west, the Polish‚ÄďLithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine’s former lover, King StanisŇāaw August Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. In the east, Russians became the first Europeans to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America.

Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas (governorates), and many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernize Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom, and the increasing demands of the state and of private landowners intensified the exploitation of serf labour. This was one of the chief reasons behind rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev Rebellion of Cossacks, nomads, peoples of Volga and peasants.

The period of Catherine the Great’s rule, the Catherinian Era,is considered a Golden Age of Russia.The Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the empress, changed the face of the country. She enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is often included in the ranks of the enlightened despots.As a patron of the arts, she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, including the establishment of the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe.

Catherine, throughout her long reign, took many lovers, often elevating them to high positions for as long as they held her interest and then pensioning them off with gifts of serfs and large estates.The percentage of state money spent on the court increased from 10% in 1767 to 11% in 1781 to 14% in 1795. Catherine gave away 66,000 serfs from 1762 to 1772, 202,000 from 1773 to 1793, and 100,000 in one day: 18 August 1795.:119 Catherine bought the support of the bureaucracy. In 1767, Catherine decreed that after seven years in one rank, civil servants automatically would be promoted regardless of office or merit.

After her affair with her lover and adviser Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin ended in 1776, he allegedly selected a candidate-lover for her who had the physical beauty and mental faculties to hold her interest (such as Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov and Nicholas Alexander Suk). Some of these men loved her in return, and she always showed generosity towards them, even after the affair ended. One of her lovers, Pyotr Zavadovsky, received 50,000 rubles, a pension of 5,000 rubles and 4,000 peasants in Ukraine after she dismissed him in 1777.The last of her lovers, Prince Zubov, was 40 years her junior. Her sexual independence led to many of the legends about her.

Catherine kept her illegitimate son by Grigori Orlov (Alexis Bobrinsky, later elevated to Count Bobrinsky by Paul I) near Tula, away from her court.

In terms of elite acceptance of a female ruler, it was more of an issue in Western Europe than in Russia. The British ambassador James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury reported back to London: Her Majesty has a masculine force of mind, obstinacy in adhering to a plan, and intrepidity in the execution of it; but she wants the more manly virtues of deliberation, forbearance in prosperity and accuracy of judgment, while she possesses in a high degree the weaknesses vulgarly attributed to her sex-love of flattery, and its inseparable companion, vanity; an inattention to unpleasant but salutary advice; and a propensity to voluptuousness which leads to excesses that would debase a female character in any sphere of life.

Though Catherine’s life and reign included remarkable personal successes, they ended in two failures. Her Swedish cousin (once removed), King Gustav IV Adolph, visited her in September 1796, the empress’s intention being that her granddaughter Alexandra should become queen of Sweden by marriage. A ball was given at the imperial court on 11 September when the engagement was supposed to be announced. Gustav Adolph felt pressured to accept that Alexandra would not convert to Lutheranism, and though he was delighted by the young lady, he refused to appear at the ball and left for Stockholm. The frustration affected Catherine’s health. She recovered well enough to begin to plan a ceremony which would establish her favourite grandson Alexander as her heir, superseding her difficult son Paul, but she died before the announcement could be made, just over two months after the engagement ball.

On 16 November [O.S. 5 November] 1796, Catherine rose early in the morning and had her usual morning coffee, soon settling down to work on papers; she told her lady’s maid, Maria Perekusikhina, that she had slept better than she had in a long time.Sometime after 9:00 she was found on the floor with her face purplish, her pulse weak, her breathing shallow and laboured. The court physician diagnosed a stroke and despite attempts to revive her she fell into a coma. She was given the last rites and died the following evening around 9:45.An autopsy confirmed stroke as the cause of death.

Later, several unfounded stories circulated regarding the cause and manner of her death. A popular insult to the empress’s legacy at the time is that she died after having sex with her horse. The story claimed that her maids believed that Catherine spent too much unsupervised time with her favourite horse, Dudley. A German scholar Adam Olearius in his 1647 book Beschreibung der muscowitischen und persischen Reise claimed that Russians had fondness for sodomy, especially with horses. Olearius’s claims about a supposed Russian tendency towards bestiality with horses was often repeated in anti-Russian literature throughout the 17th and 18th centuries to illustrate the alleged barbarous “Asian” nature of Russia. Given the frequency which this story was repeated together with Catherine’s love of her adopted homeland and her hippophilia, it was an easy step to apply this scurrilous story as the cause of her death.Finally, Catherine’s lack of shame about expressing her sexuality together with her incongruous position as a female leader in the male-dominated society of Europe made her the object of much malicious gossip, and the story of her supposed death while attempting sex with a stallion was meant to show how “unnatural” her rule as empress of Russia was. Catherine was meant to have been a pawn in the European power game who was to be married off to some prince and provide the proverbial “heir and a spare” to continue the dynasty, and in rejecting this role for herself by ruling as empress in her own right provoked a powerful reaction against herself.

Catherine’s undated will, discovered in early 1792 by her secretary Alexander Vasilievich Khrapovitsky among her papers, gave specific instructions should she die: “Lay out my corpse dressed in white, with a golden crown on my head, and on it inscribe my Christian name. Mourning dress is to be worn for six months, and no longer: the shorter the better.”In the end, the empress was laid to rest with a gold crown on her head and clothed in a silver brocade dress. On 25 November, the coffin, richly decorated in gold fabric, was placed atop an elevated platform at the Grand Gallery’s chamber of mourning, designed and decorated by Antonio Rinaldi.According to √Člisabeth Vig√©e Le Brun: “The empress’s body lay in state for six weeks in a large and magnificently decorated room in the castle, which was kept lit day and night. Catherine was stretched on a ceremonial bed surrounded by the coats of arms of all the towns in Russia. Her face was left uncovered, and her fair hand rested on the bed. All the ladies, some of whom took turn to watch by the body, would go and kiss this hand, or at least appear to.” A description of the empress’s funeral is written in Madame Vig√©e Le Brun’s memoirs.

                                                                                 Children   of  Catherine  the Great 
Miscarriage20 December 1752According to court gossip, this lost pregnancy was attributed to Sergei Saltykov.
Miscarriage30 June 1753This second lost pregnancy was also attributed to Saltykov;this time she was very ill for 13 days. Catherine later wrote in her memoirs: “…They suspect that part of the afterbirth has not come away … on the 13th day it came out by itself”.
Paul (I) Petrovich
Emperor of Russia
1 October 1754 ‚Äď
23 March 1801 (Age: 46)
Born at the Winter Palace, officially he was a son of Peter III but in her memoirs, Catherine implies very strongly that Saltykov was the biological father of the child.He married firstly Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1773 and had no issue. He married secondly, in 1776, Princess Sophie Dorothea of W√ľrttemberg and had issue, including the future Alexander I of Russia and Nicholas I of Russia. He succeeded as emperor of Russia in 1796 and was murdered at Saint Michael’s Castle in 1801.
Anna Petrovna
Grand Duchess of Russia
9 December 1757 ‚Äď
8 March 1759 (Age: 15 months)
Possibly the offspring of Catherine and StanisŇāaw Poniatowski, Anna was born at the Winter Palace between 10 and 11 o’clock;she was named by Empress Elizabeth after her deceased sister, against Catherine’s wishes. On 17 December 1757, Anna was baptised and received the Great Cross of the Order of Saint Catherine. Elizabeth served as godmother; she held Anna above the baptismal font and brought Catherine, who did not witness any of the celebrations, and Peter a gift of 60,000 rubles.Elizabeth took Anna and raised the baby herself, as she had done with Paul. In her memoirs, Catherine makes no mention of Anna’s death on 8 March 1759, though she was inconsolable and entered a state of shock.Anna’s funeral took place on 15 March, at Alexander Nevsky Lavra. After the funeral, Catherine never mentioned her dead daughter again.
Alexei Grigorievich Bobrinsky [ru]
Count Bobrinsky
11 April 1762 ‚Äď
20 June 1813 (Age: 51)
Born at the Winter Palace, he was brought up at Bobriki; his father was Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov. He married Baroness Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg and had issue. Created Count Bobrinsky in 1796, he died in 1813.
Elizabeth Grigorevna Temkina13 July 1775 ‚Äď
25 May 1854 (Age: 78)
Born many years after the death of Catherine’s husband, brought up in the Samoilov household, and never acknowledged by Catherine, it has been suggested that Temkina was the illegitimate child of Catherine and Potemkin, but this is now regarded as unlikely.

5 Sojourner Truth (1797 ‚Äď 1883)

‚ÄúTruth is powerful and it prevails.‚ÄĚ

A former slave, Sojourner Truth became an outspoken advocate for abolition, temperance, and civil and women’s rights in the nineteenth century. Her Civil War work earned her an invitation to meet President Abraham Lincoln in 1864.

Sojourner Truth, legal name Isabella Van Wagener, (born c. 1797, Ulster county, New York, U.S.‚ÄĒdied November 26, 1883, Battle Creek, Michigan), African American evangelist and reformer who applied her religious fervour to the abolitionist and women‚Äôs rights movements.

Isabella was the daughter of slaves and spent her childhood as an abused chattel of several masters. Her first language was Dutch. Between 1810 and 1827 she bore at least five children to a fellow slave named Thomas. Just before New York state abolished slavery in 1827, she found refuge with Isaac Van Wagener, who set her free. With the help of Quaker friends, she waged a court battle in which she recovered her small son, who had been sold illegally into slavery in the South. About 1829 she went to New York City with her two youngest children, supporting herself through domestic employment.

Since childhood Isabella had had visions and heard voices, which she attributed to God. In New York City she became associated with Elijah Pierson, a zealous missionary. Working and preaching in the streets, she joined his Retrenchment Society and eventually his household.In 1843 she left New York City and took the name Sojourner Truth, which she used from then on. Obeying a supernatural call to ‚Äútravel up and down the land,‚ÄĚ she sang, preached, and debated at camp meetings, in churches, and on village streets, exhorting her listeners to accept the biblical message of God‚Äôs goodness and the brotherhood of man. In the same year, she was introduced to abolitionism at a utopian community in Northampton, Massachusetts, and thereafter spoke in behalf of the movement throughout the state. In 1850 she traveled throughout the Midwest, where her reputation for personal magnetism preceded her and drew heavy crowds. She supported herself by selling copies of her book, The Narrative of Sojourner Truth, which she had dictated to Olive Gilbert.

She gave herself the name Sojourner Truth in 1843 after she became convinced that God had called her to leave the city and go into the countryside “testifying the hope that was in her”.Her best-known speech was delivered extemporaneously, in 1851, at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. The speech became widely known during the Civil War by the title “Ain’t I a Woman?”, a variation of the original speech re-written by someone else using a stereotypical Southern dialect, whereas Sojourner Truth was from New York and grew up speaking Dutch as her first language. During the Civil War, Truth helped recruit black troops for the Union Army; after the war, she tried unsuccessfully to secure land grants from the federal government for formerly enslaved people (summarized as the promise of “forty acres and a mule”).

A memorial bust of Truth was unveiled in 2009 in Emancipation Hall in the U.S. Capitol Visitor’s Center. She is the first African American woman to have a statue in the Capitol building.In 2014, Truth was included in Smithsonian magazine’s list of the “100 Most Significant Americans of All Time.


by Sojourner Truth

Delivered 1851 at the Women’s Convention in Akron, Ohio

Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that ‘twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what’s all this here talking about?

That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain’t I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain’t I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man – when I could get it – and bear the lash as well! And ain’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain’t I a woman?

Then they talk about this thing in the head; what’s this they call it? [member of audience whispers, “intellect”] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or negroes’ rights? If my cup won’t hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn’t you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full?

Then that little man in black there, he says women can’t have as much rights as men, ’cause Christ wasn’t a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.

If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back , and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.

Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain’t got nothing more to say.

6. Rosa Parks (1913 ‚Äď 2005)

‚ÄúI would like to be remembered as a person who wanted to be free… so other people would be also free.‚ÄĚ

Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 ‚Äď October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott. The United States Congress has called her “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”.

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks rejected bus driver James F. Blake’s order to vacate a row of four seats in the “colored” section in favor of a white passenger, once the “white” section was filled.Parks wasn’t the first person to resist bus segregation, but the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) believed that she was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws, and she helped inspire the black community to boycott the Montgomery buses for over a year. The case became bogged down in the state courts, but the federal Montgomery bus lawsuit Browder v. Gayle resulted in a November 1956 decision that bus segregation is unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.[3][4]

Parks’ act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became important symbols of the movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation, and organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon and Martin Luther King Jr.. At the time, Parks was employed as a seamstress at a local department store and was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. She had recently attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers’ rights and racial equality. Although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act; she was fired from her job, and received death threats for years afterwards.[5] Shortly after the boycott, she moved to Detroit, where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988, she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American US Representative. She was also active in the Black Power movement and the support of political prisoners in the US.

After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that there was more work to be done in the struggle for justice.Parks received national recognition, including the NAACP’s 1979 Spingarn Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, and a posthumous statue in the United States Capitol’s National Statuary Hall. Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman to lie in honor in the Capitol Rotunda. California and Missouri commemorate Rosa Parks Day on her birthday, February 4, while Ohio and Oregon commemorate the anniversary of her arrest, December 1.

Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, 1913, to Leona (n√©e Edwards), a teacher, and James McCauley, a carpenter. In addition to African ancestry, one of Parks’ great-grandfathers was Scots-Irish and one of her great-grandmothers a part-Native American slave.She was small as a child and suffered poor health with chronic tonsillitis. When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to Pine Level, just outside the state capital, Montgomery. She grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents, mother, and younger brother Sylvester. They all were members of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), a century-old independent black denomination founded by free blacks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the early nineteenth century.

McCauley attended rural schools until the age of eleven. Before that, her mother taught her “a good deal about sewing”. She started piecing quilts from around the age of six, as her mother and grandmother were making quilts, She put her first quilt together by herself around the age of ten, which was unusual, as quilting was mainly a family activity performed when there was no field work or chores to be done. She learned more sewing in school from the age of eleven; she sewed her own “first dress [she] could wear”.As a student at the Industrial School for Girls in Montgomery, she took academic and vocational courses. Parks went on to a laboratory school set up by the Alabama State Teachers College for Negroes for secondary education, but dropped out in order to care for her grandmother and later her mother, after they became ill.

Around the turn of the 20th century, the former Confederate states had adopted new constitutions and electoral laws that effectively disenfranchised black voters and, in Alabama, many poor white voters as well. Under the white-established Jim Crow laws, passed after Democrats regained control of southern legislatures, racial segregation was imposed in public facilities and retail stores in the South, including public transportation. Bus and train companies enforced seating policies with separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South, and black education was always underfunded.

Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs:

I’d see the bus pass every day … But to me, that was a way of life; we had no choice but to accept what was the custom. The bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white world.

Although Parks’ autobiography recounts early memories of the kindness of white strangers, she could not ignore the racism of her society. When the Ku Klux Klan marched down the street in front of their house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun.The Montgomery Industrial School, founded and staffed by white northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists. Its faculty was ostracized by the white community.

Repeatedly bullied by white children in her neighborhood, Parks often fought back physically. She later said: “As far back as I remember, I could never think in terms of accepting physical abuse without some form of retaliation if possible.”

“The only tired I was, was tired of giving in,” Rosa Parks would go on to say about her decision not to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Ala., bus on Dec. 1, 1955. This wasn’t the first time the seamstress had chosen not to give in. Parks had been an active member of the local NAACP chapter since 1943 and had marched on behalf of the Scottsboro boys, who were arrested in Alabama in 1931 for raping two white women. But it was her simple act of refusal, a move which landed Parks in prison, that set in motion the Montgomery bus boycott and kicked off the civil rights movement. So when the bulldogs and water hoses were unleashed a decade later in the streets of Birmingham, the protesters knew to stand their ground. “Over my head, I see freedom in the air,” they sang.

Montgomery bus boycott, mass protest against the bus system of Montgomery, Alabama, by civil rights activists and their supporters that led to a 1956 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring that Montgomery‚Äôs segregation laws on buses were unconstitutional. The 381-day bus boycott also brought the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., into the spotlight as one of the most important leaders of the American civil rights movement.

The event that triggered the boycott took place in Montgomery on December 1, 1955, after seamstress Rosa Parks refused to give her seat to a white passenger on a city bus. Local laws dictated that African American passengers sat at the back of the bus while whites sat in front. If the white section became full, African Americans had to give up their seats in the back. When Parks refused to move to give her seat to a white rider, she was taken to jail; she was later bailed out by a local civil rights leader.

Many of Montgomery‚Äôs African American residents were politically organized long before Parks was arrested. For example, the Women‚Äôs Political Council (WPC) was founded in 1946, and it had been lobbying the city for improved conditions on the buses for a decade before the bus boycott began. In addition, Montgomery had an active branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), where Parks also worked as a secretary.

Although Parks was not the first resident of Montgomery to refuse to give up her seat to a white passenger, local civil rights leaders decided to capitalize on her arrest as a chance to challenge local segregation laws. Shortly after Parks’s arrest, Jo Ann Robinson, a leader of the WPC, and E.D. Nixon, president of the local NAACP, printed and distributed leaflets describing Parks’s arrest and called for a one-day boycott of the city buses on December 5. They believed that the boycott could be effective because the Montgomery bus system was heavily dependent on African American riders, who made up about 75 percent of the ridership. Some 90 percent of the African American residents stayed off the buses that day.

The boycott was so successful that local civil rights leaders decided to extend it indefinitely. A group of local ministers formed the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) to support and sustain the boycott and the legal challenge to the segregation laws. Martin Luther King, the charismatic young pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, was elected president of the MIA. A powerful orator, he was new to the area and had few enemies, and, thus, local leaders believed he could rally the various factions of the African American community to the cause.

The MIA initially asked for first-come, first-served seating, with African Americans starting in the rear and white passengers beginning in the front of the bus. They also asked that African American bus drivers be hired for routes primarily made up of African American riders. The bus companies and Montgomery officials refused to meet those demands. Many white citizens retaliated against the African American community: King‚Äôs home was bombed, and many boycotters were threatened or fired from their jobs. Several times the police arrested protesters and took them to jail, once charging 80 leaders of the boycott with violating a 1921 law that barred conspiracies to interfere with lawful business without just cause.

Despite such intimidation, the boycott continued for more than a year. The MIA filed a federal suit against bus segregation, and on June 5, 1956, a federal district court declared segregated seating on buses to be unconstitutional. The Supreme Court upheld that ruling in mid-November. The federal decision went into effect on December 20, 1956.

The boycott garnered a great deal of publicity in the national press, and King became well known throughout the country. The success in Montgomery inspired other African American communities in the South to protest racial discrimination and galvanized the direct nonviolent resistance phase of the civil rights movement.

                               Legacy and honors

Rosa Parks statue by Eugene Daub (2013), in National Statuary Hall, United States Capitol

  • 1963: Paul Stephenson initiated a bus boycott in Bristol, England, to protest a similar color bar operated by a bus company there, inspired by the example of the Montgomery bus boycott initiated by Rosa Parks’ refusal to move from “whites only” bus seat in Montgomery, Alabama.
  • 1976: Detroit renamed 12th Street “Rosa Parks Boulevard”.
  • 1979: The NAACP awarded Parks the Spingarn Medal, its highest honor,
  • 1980: She received the Martin Luther King Jr. Award.
  • 1982: California State University, Fresno, awarded Parks the African-American Achievement Award. The honor, given to deserving students in succeeding years, became the Rosa Parks Awards.
  • 1983: She was inducted into Michigan Women’s Hall of Fame for her achievements in civil rights.
  • 1984: She received a Candace Award from the National Coalition of 100 Black Women.
  • 1990:
    • Parks was invited to be part of the group welcoming Nelson Mandela upon his release from prison in South Africa.
    • Parks was in attendance as part of Interstate 475 outside of Toledo, Ohio, was named after her.
  • 1992: She received the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award along with Dr. Benjamin Spock and others at the Kennedy Library and Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 1993: She was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame,
  • 1994: She received an honorary doctorate from Florida State University in Tallahassee, FL.
  • 1994: She received an honorary doctorate from Soka University in Tokyo, Japan.
  • 1995: She received the Academy of Achievement’s Golden Plate Award in Williamsburg, Virginia.
  • 1996: She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor given by the US executive branch.
  • 1998: She was the first-ever recipient of the International Freedom Conductor Award presented by the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.
  • 1999:
    • She received the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest award given by the US legislative branch, the medal bears the legend “Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement”
    • She received the Windsor‚ÄďDetroit International Freedom Festival Freedom Award.
    • Time named Parks one of the 20 most influential and iconic figures of the 20th century.
    • President Bill Clinton honored her in his State of the Union address, saying, “She’s sitting down with the first lady tonight, and she may get up or not as she chooses.”
  • 2000:
    • Her home state awarded her the Alabama Academy of Honor,
    • She received the first Governor’s Medal of Honor for Extraordinary Courage.
    • She was awarded two dozen honorary doctorates from universities worldwide
    • She was made an honorary member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority.
    • the Rosa Parks Library and Museum on the campus of Troy University in Montgomery was dedicated to her.
  • 2002:
    • Scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Parks on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.
    • A portion of the Interstate 10 freeway in Los Angeles was named in her honor.
    • She received the Walter P. Reuther Humanitarian Award from Wayne State University.
  • 2003: Bus No. 2857, on which Parks was riding, was restored and placed on display in The Henry Ford museum
  • 2004: In the Los Angeles County MetroRail system, the Imperial Highway/Wilmington station, where the A Line connects with the C Line, has been officially named the “Rosa Parks Station”.
  • 2005:
    • Senate Concurrent Resolution 61, 109th Congress, 1st Session, was agreed to October 29, 2005. This set the stage for her to become the 1st woman to lie in honor, in the Capitol Rotunda.
    • On October 30, 2005 President George W. Bush issued a proclamation ordering that all flags on U.S. public areas both within the country and abroad be flown at half-staff on the day of Parks’ funeral.
    • Metro Transit in King County, Washington placed posters and stickers dedicating the first forward-facing seat of all its buses in Parks’ memory shortly after her death,
    • The American Public Transportation Association declared December 1, 2005, the 50th anniversary of her arrest, to be a “National Transit Tribute to Rosa Parks Day”.
    • On that anniversary, President George W. Bush signed Pub.L. 109‚Äď116 (text) (pdf), directing that a statue of Parks be placed in the United States Capitol’s National Statuary Hall. In signing the resolution directing the Joint Commission on the Library to do so, the President stated:

By placing her statue in the heart of the nation’s Capitol, we commemorate her work for a more perfect union, and we commit ourselves to continue to struggle for justice for every American.

  • Portion of Interstate 96 in Detroit was renamed by the state legislature as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway in December 2005.
  • 2006:
    • At Super Bowl XL, played at Detroit’s Ford Field, long-time Detroit residents Coretta Scott King and Parks were remembered and honored by a moment of silence. The Super Bowl was dedicated to their memory. Parks’ nieces and nephews and Martin Luther King III joined the coin toss ceremonies, standing alongside former University of Michigan star Tom Brady who flipped the coin.
    • On February 14, Nassau County, New York Executive, Thomas Suozzi announced that the Hempstead Transit Center would be renamed the Rosa Parks Hempstead Transit Center in her honor.
    • On October 27, Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell signed a bill into law designating the portion of Pennsylvania Route 291 through Chester as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway.
  • 2007: Nashville, Tennessee renamed MetroCenter Boulevard (8th Avenue North) (US 41A and SR 12) as Rosa L. Parks Boulevard.
  • On March 14, 2008, the State of California Government Center at 464 W. 4th St., on the northwest corner of Court and 4th streets, in San Bernardino was renamed the Rosa Parks Memorial Building.
  • 2009: On July 14, the Rosa Parks Transit Center opened in Detroit at the corner of Michigan and Cass Avenues.
  • 2010: in Grand Rapids, Michigan, a plaza in the heart of the city was named Rosa Parks Circle.
  • 2012:
    • A street in West Valley City, Utah (the state’s second largest city), leading to the Utah Cultural Celebration Center was renamed Rosa Parks Drive.
  • 2013:
    • On February 1, President Barack Obama proclaimed February 4, 2013, as the “100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks”. He called “upon all Americans to observe this day with appropriate service, community, and education programs to honor Rosa Parks’s enduring legacy”.
    • On February 4, to celebrate Rosa Parks’ 100th birthday, the Henry Ford Museum declared the day a “National Day of Courage” with 12 hours of virtual and on-site activities featuring nationally recognized speakers, musical and dramatic interpretative performances, a panel presentation of “Rosa’s Story” and a reading of the tale “Quiet Strength”. The actual bus on which Rosa Parks sat was made available for the public to board and sit in the seat that Rosa Parks refused to give up.
    • On February 4, 2,000 birthday wishes gathered from people throughout the United States were transformed into 200 graphics messages at a celebration held on her 100th Birthday at the Davis Theater for the Performing Arts in Montgomery, Alabama. This was the 100th Birthday Wishes Project managed by the Rosa Parks Museum at Troy University and the Mobile Studio and was also a declared event by the Senate.
    • During both events the USPS unveiled a postage stamp in her honor.
    • On February 27, Parks became the first African-American woman to have her likeness depicted in National Statuary Hall. The monument, created by sculptor Eugene Daub, is a part of the Capitol Art Collection among nine other females featured in the National Statuary Hall Collection.
  • 2014: The asteroid 284996 Rosaparks, discovered in 2010 by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, was named in her memory.The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on September 9, 2014 (M.P.C. 89835).
  • 2015:
    • The papers of Rosa Parks were cataloged into the Library of Congress, after years of a legal battle.
    • On December 13, the new Rosa Parks Railway Station opened in Paris.
  • 2016:
    • The house lived in by Rosa Parks’s brother, Sylvester McCauley, his wife Daisy, and their 13 children, and where Rosa Parks often visited and stayed after leaving Montgomery, was bought by her niece Rhea McCauley for $500 and donated to the artist Ryan Mendoza. It was subsequently dismantled and shipped to Berlin where it was re-erected in Mendoza’s garden. In 2018 it was returned to the United States and rebuilt at the Waterfire Arts Center, Providence, Rhode Island, where it was put on public display, accompanied by a range of interpretive materials and public and scholarly events.
    • The National Museum of African American History and Culture was opened; it contains among other things the dress which Rosa Parks was sewing the day she refused to give up her seat to a white man.
  • 2018:
    • Continuing the Conversation, a public sculpture of Parks, was unveiled on the main campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology.
  • 2019:
    • A statue of Rosa Parks was unveiled in Montgomery, Alabama.
  • 2021:
    • On January 20, a bust of Rosa Parks by Artis Lane was added to the Oval Office when Joe Biden began his presidency. The sculpture is currently displayed next to Augustus Saint-Gaudens’ bust of Abraham Lincoln.
  • The Rosa Parks Congressional Gold Medal
  • Parks and U.S. President Bill Clinton
  • Rosa Parks Transit Center, Detroit
  • U.S. President Barack Obama sitting on the bus. Parks was arrested sitting in the same row Obama is in, but on the opposite side.
  • A plaque entitled “The Bus Stop” at Dexter Ave. and Montgomery St.‚ÄĒthe place Rosa Parks boarded the bus‚ÄĒpays tribute to her and the success of the Montgomery bus boycott.
  • The No. 2857 bus on which Parks was riding before her arrest (a GM “old-look” transit bus, serial number 1132), is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.
  • Rosa Parks Railway Station in Paris

In popular culture

  • In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Parks’s name and picture. She is card #27 in the set.
  • In March 1999, Parks filed a lawsuit (Rosa Parks v. LaFace Records) against American hip-hop duo OutKast and their record company, claiming that the duo’s song “Rosa Parks”, the most successful radio single of their 1998 album Aquemini, had used her name without permission.The lawsuit was settled on April 15, 2005 (six months and nine days before Parks’ death); OutKast, their producer and record labels paid Parks an undisclosed cash settlement. They also agreed to work with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute to create educational programs about the life of Rosa Parks. The record label and OutKast admitted no wrongdoing. Responsibility for the payment of legal fees was not disclosed.
  • The documentary Mighty Times: The Legacy of Rosa Parks (2001) received a 2002 nomination for Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject. She collaborated on a TV movie of her life, The Rosa Parks Story (2002), starring Angela Bassett.
  • The film Barbershop (2002) featured a barber, played by Cedric the Entertainer, arguing with others that other African Americans before Parks had been active in bus integration, but she was renowned as an NAACP secretary. The activists Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton launched a boycott against the film, contending it was “disrespectful”, but NAACP president Kweisi Mfume stated he thought the controversy was “overblown”. Parks was offended and boycotted the NAACP 2003 Image Awards ceremony, which Cedric hosted.
  • In 2013, Parks was portrayed by Llewella Gideon in the first series of the Sky Arts comedy series Psychobitches.
  • The 2018 episode “Rosa”, of the science-fiction television series Doctor Who, centers on Rosa Parks, as portrayed by Vinette Robinson.
  • The UK children’s historical show Horrible Histories honored Parks by creating a song to close an episode, “Rosa Parks: I Sat on a Bus”.
  • In 2019, Mattel released a Barbie doll in Parks’s likeness as part of their “Inspiring Women” series.
  • In 2020, rapper Nicki Minaj incorporated Rosa Parks into her song “Yikes” where she rapped, “All you bitches Rosa Park, uh-oh, get your ass up” in reference to the Montgomery bus boycott.
Facts About Rosa Parks

 We have gathered five interesting facts about Rosa Parks to get you ready for the performance.

Rosa Parks’ mother was a teacher and her father was a carpenter. Her ancestry included African, Scots-Irish, and Native American.

She graduated high school in 1933. At this time, less than 7% of African-Americans had a high school diploma.

Parks became involved in the Civil Rights Movement as early as December 1943. She was elected as a secretary and organized ‚ÄúThe Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor.‚ÄĚ It is known by the Chicago Defender as ‚Äúthe strongest campaign for equal justice to be seen in a decade.‚ÄĚ

Rosa and her husband were active members of the League of Women Voters.

In 1992, she published her autobiography entitled Rosa Parks: My Story.

8. Malala Yousafzai (1997 – )

‚ÄúI tell my story not because it is unique, but because it is the story of many girls.‚ÄĚ

9 .Marie Curie (1867 ‚Äď 1934)

‚ÄúNothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.‚ÄĚ

10. Ada Lovelace (1815 ‚Äď 1852)

Ada Lovelace - Quotes, Children & Facts - Biography

‚ÄúThat brain of mine is something more than merely mortal; as time will show.‚ÄĚ

Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Byron; 10 December 1815 ‚Äď 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage’s proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognise that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and to have published the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as one of the first computer programmers.

Augusta Byron was the only child of poet Lord Byron and Lady Byron.All of Byron’s other children were born out of wedlock to other women.Byron separated from his wife a month after Ada was born and left England forever four months later. He commemorated the parting in a poem that begins, “Is thy face like thy mother’s my fair child! ADA! sole daughter of my house and heart?”.He died in Greece when Ada was eight years old. Her mother remained bitter and promoted Ada’s interest in mathematics and logic in an effort to prevent her from developing her father’s perceived insanity. Despite this, Ada remained interested in him, naming her two sons Byron and Gordon. Upon her eventual death, she was buried next to him at her request. Although often ill in her childhood, Ada pursued her studies assiduously. She married William King in 1835. King was made Earl of Lovelace in 1838, Ada thereby becoming Countess of Lovelace.

Her educational and social exploits brought her into contact with scientists such as Andrew Crosse, Charles Babbage, Sir David Brewster, Charles Wheatstone, Michael Faraday and the author Charles Dickens, contacts which she used to further her education. Ada described her approach as “poetical science” and herself as an “Analyst (& Metaphysician)”.

When she was a teenager, her mathematical talents led her to a long working relationship and friendship with fellow British mathematician Charles Babbage, who is known as “the father of computers”. She was in particular interested in Babbage’s work on the Analytical Engine. Lovelace first met him in June 1833, through their mutual friend, and her private tutor, Mary Somerville.

Between 1842 and 1843, Ada translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the calculating engine, supplementing it with an elaborate set of notes, simply called “Notes”. Lovelace’s notes are important in the early history of computers, containing what many consider to be the first computer program‚ÄĒthat is, an algorithm designed to be carried out by a machine. Other historians reject this perspective and point out that Babbage’s personal notes from the years 1836/1837 contain the first programs for the engine.She also developed a vision of the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching, while many others, including Babbage himself, focused only on those capabilities.Her mindset of “poetical science” led her to ask questions about the Analytical Engine (as shown in her notes) examining how individuals and society relate to technology as a collaborative tool.

She died of uterine cancer in 1852 at the age of 36.

Lovelace died at the age of 36 on 27 November 1852, from uterine cancer probably exacerbated by bloodletting by her physicians.The illness lasted several months, in which time Annabella took command over whom Ada saw, and excluded all of her friends and confidants. Under her mother’s influence, Ada had a religious transformation and was coaxed into repenting of her previous conduct and making Annabella her executor. She lost contact with her husband after confessing something to him on 30 August which caused him to abandon her bedside. It is not known what she told him.She was buried, at her request, next to her father at the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Hucknall, Nottinghamshire. A memorial plaque, written in Latin, to her and her father is in the chapel attached to Horsley Towers.

Six copies of the 1843 first edition of Sketch of the Analytical Engine with Ada Lovelace’s “Notes”have been located. Three are held at Harvard University, one at the University of Oklahoma, and one at the United States Air Force Academy. On 20 July 2018, the sixth copy was sold at auction to an anonymous buyer for ¬£95,000.A digital facsimile of one of the copies in the Harvard University Library is available online.

In December 2016, a letter written by Ada Lovelace was forfeited by Martin Shkreli to the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance for unpaid taxes owed by Shkreli.

11. Edith Cowan (1861 ‚Äď 1932)

“Women are very desirous of their being placed on absolutely equal terms with men. We ask for neither more nor less than that.‚ÄĚ

Edith Dircksey Cowan OBE ( Brown; 2 August 1861 ‚Äď 9 June 1932) was an Australian social reformer who worked for the rights and welfare of women and children. She is best known as the first Australian woman to serve as a member of parliament. Cowan has been featured on the reverse of Australia’s 50-dollar note since 1995.

Edith Cowan 1900.jpg

Cowan was born on Glengarry station near Geraldton, Western Australia. She was the granddaughter of two of the colony’s early settlers, Thomas Brown and John Wittenoom. Cowan’s mother died when she was seven, and she was subsequently sent to boarding school in Perth. At the age of 15, her father, Kenneth Brown, was executed for the murder of her stepmother, making her an orphan. She subsequently lived with her grandmother in Guildford, Western Australia until her marriage at the age of 18. She and her husband would have five children together, splitting their time between homes in West Perth and Cottesloe.

In 1894, Cowan was one of the founders of the Karrakatta Club, the first women’s social club in Australia. She became prominent in the women’s suffrage movement, which saw women in Western Australia granted the right to vote in 1899. Cowan was also a leading advocate for public education and the rights of children (particularly those born to single mothers). She was one of the first women to serve on a local board of education, and in 1906 helped to found the Children’s Protection Society, whose lobbying resulted in the creation of the Children’s Court the following year. Cowan was a co-founder of the Women’s Service Guild in 1909, and in 1911 helped establish a state branch of the National Council of Women.

Cowan was a key figure in the creation of the King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, and became a member of its advisory board when it opened in 1916. She was made a justice of the Children’s Court in 1915 and a justice of the peace in 1920. In 1921, Cowan was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia as a member of the Nationalist Party, becoming Australia’s first female parliamentarian. She was defeated after just a single term, but maintained a high profile during her tenure and managed to secure the passage of several of her private member’s bills.

Cowan became involved with social issues and injustices in the legal system, especially with respect to women and children. In 1894, she helped found the Karrakatta Club, a group in which women “educated themselves for the kind of life they believed they ought to be able to take”. In time, she became the club’s president, life member, and trustee. The Karrakatta Club became involved in the campaign for women’s suffrage, successfully gaining the vote for women in 1899.

After the turn of the century, she turned her eye to welfare issues. She was particularly concerned with women’s health and the welfare of disadvantaged groups, such as disadvantaged children and prostitutes. She became extraordinarily active in women’s organisations and welfare organisations, serving on numerous committees. The building of Perth’s King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women in 1916 was largely a result of her efforts. She helped form the Women’s Service Guilds in 1909 and was a co-founder of the Western Australia’s National Council of Women, serving as president from 1913 to 1921 and vice-president until her death. Cowan was also a Western Australian delegate to the national assembly for 19 years.

In 1916, she became Freemason, admitted to the Australian federation of Droit Humain.

She believed that children should not be tried as adults and, accordingly, founded the Children’s Protection Society. The society had a major role in the subsequent introduction of children’s courts. In 1915, she was appointed to the bench of the new court  and continued on in this position for eighteen years. In 1920, she became one of the first female Justices of the Peace. Her great great nephew David Malcolm followed in her footsteps, by becoming Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Western Australia in 1988.

During World War I, she collected food and clothing for soldiers at the front and coordinated efforts to care for returned soldiers. She became chairperson of the Red Cross Appeal Committee and was rewarded when, in 1920, she was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE).

In her final years, she was an Australian delegate to the 1925 International Conference of Women held in the United States. She helped to found the Royal Western Australian Historical Society in 1926 and assisted in the planning of Western Australia’s 1929 Centenary celebrations. Though she remained involved in social issues, illness forced her to withdraw somewhat from public life in later years.

Community positions held

Beside being a Member of Parliament, Cowan held positions on many boards in Western Australia, in 1929 during the Centenary The West Australian published a list of these;

  • Perth Hospital Board
  • King Edward Maternity Hospital Advisory Board
  • Chairman of the Perth Hospital Red Cross Auxiliary
  • President of the Military Nurses Home committee
  • President of Pageantry and sights committee — WA Historical Society
  • Vice President of WA League of Nations Union
  • Red Cross division committee
  • Children’s Protection Society
  • Town Planning Association
  • Housewives Association
  • Infant Health Association
  • WA Historical Society
  • Nationalist Party Executive
  • Governor of St Mary’s Church School
  • General and Provisional Synods of the Church of England
  • Bush Nursing Association
  • Centenary Committee
  • Women’s Immigration Auxiliary
  • Girl Guides Council
  • Karrakatta Club
  • Western Australia National Council of Women

12. Amelia Earhart

Earhart as a childAmelia Earhart standing under nose of her Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, small.jpg

‚ÄúWomen must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail, their failure must be but a challenge to others.‚ÄĚ

Amelia Mary Earhart¬†(born July 24, 1897 ‚Äď disappeared July 2, 1937, declared dead¬†January 5, 1939) was an American¬†aviation pioneer and author.¬†Earhart was the first¬†female aviator¬†to fly solo across the¬†Atlantic Ocean.She set many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences, and was instrumental in the formation of¬†The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots.

Born in¬†Atchison, Kansas, Earhart developed a passion for adventure at a young age, steadily gaining flying experience from her twenties. In 1928, Earhart became the first female passenger to cross the Atlantic by airplane (accompanying pilot¬†Wilmer Stultz), for which she achieved celebrity status. In 1932, piloting a¬†Lockheed Vega 5B, Earhart made a nonstop solo¬†transatlantic flight, becoming the first woman to achieve such a feat. She received the¬†United States Distinguished Flying Cross¬†for this accomplishment.[7]¬†In 1935, Earhart became a visiting faculty member at¬†Purdue University¬†as an advisor to¬†aeronautical engineering¬†and a career counselor to women students. She was also a member of the¬†National Woman’s Party¬†and an early supporter of the¬†Equal Rights Amendment.

During an attempt at becoming the first female to complete a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937 in a Purdue-funded Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. The two were last seen in Lae, New Guinea, on July 2, 1937, on the last land stop before Howland Island and one of their final legs of the flight. She presumably lost her life in the Pacific at the age of forty, during the circumnavigation. Nearly one year and six months after she and Noonan disappeared, Earhart was officially declared dead. Investigations and significant public interest in their disappearance still continue over 80 years later.

Sisters Amelia and Muriel (who went by her middle name from her teens on) remained with their grandparents in Atchison while their parents moved into new, smaller quarters in Des Moines. During this period, the Earhart girls received homeschooling from their mother and governess. Amelia later recounted that she was “exceedingly fond of reading”¬†and spent countless hours in the large family library. In 1909, when the family was finally reunited in Des Moines, the Earhart children were enrolled in public school for the first time and Amelia, 12, entered seventh grade.

Earhart in evening clothes

While the family’s finances seemingly improved with the acquisition of a new house and even the hiring of two servants, it soon became apparent that Edwin was an alcoholic. Five years later in 1914, he was forced to retire and although he attempted to rehabilitate himself through treatment, he was never reinstated at the Rock Island Railroad. At about this time, Earhart’s grandmother Amelia Otis died suddenly, leaving a substantial estate that placed her daughter’s share in a trust, fearing that Edwin’s drinking would drain the funds. The Otis house was auctioned along with all of its contents; Earhart was heartbroken and later described it as the end of her childhood.

In 1915, after a long search, Earhart’s father found work as a clerk at the¬†Great Northern Railway¬†in St. Paul, Minnesota, where Earhart entered¬†Central High School¬†as a junior. Edwin applied for a transfer to¬†Springfield, Missouri, in 1915, but the current claims officer reconsidered his retirement and demanded his job back, leaving the elder Earhart with nowhere to go. Facing another calamitous move, Amy Earhart took her children to Chicago, where they lived with friends. Earhart made an unusual condition in the choice of her next schooling; she canvassed nearby high schools in Chicago to find the best science program. She rejected the high school nearest her home when she complained that the chemistry lab was “just like a kitchen sink”.She eventually enrolled in¬†Hyde Park High School¬†but spent a miserable semester where a yearbook caption captured the essence of her unhappiness, “A.E. ‚Äď the girl in brown who walks alone”.

Earhart graduated from Chicago’s Hyde Park High School in 1916.Throughout her troubled childhood, she had continued to aspire to a future career; she kept a scrapbook of newspaper clippings about successful women in predominantly male-oriented fields, including film direction and production, law, advertising, management, and mechanical engineering.¬†She began junior college at¬†Ogontz School¬†in¬†Rydal, Pennsylvania, but did not complete her program.

During Christmas vacation in 1917, Earhart visited her sister in¬†Toronto.¬†World War I¬†had been raging and Earhart saw the returning wounded soldiers. After receiving training as a¬†nurse’s aide¬†from the¬†Red Cross, she began work with the¬†Voluntary Aid Detachment¬†at¬†Spadina Military Hospital. Her duties included preparing food in the kitchen for patients with special diets and handing out prescribed medication in the hospital’s dispensary.

When the 1918¬†Spanish flu¬†pandemic reached Toronto, Earhart was engaged in arduous nursing duties that included night shifts at the Spadina Military Hospital.She became a patient herself, suffering from pneumonia and¬†maxillary¬†sinusitis.She was hospitalized in early November 1918, owing to pneumonia, and discharged in December 1918, about two months after the illness had started.¬†Her¬†sinus-related symptoms were pain and pressure around one eye and copious mucus drainage via the nostrils and throat.¬†While staying in the hospital during the pre-antibiotic era, she had painful minor operations to wash out the affected maxillary sinus,¬†but these procedures were not successful and Earhart subsequently suffered from worsening headaches. Her convalescence lasted nearly a year, which she spent at her sister’s home in¬†Northampton, Massachusetts.She passed the time by reading poetry, learning to play the banjo and studying mechanics.Chronic sinusitis significantly affected Earhart’s flying and activities in later life,and sometimes even on the airfield she was forced to wear a bandage on her cheek to cover a small drainage tube.



Margaret Thatcher: 1925 – 2013Personality Today | Tyrant Profile: Margaret Thatcher (the √ʬĬúIron Lady√ʬĬĚ) ( 1925 √ʬĬď 2013)Margaret Thatcher Archives - White GunpowderMargaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, ¬†(¬†Roberts; 13 October 1925¬†‚Äď 8 April 2013) was a British politician and¬†stateswoman¬†who served as¬†Prime Minister of the United Kingdom¬†from 1979 to 1990 and¬†Leader of the Conservative Party¬†from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the “Iron Lady“, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As prime minister, she implemented policies that became known as¬†Thatcherism.

Thatcher studied chemistry at¬†Somerville College, Oxford, and worked briefly as a research¬†chemist, before becoming a¬†barrister. She was¬†elected Member of Parliament¬†for¬†Finchley¬†in¬†1959.¬†Edward Heath¬†appointed her¬†Secretary of State for Education and Science¬†in his¬†1970‚Äď1974 government. In 1975, she defeated Heath in the¬†Conservative Party leadership election¬†to become¬†Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. On becoming prime minister after winning the¬†1979 general election, Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high¬†inflation¬†and Britain’s struggles in the wake of the¬†Winter of Discontent¬†and¬†an oncoming recession. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised¬†deregulation¬†(particularly of the financial sector), the privatisation of¬†state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Her popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982¬†Falklands War¬†and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her¬†landslide¬†re-election in¬†1983. She survived an assassination attempt by the¬†Provisional IRA¬†in the 1984¬†Brighton hotel bombing¬†and achieved a political victory against the¬†National Union of Mineworkers¬†in the¬†1984‚Äď85 miners’ strike.

Thatcher was re-elected for a third term with another landslide in¬†1987, but her subsequent support for the¬†Community Charge¬†(“poll tax”) was widely unpopular, and her increasingly¬†Eurosceptic¬†views on the¬†European Community¬†were not shared by others in her cabinet. She resigned as prime minister and party leader in 1990, after a¬†challenge was launched to her leadership.¬†After retiring from the¬†Commons¬†in 1992, she was given a¬†life peerage¬†as Baroness Thatcher (of¬†Kesteven¬†in the¬†County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the¬†House of Lords. In 2013, she¬†died of a stroke¬†at¬†the Ritz Hotel, London, at the age of 87.

A controversial figure in British politics, Thatcher is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers. Her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom and debate over the complicated legacy attributed to Thatcherism persists into the 21st century.

“The ‘Iron Lady'”

I stand before you tonight in my Red Star chiffon evening gown, my face softly made up and my fair hair gently waved, the Iron Lady of the Western world.

‚ÄĒ‚ÄČThatcher embracing her Soviet nickname in 1976

In 1976, Thatcher gave her “Britain Awake” foreign policy speech which lambasted the Soviet Union, saying it was “bent on world dominance”.The Soviet Army journal¬†Red Star¬†reported her stance in a piece headlined “Iron Lady Raises Fears”,¬†alluding to her remarks on the¬†Iron Curtain.The Sunday Times¬†covered the¬†Red Star¬†article the next day,and Thatcher embraced the¬†epithet¬†a week later; in a speech to Finchley Conservatives she likened it to the¬†Duke of Wellington’s nickname “The Iron Duke”.¬†The¬†“Iron” metaphor¬†followed her throughout ever since,¬†and would become a generic¬†sobriquet¬†for other strong-willed female politicians.

The Queen

As prime minister, Thatcher met weekly with Queen Elizabeth II to discuss government business, and their relationship came under close scrutiny.Campbell (2011a, p. 464) states:

One question that continued to fascinate the public about the phenomenon of a woman Prime Minister was how she got on with the Queen. The answer is that their relations were punctiliously correct, but there was little love lost on either side. As two women of very similar age ‚Äď Mrs Thatcher was six months older ‚Äď occupying parallel positions at the top of the social pyramid, one the head of government, the other head of state, they were bound to be in some sense rivals. Mrs Thatcher’s attitude to the Queen was ambivalent. On the one hand she had an almost mystical reverence for the institution of the monarchy […] Yet at the same time she was trying to modernise the country and sweep away many of the values and practices which the monarchy perpetuated.

Michael Shea, the Queen’s press secretary, in 1986 leaked stories of a deep rift to¬†The Sunday Times. He said that she felt Thatcher’s policies were “uncaring, confrontational and socially divisive”.Thatcher later wrote: “I always found the Queen’s attitude towards the work of the Government absolutely correct […] stories of clashes between ‘two powerful women’ were just too good not to make up.”

Final years: 2003‚Äď2013
photographThatcher arriving for the funeral of President Reagan in 2004

On 11 June 2004, Thatcher (against doctor’s orders) attended the¬†state funeral service for Ronald Reagan.She delivered her eulogy via videotape; in view of her health, the message had been pre-recorded several months earlier.¬†Thatcher flew to California with the Reagan entourage, and attended the memorial service and interment ceremony for the president at the¬†Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

In 2005, Thatcher criticised the way the decision to¬†invade Iraq¬†had been made two years previously. Although she still supported the intervention to topple Saddam Hussein, she said that (as a scientist) she would always look for “facts, evidence and proof”, before committing the armed forces.¬†She celebrated her 80th birthday on 13 October at the¬†Mandarin Oriental Hotel¬†in¬†Hyde Park, London; guests included the Queen, the¬†Duke of Edinburgh,¬†Princess Alexandra¬†and Tony Blair.¬†Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, was also in attendance and said of his former leader: “Her real triumph was to have transformed not just one party but two, so that when Labour did eventually return, the great bulk of Thatcherism was accepted as irreversible.”

Thatcher in the US, 2006
Thatcher photographed standing with Dick and Lynne CheneyThatcher (left) at a Washington memorial service on the fifth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks
Thatcher photographed sharing a laugh with Rumsfeld and PaceThatcher with Donald Rumsfeld and General Pace at the Pentagon

In 2006, Thatcher attended the¬†official Washington, D.C. memorial service¬†to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the¬†11 September attacks¬†on the US. She was a guest of Vice-President¬†Dick Cheney, and met Secretary of State¬†Condoleezza Rice during her visit.In February 2007 Thatcher became the first¬†living British prime minister¬†to be honoured with a¬†statue in the Houses of Parliament. The bronze statue stands opposite¬†that of her political hero, Winston Churchill, and was unveiled on 21 February 2007 with Thatcher in attendance; she remarked in the¬†Members’ Lobby¬†of the Commons: “I might have preferred iron ‚Äď but bronze will do […] It won’t rust.”

Thatcher was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.

After collapsing at a¬†House of Lords¬†dinner, Thatcher, suffering¬†low blood pressure,¬†was admitted to¬†St Thomas’ Hospital¬†in central London on 7 March 2008 for tests. In 2009 she was hospitalised again when she fell and broke her arm.Thatcher returned to 10 Downing Street in late November 2009 for the unveiling of an official portrait by artist¬†Richard Stone,¬†an unusual honour for a living former prime minister. Stone was previously commissioned to paint portraits of the Queen and¬†Queen Mother.

On 4 July 2011, Thatcher was to attend a ceremony for the unveiling of a 10¬†ft (3.0¬†m) statue to Ronald Reagan, outside the¬†US Embassy¬†in London, but was unable to attend due to her frail health.¬†She last attended a sitting of the House of Lords on 19 July 2010,and on 30 July 2011 it was announced that her office in the Lords had been closed.Earlier that month, Thatcher was named the most competent prime minister of the past 30 years in an¬†Ipsos MORI¬†poll.Thatcher’s daughter Carol¬†first revealed¬†that her mother had¬†dementia¬†in 2005,saying “Mum doesn’t read much any more because of her memory loss”. In her 2008 memoir, Carol wrote that her mother “could hardly remember the beginning of a sentence by the time she got to the end”.¬†She later recounted how she was first struck by her mother’s dementia when, in conversation, Thatcher confused the Falklands and Yugoslav conflicts; she recalled the pain of needing to tell her mother repeatedly that her husband Denis was dead.

Death and funeral: 2013 Death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher
photographThatcher’s coffin being carried up the steps of¬†St Paul’s Cathedral
photographPlaques on the graves of Margaret and Denis Thatcher at the Royal Hospital Chelsea

Baroness Thatcher died on 8 April 2013, at the age of 87, after suffering a stroke. She had been staying at a suite in¬†the Ritz Hotel¬†in London since December 2012 after having difficulty with stairs at her Chester Square home in Belgravia.Her death certificate listed the primary causes of death as a “cerebrovascular accident” and “repeated¬†transient ischaemic attack”;secondary causes were listed as a “carcinoma¬†of the bladder” and dementia.

Reactions to the news of Thatcher’s death¬†were mixed across the UK, ranging from tributes lauding her as Britain’s greatest-ever peacetime prime minister to public celebrations of her death and expressions of hatred and personalised vitriol.

Details of Thatcher’s funeral had been agreed with her in advance.¬†She received a¬†ceremonial funeral, including full military honours, with a church service at¬†St Paul’s Cathedral¬†on 17 April.

Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh attended her funeral,¬†marking only the second time in the Queen’s reign that she attended the funeral of any of¬†her former prime ministers, after¬†that of Winston Churchill, who received a¬†state funeral¬†in 1965.

After the service at St Paul’s, Thatcher’s body was cremated at Mortlake Crematorium, where her husband had been cremated. On 28 September, a service for Thatcher was held in the All Saints Chapel of the¬†Royal Hospital Chelsea’s Margaret Thatcher Infirmary. In a private ceremony, Thatcher’s ashes were interred in the grounds of the hospital, next to those of her husband.

Thatcherism represented a systematic and decisive overhaul of the post-war consensus, whereby the major political parties largely agreed on the central themes of Keynesianism, the welfare state, nationalised industry, and close regulation of the economy, and high taxes. Thatcher generally supported the welfare state, while proposing to rid it of abuses.

She promised in 1982 that the highly popular¬†National Health Service¬†was “safe in our hands”.¬†At first she ignored the question of privatising nationalised industries. Heavily influenced by right-wing think tanks, and especially by¬†Sir Keith Joseph,Thatcher broadened her attack. Thatcherism came to refer to her policies as well as aspects of her ethical outlook and personal style, including¬†moral absolutism,¬†nationalism,¬†interest in the individual, and an uncompromising approach to achieving political goals.

Thatcher defined her own political philosophy, in a major and controversial break with the¬†“one-nation” conservatism of her predecessor Edward Heath, in a 1987 interview published in¬†Woman’s Own¬†magazine:

I think we have gone through a period when too many children and people have been given to understand “I have a problem, it is the Government’s job to cope with it!” or “I have a problem, I will go and get a grant to cope with it!” “I am homeless, the Government must house me!” and so they are casting their problems on society and who is society? There is no such thing! There are individual men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first. It is our duty to look after ourselves and then also to help look after our neighbour and life is a reciprocal business and people have got the entitlements too much in mind without the obligations.

According to theatre critic¬†Michael Billington,¬†Thatcher left an “emphatic mark” on the arts while prime minister.¬†One of the earliest satires of Thatcher as prime minister involved satirist¬†John Wells¬†(as writer and performer), actress¬†Janet Brown¬†(voicing Thatcher) and future¬†Spitting Image¬†producer¬†John Lloyd¬†(as co-producer), who in 1979 were teamed up by producer¬†Martin Lewis¬†for the satirical audio album¬†The Iron Lady, which consisted of skits and songs satirising Thatcher’s rise to power. The album was released in September 1979.Thatcher was heavily satirised on¬†Spitting Image, and¬†The Independent¬†labelled her “every stand-up’s dream”.

Thatcher was the subject or the inspiration for 1980s¬†protest songs. Musicians¬†Billy Bragg¬†and¬†Paul Weller¬†helped to form the¬†Red Wedge¬†collective to support Labour in opposition to Thatcher. Known as “Maggie” by supporters and opponents alike, the chant song “Maggie Out” became a signature rallying cry among the left during the latter half of her premiership.

Thatcher was parodied by Wells in several media. He collaborated with¬†Richard Ingrams¬†on the spoof “Dear Bill” letters, which ran as a column in¬†Private Eye¬†magazine; they were also published in book form and became a West End stage revue titled¬†Anyone for Denis?, with Wells in the role of Thatcher’s husband. It was followed by a¬†1982 TV special¬†directed by¬†Dick Clement, in which Thatcher was played by¬†Angela Thorne.

Since her premiership, Thatcher has been portrayed in a number of television programmes, documentaries, films and plays.She was portrayed by¬†Patricia Hodge¬†in¬†Ian Curteis’s long unproduced¬†The Falklands Play¬†(2002) and by¬†Andrea Riseborough¬†in the TV film¬†The Long Walk to Finchley¬†(2008). She is the protagonist in two films, played by¬†Lindsay Duncan¬†in¬†Margaret¬†(2009) and by¬†Meryl Streep¬†in¬†The Iron Lady¬†(2011), in which she is depicted as suffering from dementia or¬†Alzheimer’s disease.She is a main character in the¬†fourth season¬†of¬†The Crown, played by¬†Gillian Anderson


Gloria Steinem (1934-Present)

Gloria Marie Steinem ( born March 25, 1934) is an American feminist journalist and social political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader and a spokeswoman for the American feminist movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Steinem was a columnist for¬†New York¬†magazine, and a co-founder of¬†Ms.¬†magazine.¬†In 1969, Steinem published an article, “After Black Power, Women’s Liberation”,which brought her to national fame as a feminist leader.In 1971, she co-founded the¬†National Women’s Political Caucus¬†which provides training and support for women who seek elected and appointed offices in government. Also in 1971, she co-founded the¬†Women’s Action Alliance¬†which, until 1997, provided support to a network of feminist activists and worked to advance feminist causes and legislation. In the 1990s, Steinem helped establish¬†Take Our Daughters to Work Day, an occasion for young girls to learn about future career opportunities.¬†In 2005, Steinem,¬†Jane Fonda, and¬†Robin Morgan¬†co-founded the¬†Women’s Media Center, an organization that “works to make women visible and powerful in the media”.

From her humble Ohio childhood, Gloria Steinem grew up to become an acclaimed journalist, trailblazing feminist, and one of the most visible, passionate leaders and spokeswomen of the women’s rights movement in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Steinem was born on March 25, 1934 in Toledo, Ohio, the second child and daughter of Leo and Ruth Steinem. Her father worked as a traveling salesman. In 1944, her parents divorced, leaving a young Steinem to take care of her mentally ill mother in Toledo. After graduating high school, her sister came to care for their mother, and Steinem attended Smith College in Massachusetts where she studied government. She graduated magna cum laude in 1956 and earned the Chester Bowles Fellowship, which enabled her to spend two years studying and researching in India. Her time abroad inspired an interest in grassroots activism, which would later manifest itself in her work with the women’s liberation movement and the Equal Rights Amendment.

Steinem started her professional career as a journalist in New York, writing freelance pieces for various publications. Getting plumb assignments was tough for women in the late 1950s and 1960s, when men ran the newsrooms and women were largely relegated to secretarial and behind-the-scenes research roles. Steinem‚Äôs early articles tended to be for what was then called ‚Äúthe women‚Äôs pages,‚ÄĚ lifestyle or service features about such female-centered or fashion topics as nylon stockings. Steinem once recalled that,¬†‚ÄúWhen I suggested political stories to¬†The New York Times Sunday Magazine,¬†my editor just said something like, ‚ÄėI don‚Äôt think of you that way.‚Äô‚ÄĚ

Undeterred, Steinem pushed on,¬†seeking more substantial social and political reporting assignments. She gained national attention in 1963 when¬†Show¬†magazine hired her to go undercover to report on the working conditions at Hugh Hefner‚Äôs Playboy Club. While Steinem‚Äôs expose‚ÄĒ‚ÄúI Was a Playboy Bunny‚ÄĚ‚ÄĒrevealed the not-so-glamorous, sexist, and underpaid life of the bunny/waitresses, Steinem struggled to be taken seriously as a journalist after this assignment. She worked hard to make a name for herself, and in 1968, she helped found¬†New York¬†magazine, where she became an editor and political writer.

At New York magazine, Steinem reported on political campaigns and progressive social issues, including the women’s liberation movement. In fact, Steinem first spoke publicly in 1969 at a speak-out event to legalize abortion in New York State, where she shared the story of the abortion she had overseas when she was 22 years old. The event proved life-changing, sparking Steinem’s feminism and engagement with the women’s movement. She attended and spoke at numerous protests and demonstrations, and her strong intellect and good looks made her an in-demand media guest and movement spokesperson.

In 1970, feminist activists staged a take-over of Ladies Home Journal, arguing that the magazine only offered articles on housekeeping but failed to cover women’s rights and the women’s movement. Steinem soon realized the value of a women’s movement magazine, and joined forces with journalists Patricia Carbine and Letty Cottin Pogrebin to found Ms. Magazine. It debuted in 1971 as an insert in New York magazine. In 1972, Ms. became an independent, regular circulation magazine. Steinem remained an editor and writer for the magazine for the next fifteen years and continues in an emeritus capacity to the present.

Steinem’s life has been dedicated to the cause of women’s rights, as she led marches and toured the country as an in-demand speaker. In 1972, Steinem and feminists such as Congresswoman Bella Abzug, Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, and feminist Betty Friedan formed the National Women’s Political Caucus. It continues to support gender equality and to ensure the election of more pro-equality women to public office. Other organizations Steinem has co-founded in her vast career include the Women’s Action Alliance (1971), which promotes non-sexist, multi-racial children’s education; the Women’s Media Center (2004) to promote positive images of women in media; Voters for Choice (1977), a prochoice political action committee; and the Ms. Foundation for Women. In the 1990s, she helped establish Take Our Daughters to Work Day, the first national effort to empower young girls to learn about career opportunities.

In 2000, at age 66, the long single Steinem married for the first time in a Cherokee ceremony in Oklahoma. Her husband, entrepreneur and activist David Bale, sadly died of lymphoma four years later.

An award-winning and prolific writer, Steinem has authored several books, including a biography on Marilyn Monroe, and the best-selling My Life on the Road. Her work has also been published and reprinted in numerous anthologies and textbooks. In 2013, President Barack Obama presented her with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor. In her honor, in 2017, Rutgers University created The Gloria Steinem Endowed Chair in Media, Culture, and Feminist Studies.

As of May 2018, Steinem was traveling internationally as an organizer and lecturer, and was a media spokeswoman on issues of equality.

Steinem was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1986 and trigeminal neuralgia in 1994.

Steinem has no biological children.

On September 3, 2000, at age 66, Steinem married David Bale, father of actor Christian Bale.The wedding was performed at the home of her friend Wilma Mankiller, the first female Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation.Steinem and Bale were married for only three years before he died of brain lymphoma on December 30, 2003, at age 62.

Previously, she had had a four-year relationship with the publisher Mortimer Zuckerman.

Commenting on aging, Steinem says that as she approached 60 she felt like she entered a new phase in life that was free of the “demands of gender” that she faced from adolescence onward.

Awards and honors
  • American Civil Liberties Union¬†of Southern California’s Bill of Rights Award
  • American Humanist Association’s 2012 Humanist of the Year (2012)
  • Biography magazine’s 25 most influential women in America (Steinem was listed as one of them)
  • Clarion award
  • DVF¬†Lifetime Leadership Award (2014)
  • Emmy¬†Citation for excellence in television writing
  • Esquire’s 75 greatest women of all time (Steinem was listed as one of them) (2010)
  • Equality Now’s international human rights award, given jointly to her and¬†Efua Dorkenoo¬†(2000)
  • Front Page award
  • Glamour¬†magazine’s “The 75 Most Important Women of the Past 75 Years” (Steinem was listed as one of them) (2014)
  • Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund’s Liberty Award
  • Library Lion award (2015)
  • The¬†Ms. Foundation for Women’s Gloria Awards, given annually since 1988, are named after Steinem.
  • National Gay Rights Advocates Award
  • National Magazine awards
  • National Women’s Hall of Fame¬†inductee (1993)
  • New York Women’s Foundation’s Century Award (2014)
  • Parenting’s Lifetime Achievement Award (1995)
  • Penney-Missouri Journalism Award
  • Presidential Medal of Freedom¬†(2013)
  • Rutgers University¬†announced the Gloria Steinem Endowed Chair in September 2014.¬†The Chair will fund teaching and research for someone (not necessarily a woman) who exemplifies Steinem’s values of equal representation in the media.This person will teach at least one undergraduate course per semester.
  • Sara Curry¬†Humanitarian Award (2007)
  • Simmons College’s Doctorate of Human Justice
  • Society of Professional Journalists’ Lifetime Achievement in Journalism Award
  • Supersisters¬†trading card set (card number 32 featured Steinem’s name and picture) (1979)
  • United Nations’ Ceres Medal
  • United Nations’ Society of Writers Award
  • University of Missouri School of Journalism Award for Distinguished Service in Journalism
  • Women’s Sports Journalism Award
  • 2015¬†Richard C. Holbrooke¬†Distinguished Achievement Award of the Dayton Literary Peace Prize
  • Recipient of the 2017¬†Ban Ki-moon¬†Award For Women’s Empowerment
  • On the 20th of May, 2019, Steinem received an honorary degree from¬†Yale University.
Oprah Winfrey (1954-Present)

Oprah Winfrey Biography for Kids

‚ÄúBe¬†thankful¬†for what you have; you‚Äôll end up having more. If you concentrate on what you don‚Äôt have, you will never, ever have enough.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Oprah Winfrey

Oprah Gail Winfrey¬†(born¬†Orpah Gail Winfrey;January 29, 1954) is an American talk show host, television producer, actress, author, and¬†philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show,¬†The Oprah Winfrey Show, broadcast from Chicago, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and ran in national syndication for 25 years, from 1986 to 2011.¬†Dubbed the “Queen of All Media,‚ÄĚ she was the richest African American of the 20th century¬†and North America’s first black multi-billionaire,and she has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history.By 2007, she was sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world.

Winfrey was born into poverty in rural¬†Mississippi¬†to a single teenage mother and later raised in inner-city¬†Milwaukee. She has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14; her son was born¬†prematurely¬†and died in infancy.Winfrey was then sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in¬†Tennessee, and landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey’s often emotional, extemporaneous delivery eventually led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, and after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place¬†she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.

By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement, mindfulness, and spirituality. Though she has been criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas,and having an emotion-centered approach, she has also been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had also emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, with her endorsement of Barack Obama estimated to have been worth about one million votes during the 2008 Democratic primaries. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard. In 2008, she formed her own network, the Oprah Winfrey Network (OWN).

Credited with creating a more intimate, confessional form of media communication,¬†Winfrey popularized and revolutionized¬†the¬†tabloid talk show¬†genre pioneered by¬†Phil Donahue.In 1994, she was inducted into the¬†National Women’s Hall of Fame. Winfrey has won¬†many accolades¬†throughout her career which includes 18¬†Daytime Emmy Awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award and the Chairman’s Award, two¬†Primetime Emmy Awards, including the¬†Bob Hope Humanitarian Award, a¬†Tony Award, a¬†Peabody Award¬†and the¬†Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, awarded by the¬†Academy Awards¬†and two additional Academy Award nominations.

                                                    As actress

Year Title Role Notes
1985 The Color Purple Sofia Film debut
Nominated ‚ÄstAcademy Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated ‚ÄstGolden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress ‚Äď Motion Picture
Nominated ‚ÄstLos Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
1986 Native Son Mrs. Thomas  
1989 The Women of Brewster Place Mattie Michael Television miniseries
1990 Brewster Place Mattie Michael Television series
1992 Lincoln Elizabeth Keckley Voice role; television movie (ABC)
There Are No Children Here LaJoe Rivers Television movie (ABC)
1997 Ellen Therapist “The Puppy Episode: Part 1” (#4.22)
“The Puppy Episode: Part 2” (#4.23)
Before Women Had Wings Zora Williams Also producer
Television movie (ABC)
1998 Beloved Sethe Also producer
Nominated ‚ÄstNAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Motion Picture
1999 Our Friend, Martin Coretta Scott King Voice role; direct-to-video film
2006 Charlotte’s Web Gussy the Goose Voice role
2007 Bee Movie Judge Bumbleton
2009 The Princess and the Frog Eudora
2010 Sesame Street O (voice) “The Camouflage Challenge”
2013 The Butler Gloria Gaines African-American Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
Santa Barbara International Film Festival ‚ÄĒ Montecito Award
Nominated ‚ÄstBAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated ‚ÄstBlack Reel Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated ‚ÄstBroadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated ‚Äď Denver Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated ‚ÄstNAACP Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture
Nominated ‚Äď Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated ‚ÄstSatellite Award for Best Supporting Actress ‚Äď Motion Picture
Nominated ‚ÄstScreen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role
Nominated ‚ÄstScreen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2014 Selma Annie Lee Cooper Also producer
Women Film Critics Circle Award for Best Female Action Star
Nominated ‚ÄstAcademy Award for Best Picture
Nominated ‚ÄstIndependent Spirit Award for Best Film
Nominated ‚ÄstNAACP Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture
2016‚Äď17 Greenleaf Mavis McCready Television series; also executive producer
2017 The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Deborah Lacks Television movie; also executive producer
Nominated ‚ÄstNAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Television Movie, Mini-Series or Dramatic Special
Nominated ‚ÄstPrimetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Television Movie
The Star Deborah the Camel Voice role
2018 A Wrinkle in Time Mrs. Which  
Crow: The Legend The One Who Creates Everything by Thinking Voice role
Mother Teresa (1910-1997)Mother Teresa 1.jpg

Mother¬†Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu (born¬†Anjez√ę Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, ; 26 August 1910¬†‚Äď 5 September 1997), honoured in the¬†Catholic Church¬†as¬†Saint Teresa of Calcutta, was an¬†Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic¬†nun¬†and¬†missionary. She was born in¬†Skopje¬†(now the capital of¬†North Macedonia), then part of the¬†Kosovo Vilayet¬†of the¬†Ottoman Empire. After living in Skopje for eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and then to¬†India, where she lived for most of her life.

In 1950, Teresa founded the¬†Missionaries of Charity, a¬†Roman Catholic¬†religious congregation¬†that had over 4,500¬†nuns¬†and was active in 133 countries in 2012. The congregation manages homes for people who are dying of¬†HIV/AIDS,¬†leprosy¬†and¬†tuberculosis. It also runs¬†soup kitchens, dispensaries, mobile clinics, children’s and family counselling programmes, as well as¬†orphanages¬†and schools. Members take vows of¬†chastity, poverty, and obedience, and also profess a fourth vow ‚Äď to give “wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor.”

Teresa received a number of honors, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. She was canonised on 4 September 2016, and the anniversary of her death (5 September) is her feast day. A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticized on various counts, such as for her views on abortion and contraception, and was criticized for poor conditions in her houses for the dying. Her authorized biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, and she has been the subject of films and other books. On 6 September 2017, Teresa and St. Francis Xavier were named co-patrons of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta.

She began missionary work with the poor in 1948,¬†replacing her traditional Loreto¬†habit¬†with a simple, white cotton¬†sari¬†with a blue border. Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, spent several months in¬†Patna¬†to receive basic medical training at Holy Family Hospital and ventured into the slums. She founded a school in Motijhil, Kolkata, before she began tending to the poor and hungry.¬†At the beginning of 1949 Teresa was joined in her effort by a group of young women, and she laid the foundation for a new religious community helping the “poorest among the poor”.¬†

Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the prime minister.  Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulty. With no income, she begged for food and supplies and experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months:

Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today, I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then, the comfort of Loreto [her former congregation] came to tempt me. “You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again”, the Tempter kept on saying.¬†… Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come.

Teresa had a heart attack in Rome in 1983 while she was visiting Pope John Paul II. Following a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, after a bout of pneumonia in Mexico, she had additional heart problems. Although Teresa offered to resign as head of the Missionaries of Charity, in a secret ballot the sisters of the congregation voted for her to stay and she agreed to continue.

In April 1996 she fell, breaking her¬†collarbone, and four months later she had¬†malaria¬†and¬†heart failure. Although Teresa had¬†heart surgery, her health was clearly declining. According to Archbishop of Calcutta¬†Henry Sebastian D’Souza, he ordered a priest to perform an¬†exorcism¬†(with her permission) when she was first hospitalized with cardiac problems because he thought she might be under attack by the devil.

On 13 March 1997 Teresa resigned as head of the Missionaries of Charity, and she died on 5 September.At the time of her death, the Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters and an associated brotherhood of 300 members operating 610 missions in 123 countries.¬†These included hospices and homes for people with¬†HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children’s-and family-counselling programmes, orphanages and schools. The Missionaries of Charity were aided by co-workers numbering over one million by the 1990s.

Teresa¬†lay in repose¬†in an open casket in¬†St Thomas, Calcutta, for a week before her funeral. She received a¬†state funeral¬†from the Indian government in gratitude for her service to the poor of all religions in the country.Assisted by five priests,¬†Cardinal Secretary of State¬†Angelo Sodano, the Pope’s representative, performed the last rites. Teresa’s death was mourned in the secular and religious communities.¬†Prime Minister of Pakistan¬†Nawaz Sharif¬†called her “a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity.”¬†According to former¬†U.N. Secretary-General¬†Javier P√©rez de Cu√©llar, “She is the United Nations. She is peace in the world.”


Film and literature   Documentaries and books

  • Teresa is the subject of the 1969 documentary film and 1972 book,¬†Something Beautiful for God, by¬†Malcolm Muggeridge.The film has been credited with drawing the Western world’s attention to Mother Teresa.
  • Christopher Hitchens’ 1994 documentary,¬†Hell’s Angel, argues that Teresa urged the poor to accept their fate; the rich are portrayed as favoured by God.¬†It was the precursor of Hitchens’ essay,¬†The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice.

Dramatic films and television

  • Geraldine Chaplin¬†played Teresa in¬†Mother Teresa: In the Name of God’s Poor, which received a 1997 Art Film Festival award.
  • She was played by¬†Olivia Hussey¬†in a 2003 Italian television miniseries,¬†Mother Teresa of Calcutta.¬†Re-released in 2007, it received a¬†CAMIE award.
  • Teresa was played by¬†Juliet Stevenson¬†in the 2014 film¬†The Letters, which was based on her letters to Vatican priest¬†Celeste van Exem.
  • Mother Teresa, played by¬†Cara Francis¬†the¬†Fantasy Grandma, rap battles Sigmund Freud¬†in¬†Epic Rap Battles of History, a comedy rap¬†YouTube¬†series created by¬†Nice Peter¬†and¬†Epic Lloyd. The Rap was released on YouTube September 22, 2019.
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)

The 1709 Blog: 12 for 2012: No.6: Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)

Adeline Virginia Woolf (¬†Stephen; 25 January 1882¬†‚Äď 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important¬†modernist¬†20th century authors and also a pioneer in the use of¬†stream of consciousness¬†as a narrative device.

Woolf was born into an affluent household in¬†South Kensington, London, the seventh child in a¬†blended family¬†of eight which included the modernist painter¬†Vanessa Bell. Her mother was¬†Julia Prinsep Jackson¬†and her father¬†Leslie Stephen. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf’s early life was the summer home the family used in¬†St Ives, Cornwall, where, in the late 1890s, she first saw the¬†Godrevy Lighthouse, which was to become central to her novel¬†To the Lighthouse¬†(1927).

Woolf’s childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years later by the death of her half-sister and a mother figure to her, Stella Duckworth. From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies’ Department of¬†King’s College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women’s higher education and the¬†women’s rights movement. Other important influences were her¬†Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father’s vast library.

Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900. Her father’s death in 1904 caused Woolf to have another mental breakdown. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle. It was in¬†Bloomsbury¬†where, in conjunction with the brothers’ intellectual friends, they formed the artistic and literary¬†Bloomsbury Group.

In 1912, she married Leonard Woolf, and in 1917 the couple founded the Hogarth Press, which published much of her work. They rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by her mental illness. She was institutionalised several times and attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness may have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. In 1941, at age 59, Woolf died by drowning herself in the River Ouse at Lewes.

During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London’s literary and artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel,¬†The Voyage Out, through her half-brother’s publishing house,¬†Gerald Duckworth and Company. Her best-known works include the novels¬†Mrs Dalloway¬†(1925),¬†To the Lighthouse¬†(1927), and¬†Orlando¬†(1928). She is also known for her essays, including¬†A Room of One’s Own¬†(1929), in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, “A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction.”

Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for “inspiring¬†feminism”. Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages. A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, and she has been the subject of plays, novels, and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the¬†University of London.

Much examination has been made of Woolf’s mental health From the age of 13, following the death of her mother, Woolf suffered periodic mood swings from severe depression to manic excitement, including psychotic episodes, which the family referred to as her “madness”.¬†But as¬†Hermione Lee points out, she was not “mad”, she was merely a woman who suffered from and struggled with illness for much of her relatively short life, a woman of “exceptional courage, intelligence and stoicism”, a woman who made the best use, and achieved the best understanding, she could of that illness.¬†Psychiatrists today consider that her illness constitutes¬†bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness).¬†Her mother’s death in 1895, “the greatest disaster that could happen”,¬†precipitated a crisis of alternating excitability and depression accompanied by irrational fears, for which their family doctor, Dr. Seton, prescribed rest, stopping lessons and writing, and regular walks supervised by Stella.¬†Yet, just two years later, Stella too was dead, bringing on her next crisis in 1897, and her first expressed wish for death at the age of fifteen, writing in her diary that October that “death would be shorter & less painful”. She then stopped keeping a diary for some time. This was a scenario she would later recreate in “Time Passes” (To the Lighthouse, 1927).

The death of her father in 1904 provoked her most alarming collapse, on 10 May, when she threw herself out of a window and she was briefly institutionalised under the care of her father’s friend, the eminent psychiatrist¬†George Savage. Savage blamed her education‚ÄĒfrowned on by many at the time as unsuitable for women ‚ÄĒfor her illness.¬†She spent time recovering at the house of Stella’s friend Violet Dickinson, and at her aunt¬†Caroline’s house in Cambridge,¬†and by January 1905, Dr Savage considered her “cured”. ¬†Violet, seventeen years older than Virginia, became one of her closest friends and one of her more effective nurses. She characterised this as a “romantic friendship” (Letter to Violet 4 May 1903). ¬†Her brother Thoby’s death in 1906 marked a “decade of deaths‚ÄĚ that ended her childhood and adolescence. From then on her life was punctuated by urgent voices from the grave that at times seemed more real than her visual reality.

On Dr. Savage’s recommendation, Virginia spent three short periods in 1910, 1912, and 1913 at Burley House at 15 Cambridge Park,¬†Twickenham ,¬†described as “a private nursing home for women with nervous disorder” run by Miss Jean Thomas.¬†By the end of February 1910, she was becoming increasingly restless, and Dr. Savage suggested being away from London. Vanessa rented¬†Moat House outside Canterbury in June but there was no improvement, so Dr. Savage sent her to Burley for a “rest cure”. This involved partial isolation, deprivation of literature, and force-feeding, and after six weeks she was able to convalesce in Cornwall and Dorset during the autumn. She loathed the experience; writing to her sister on 28 July¬†she described how she found the phony religious atmosphere stifling and the institution ugly, and informed Vanessa that to escape “I shall soon have to jump out of a window.‚ÄĚ The threat of being sent back would later lead to her contemplating suicide.¬†Despite her protests, Savage would refer her back in 1912 for insomnia and in 1913 for depression. On emerging from¬†Burley House¬†in September 1913, she sought further opinions from two other physicians on the 13th, Maurice Wright, and¬†Henry Head, who had been¬†Henry James’ physician. Both recommended she return to¬†Burley House. Distraught, she returned home and attempted suicide by taking an overdose of 100¬†grains¬†of¬†veronal¬†(a barbiturate) and nearly dying,¬†had she not been found by Ka Cox who summoned help. On recovery, she went to¬†Dalingridge Hall, George Duckworth’s home in¬†East Grinstead, Sussex, to convalesce on 30 September, accompanied by Ka Cox and a nurse,¬†returning to¬†Asham¬†on 18 November with Janet Case and Ka Cox. She remained unstable over the next two years, with another incident involving veronal that she claimed was an “accident” and consulted another psychiatrist in April 1914,¬†Maurice Craig, who explained that she was not sufficiently psychotic to be certified or committed to an institution. The rest of the summer of 1914 went better for her and they moved to Richmond, but in February 1915, just as¬†The Voyage Out was due to be published, she relapsed once more and remained in poor health for most of that year.¬†Then, despite Miss Thomas’s gloomy prognosis, she began to recover following 20 years of ill health.¬†Nevertheless, there was a feeling among those around her that she was now permanently changed, and not for the better.[

Over the rest of her life she suffered recurrent bouts of depression. In 1940 a number of factors appeared to overwhelm her. Her biography of Roger Fry. had been published in July and she had been disappointed in its reception. The horrors of war depressed her and their London homes had been destroyed in the Blitz in September and October. She had completed Between the Acts (1941 posthumously) n November, and completing a novel was frequently accompanied by exhaustion. Her health became increasingly a matter of concern, culminating in her decision to end her life on 28 March 1941.

Though this instability would frequently affect her social life, she was able to continue her literary productivity with few interruptions throughout her life. Woolf herself provides not only a vivid picture of her symptoms in her diaries and letters, but also her response to the demons that haunted her and at times made her long for death. “But it is always a question whether I wish to avoid these glooms… These 9 weeks give one a plunge into deep waters… One goes down into the well & nothing protects one from the assault of truth.”¬†Psychiatry had little to offer her in her lifetime, but she recognised that writing was one of the behaviours that enabled her to cope with her illness,¬†“The only way I keep afloat… is by working… Directly I stop working I feel that I am sinking down, down. And as usual, I feel that if I sink further I shall reach the truth.” Sinking under water was Woolf’s metaphor for both the effects of depression and psychosis‚ÄĒ but also for finding truth, and ultimately was her choice of death.¬†Throughout her life Woolf struggled, without success, to find meaning in her illness, on the one hand an impediment, on the other something she visualised as an essential part of who she was, and a necessary condition of her art.When she was able to control her illness, it informed her work, such as the character of Septimus Warren Smith in¬†Mrs Dalloway¬†(1925),who, like Woolf, was haunted by the dead, and ultimately takes his own life rather than be admitted to a sanitorium.

Leonard Woolf relates how during the 30 years they were married they consulted many doctors in the¬†Harley Street¬†area, and although they were given a diagnosis of¬†neurasthenia, he felt they had little understanding of the causes or nature. The solution was simple‚ÄĒas long as she lived a quiet life without any physical or mental exertion, she was well. On the other hand, any mental, emotional, or physical strain resulted in a reappearance of her symptoms. These began with a headache, followed by insomnia and thoughts that started to race. Her remedy was simple, to retire to bed in a darkened room, eat, and drink plenty of milk, following which the symptoms slowly subsided.

Modern scholars, including her nephew and biographer,¬†Quentin Bell,¬†have suggested her breakdowns and subsequent recurring depressive periods were influenced by the sexual abuse which she and her sister Vanessa were subjected by their half-brothers¬†George¬†and¬†Gerald Duckworth¬†(which Woolf recalls in her autobiographical essays “A Sketch of the Past” and “22 Hyde Park Gate”)¬†Biographers point out that when Stella died in 1897, there was no counterbalance to control George’s predation, and his nighttime prowling. Virginia describes him as her first lover, “The old ladies of Kensington and Belgravia never knew that George Duckworth was not only father and mother, brother and sister to those poor Stephen girls; he was their lover also.”

It is likely that other factors also played a part. It has been suggested that these include¬†genetic predisposition, for both trauma and family history have been implicated in bipolar disorder.Virginia’s father, Leslie Stephen, suffered from depression, and her half-sister Laura was institutionalised. Many of Virginia’s symptoms, including persistent headache, insomnia, irritability, and anxiety resemble those of her father.¬†Another factor is the pressure she placed upon herself in her work; for instance, her breakdown of 1913 was at least partly triggered by the need to finish¬†The Voyage Out. Virginia herself hinted that her illness was related to how she saw the repressed position of women in society, when she wrote in¬†A Room of One’s Own that had Shakespeare had a sister of equal genius, she “would certainly have gone crazed, shot herself, or ended her days in some lonely cottage outside the village, half witch, half wizard, feared and mocked at”. These inspirations emerged from what Woolf referred to as her lava of madness, describing her time at Burley¬†in a 1930 letter to¬†Ethel Smyth:

As an experience, madness is terrific I can assure you, and not to be sniffed at; and in its lava I still find most of the things I write about. It shoots out of one everything shaped, final, not in mere driblets, as sanity does. And the six months‚ÄĒnot three‚ÄĒthat I lay in bed taught me a good deal about what is called oneself.

Thomas Caramagno and others, ¬†in discussing her illness, warn against the “neurotic-genius” way of looking at mental illness, which rationalises the theory that creativity is somehow born of mental illness.¬†Stephen Trombley¬†describes Woolf as having a confrontational relationship with her doctors, and possibly being a woman who is a “victim of male medicine”, referring to the contemporary relative lack of understanding about mental illness.

Virginia Woolf’s suicide letter to her husband.¬†

After completing the manuscript of her last novel (posthumously published),¬†Between the Acts (1941),Woolf fell into a depression similar to that which she had earlier experienced. The onset of World War II, the destruction of her London home during¬†the Blitz, and the cool reception given to¬†her biography of her late friend¬†Roger Fry¬†all worsened her condition until she was unable to work.When Leonard enlisted in the Home Guard, Virginia disapproved. She held fast to her¬†pacifism¬†and criticised her husband for wearing what she considered to be “the silly uniform of the Home Guard”.

After World War II began, Woolf’s diary indicates that she was obsessed with death, which figured more and more as her mood darkened.¬†On 28 March 1941, Woolf drowned herself by filling her overcoat pockets with stones and walking into the¬†River Ouse¬†near her home.¬†Her body was not found until 18 April.¬†Her husband buried her cremated remains beneath an elm tree in the garden of¬†Monk’s House, their home in¬†Rodmell, Sussex.

In her suicide note, addressed to her husband, she wrote:

Dearest, I feel certain that I am going mad again. I feel we can’t go through another of those terrible times. And I shan’t recover this time. I begin to hear voices, and I can’t concentrate. So I am doing what seems the best thing to do. You have given me the greatest possible happiness. You have been in every way all that anyone could be. I don’t think two people could have been happier till this terrible disease came. I can’t fight it any longer. I know that I am spoiling your life, that without me you could work. And you will I know. You see I can’t even write this properly. I can’t read. What I want to say is I owe all the happiness of my life to you. You have been entirely patient with me and incredibly good. I want to say that‚ÄĒeverybody knows it. If anybody could have saved me it would have been you. Everything has gone from me but the certainty of your goodness. I can’t go on spoiling your life any longer. I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been. V.



Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)Eleanor Roosevelt portrait 1933.jpg


Anna Eleanor Roosevelt ; October 11, 1884¬†‚Äď November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist.¬†She served as the¬†First Lady of the United States¬†from March 4, 1933, to April 12, 1945, during her husband President¬†Franklin D. Roosevelt’s four terms in office, making her the longest-serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as¬†United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952. ¬†President¬†Harry S. Truman¬†later called her the “First Lady of the World” in tribute to her¬†human rights¬†achievements.

Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American¬†Roosevelt¬†and¬†Livingston¬†families and a niece of President¬†Theodore Roosevelt. She had an unhappy childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended¬†Allenswood boarding Academy¬†in London and was deeply influenced by its headmistress¬†Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U.S., she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in 1905. The Roosevelts’ marriage was complicated from the beginning by Franklin’s controlling mother,¬†Sara, and after Eleanor discovered her husband’s affair with¬†Lucy Mercer¬†in 1918, she resolved to seek fulfillment in leading a public life of her own. She persuaded Franklin to stay in politics after he was¬†stricken with a paralytic illness¬†in 1921, which cost him the normal use of his legs, and began giving speeches and appearing at campaign events in his place. Following Franklin’s election as¬†Governor of New York¬†in 1928, and throughout the remainder of Franklin’s public career in government, Roosevelt regularly made public appearances on his behalf; and as First Lady, while her husband served as president, she significantly reshaped and redefined the role of First Lady.

Though widely respected in her later years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness, particularly on¬†civil rights¬†for African-Americans. She was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, write a monthly magazine column, host a weekly radio show, and speak at a national party convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband’s policies.

She launched an experimental community at¬†Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners, later widely regarded as a failure. She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the¬†civil rights¬†of¬†African Americans¬†and¬†Asian Americans, and the rights of World War II refugees. Following her husband’s death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life. She pressed the United States to¬†join and support¬†the¬†United Nations¬†and became its¬†first delegate. She served as the first chair of the¬†UN Commission on Human Rights¬†and oversaw the drafting of the¬†Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Later, she chaired the¬†John F. Kennedy¬†administration’s¬†Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as “one of the most esteemed women in the world”;¬†The New York Times¬†called her “the object of almost universal respect” in an obituary.

In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of¬†Gallup’s List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.

In the summer of 1902, Roosevelt encountered her father’s¬†fifth cousin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on a train to¬†Tivoli, New York. The two began a secret correspondence and romance, and became engaged on November 22, 1903. Franklin’s mother,¬†Sara Ann Delano, opposed the union and made him promise that the engagement would not be officially announced for a year. “I know what pain I must have caused you,” he wrote to his mother of his decision. But, he added, “I know my own mind, and known it for a long time, and know that I could never think otherwise.” ¬†Sara took her son on a Caribbean cruise in 1904, hoping that a separation would squelch the romance, but Franklin remained determined. The wedding date was set to accommodate President Theodore Roosevelt, who was scheduled to be in New York City for the St. Patrick’s Day parade, and who agreed to give the bride away. Roosevelt in her wedding dress, 1905

The couple were married on March 17, 1905, in a wedding officiated by¬†Endicott Peabody, the groom’s headmaster at¬†Groton School. Her cousin Corinne Douglas Robinson was a bridesmaid. The marriage took place at Algonac, a family estate from Franklin’s mother’s family located in¬†Newburgh. Theodore Roosevelt’s attendance at the ceremony was front-page news in¬†The New York Times¬†and other newspapers. When asked for his thoughts on the Roosevelt‚ÄďRoosevelt union, the president said, “It is a good thing to keep the name in the family.” The couple spent a preliminary honeymoon of one week at Hyde Park, then set up housekeeping in an apartment in New York. That summer they went on their formal¬†honeymoon, a three-month tour of Europe.

Returning to the U.S., the newlyweds settled in a New York City house that was provided by Franklin’s mother, as well as in a second residence at the family’s estate overlooking the¬†Hudson River¬†in¬†Hyde Park, New York. From the beginning, Roosevelt had a contentious relationship with her controlling mother-in-law. The townhouse that Sara gave to them was connected to her own residence by sliding doors, and Sara ran both households in the decade after the marriage. Early on, Roosevelt had a breakdown in which she explained to Franklin that “I did not like to live in a house which was not in any way mine, one that I had done nothing about and which did not represent the way I wanted to live”, but little changed.Sara also sought to control the raising of her grandchildren, and Roosevelt reflected later that “Franklin’s children were more my mother-in-law’s children than they were mine”.¬†Roosevelt’s eldest son James remembered Sara telling her grandchildren, “Your mother only bore you, I am more your mother than your mother is.”

Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt with their first two children, 1908

Roosevelt and Franklin had six children:

  • Anna Eleanor Roosevelt¬†(1906‚Äď1975)
  • James Roosevelt II¬†(1907‚Äď1991)
  • Franklin Roosevelt (1909‚Äď1909)
  • Elliott Roosevelt¬†(1910‚Äď1990)
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr.¬†(1914‚Äď1988)
  • John Aspinwall Roosevelt II¬†(1916‚Äď1981)

Roosevelt disliked having sex with her husband. She once told her daughter Anna that it was an “ordeal to be borne”.¬†She also considered herself ill-suited to motherhood, later writing, “It did not come naturally to me to understand little children or to enjoy them”.

In September 1918, Roosevelt was unpacking one of Franklin’s suitcases when she discovered a bundle of love letters to him from her social secretary,¬†Lucy Mercer. He had been contemplating leaving his wife for Mercer. However, following pressure from his political advisor,¬†Louis Howe, and from his mother, who threatened to disinherit Franklin if he followed through with a divorce, the couple remained married.heir union from that point on was more of a political partnership. Disillusioned, Roosevelt again became active in public life, and focused increasingly on her social work rather than her role as a wife.

In August 1921, the family was vacationing at¬†Campobello Island,¬†New Brunswick, Canada, when Franklin was diagnosed with a¬†paralytic illness, at the time believed to be polio.During the illness, through her nursing care, Roosevelt probably saved Franklin from death.His legs remained permanently paralyzed. When the extent of his disability became clear, Roosevelt fought a protracted battle with her mother-in-law over his future, persuading him to stay in politics despite Sara’s urgings that he retire and become a country gentleman. Franklin’s attending physician, Dr. William Keen, commended Roosevelt’s devotion to the stricken Franklin during the time of his travail. “You have been a rare wife and have borne your heavy burden most bravely,” he said, proclaiming her “one of my heroines”.

This proved a turning point in Roosevelt and Sara’s long-running struggle, and as Eleanor’s public role grew, she increasingly broke from Sara’s control.Tensions between Sara and Roosevelt over her new political friends rose to the point that the family constructed a cottage at¬†Val-Kill, in which Roosevelt and her guests lived when Franklin and the children were away from Hyde Park.Roosevelt herself named the place Val-Kill, loosely translated as “waterfall-stream” ¬†from the Dutch language common to the¬†original European settlers¬†of the area. Franklin encouraged his wife to develop this property as a place where she could implement some of her ideas for work with winter jobs for rural workers and women. Each year, when Roosevelt held a picnic at Val-Kill for delinquent boys, her granddaughter¬†Eleanor Roosevelt Seagraves¬†assisted her. She was close to her grandmother throughout her life. Seagraves concentrated her career as an educator and librarian on keeping alive many of the causes Roosevelt began and supported.

In 1924, she campaigned for Democrat¬†Alfred E. Smith¬†in his successful re-election bid as governor of New York State against the Republican nominee, her first cousin¬†Theodore Roosevelt Jr. Theodore Jr. never forgave her. Eleanor’s aunt,¬†Anna “Bamie” Roosevelt Cowles, publicly broke with her after the election. She wrote to her niece, “I just hate to have Eleanor let herself look as she does. Though never handsome, she always had to me a charming effect, but alas and lackaday! Since politics have become her choicest interest all her charm has disappeared…” Roosevelt dismissed Bamie’s criticisms by referring to her as an “aged woman”However, Bamie and Roosevelt eventually reconciled.

Theodore’s elder daughter¬†Alice¬†also broke with Roosevelt over her campaign. Alice and her aunt reconciled after the latter wrote Alice a comforting letter upon the death of Alice’s daughter, Paulina Longworth.

Roosevelt and her daughter¬†Anna¬†became estranged after she took over some of her mother’s social duties at the White House. The relationship was further strained because Roosevelt desperately wanted to go with her husband to¬†Yalta¬†in February 1945 (two months before FDR’s death), but he took Anna instead. A few years later, the two were able to reconcile and cooperate on numerous projects. Anna took care of her mother when she was terminally ill in 1962.

Roosevelt’s son Elliott authored numerous books, including a mystery series in which his mother was the detective. However, these murder mysteries were researched and written by William Harrington. They continued until Harrington’s death in 2000, ten years after Elliott’s death.With James Brough, Elliot also wrote a highly personal book about his parents called¬†The Roosevelts of Hyde Park: An Untold Story, in which he revealed details about the sexual lives of his parents, including his father’s relationships with mistress Lucy Mercer and secretary¬†Marguerite (“Missy”) LeHand,as well as graphic details surrounding the illness that crippled his father. Published in 1973, the biography also contains valuable insights into FDR’s run for vice president, his rise to the governorship of New York, and his capture of the presidency in 1932, particularly with the help of Louis Howe. When Elliott published this book in 1973, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. led the family’s denunciation of him; the book was fiercely repudiated by all Elliot’s siblings. Another of the siblings, James, published¬†My Parents, a Differing View¬†(with¬†Bill Libby, 1976), which was written in part as a response to Elliot’s book. A sequel to¬†An Untold Story¬†with James Brough, published in 1975 and titled¬†A Rendezvous With Destiny, carried the Roosevelt saga to the end of World War II.¬†Mother R.: Eleanor Roosevelt’s Untold Story, also with Brough, was published in 1977.¬†Eleanor Roosevelt, with Love: A Centenary Remembrance, came out in 1984.

In April 1960, Roosevelt was diagnosed with aplastic anemia soon after being struck by a car in New York City. In 1962, she was given steroids, which activated a dormant case of tuberculosis in her bone marrow,and she died of resulting cardiac failure at her Manhattan home at 55 East 74th Street on the Upper East Side  on November 7, 1962, at the age of 78. Her daughter Anna took care of Roosevelt when she was terminally ill in 1962. President John F. Kennedy ordered all United States flags lowered to half-staff throughout the world on November 8 in tribute to Roosevelt.

Among other prominent attendees, President Kennedy, Vice President¬†Lyndon Johnson¬†and former presidents Truman and Eisenhower honored Roosevelt at funeral services in Hyde Park on November 10, 1962, where she was interred next to her husband in the Rose Garden at “Springwood”, the Roosevelt family home. At the services,¬†Adlai Stevenson¬†said: “What other single human being has touched and transformed the existence of so many?”, adding, “She would rather light a candle than curse the darkness, and her glow has warmed the world.”

After her death, her family deeded the family vacation home on Campobello Island to the governments of the U.S. and Canada, and in 1964 they created the 2,800-acre (11 km2) Roosevelt Campobello International Park.

Roosevelt became¬†First Lady of the United States¬†when Franklin was¬†inaugurated¬†on March 4, 1933. Having known all of the twentieth century’s previous First Ladies, she was seriously depressed at having to assume the role, which had traditionally been restricted to domesticity and hostessing.¬†Her immediate predecessor,¬†Lou Henry Hoover, had ended her feminist activism on becoming First Lady, stating her intention to be only a “backdrop for¬†Bertie.”Eleanor’s distress at these precedents was severe enough that Hickok subtitled her biography of Roosevelt “Reluctant First Lady”.

With support from Howe and Hickok, Roosevelt set out to redefine the position. According to her biographer¬†Blanche Wiesen Cook, she became “the most controversial First Lady in United States history” in the process. Despite criticism of them both, with her husband’s strong support she continued with the active business and speaking agenda she had begun before assuming the role of First Lady in an era when few married women had careers. She was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences and in 1940 became the first to speak at a national party convention.¬†She also wrote a daily and widely syndicated newspaper column, “My Day”, another first for a presidential spouse. She was also the first First Lady to write a monthly magazine column and to host a weekly radio show.

In the first year of her husband’s administration, Roosevelt was determined to match his presidential salary, and she earned $75,000 from her lectures and writing, most of which she gave to charity.¬† By 1941, she was receiving lecture fees of $1,000,¬†¬†and was made an honorary member of¬†Phi Beta Kappa¬†at one of her lectures to celebrate her achievements.

Roosevelt maintained a heavy travel schedule in her twelve years in the White House, frequently making personal appearances at labor meetings to assure Depression-era workers that the White House was mindful of their plight. In one famous cartoon of the time from¬†The New Yorker magazine (June 3, 1933), satirizing a visit she had made to a mine, an astonished coal miner, peering down a dark tunnel, says to a coworker, “For gosh sakes, here comes Mrs. Roosevelt!”

Roosevelt (center), King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in London, October 23, 1942

In early 1933, the “Bonus Army”, a protest group of World War I veterans, marched on Washington for the second time in two years, calling for their veteran bonus certificates to be awarded early. The previous year, President Hoover had ordered them dispersed, and the US Army cavalry charged and bombarded the veterans with tear gas. This time, Roosevelt visited the veterans at their muddy campsite, listening to their concerns and singing army songs with them. The meeting defused the tension between the veterans and the administration, and one of the marchers later commented, “Hoover sent the Army. [President] Roosevelt sent his wife.”

In 1933 after she became First Lady, a new hybrid tea rose was named after her (Rosa x hybrida “Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt”).

In 1937 she began writing her autobiography, all volumes of which were compiled into The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt in 1961

Published books
  • Hunting Big Game in the Eighties: The Letters of Elliott Roosevelt, Sportsman. New York: Scribners, 1932.
  • When You Grow Up to Vote. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932.
  • It’s Up to the Women. New York: Stokes, 1933.
  • A Trip to Washington with Bobby and Betty. New York: Dodge, 1935.
  • This Is My Story. New York: Harper, 1937.
  • My Days. New York: Dodge, 1938.
  • This Troubled World. New York: Kinsey, 1938.
  • Christmas: A Story. New York: Knopf, 1940.
  • Christmas, 1940. New York: St. Martin’s. 1940.
  • The Moral Basis of Democracy. New York: Howell, Soskin, 1940.
  • This is America, a 1942 book with text by Eleanor Roosevelt and photographs by¬†Frances Cooke Macgregor.
  • If You Ask Me. New York: Appleton-Century, 1946.
  • This I Remember. New York: Harper, 1949.
  • Partners: The United Nations and Youth. Garden City: Doubleday, 1950 (with Helen Ferris).
  • India and the Awakening East. New York: Harper, 1953.
  • UN: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Harper, 1953 (with William DeWitt).
  • It Seems to Me. New York: Norton, 1954.
  • Ladies of Courage. New York: Putnam’s, 1954 (with Lorena Hickok).
  • United Nations: What You Should Know about It. New London: Croft, 1955.
  • On My Own. New York: Harper, 1958.
  • Growing Toward Peace. New York: Random House, 1960 (with Regina Tor).
  • You Learn By Living. New York: Harper, 1960.
  • The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt. New York: Harper, 1961.
  • Your Teens and Mine. New York: Da Capo, 1961.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt’s Book of Common Sense Etiquette. New York: Macmillan, 1962 (with the assistance of Robert O. Ballou).
  • Eleanor Roosevelt’s Christmas Book. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963.
  • Tomorrow Is Now. New York: Harper, 1963.
Jiang Qing (1914-1991)Jiang Qing - Wikipedia


Jiang Qing ¬†(19 March 1914¬†‚Äď 14 May 1991), also known as¬†Madame Mao, was a Chinese¬†Communist¬†Revolutionary, actress, and major political figure during the¬†Cultural Revolution¬†(1966‚Äď76). She was the fourth wife of¬†Mao Zedong, the¬†Chairman of the Communist Party¬†and¬†Paramount leader¬†of¬†China. She used the¬†stage name¬†Lan Ping¬†(ŤóćŤėč) during her acting career (which ended in 1938), and was known by¬†many other names. She married Mao in¬†Yan’an¬†in November 1938 and served as the inaugural “First Lady” of the People’s Republic of China. Jiang Qing was best known for playing a major role in the Cultural Revolution and for forming the radical political alliance known as the “Gang of Four”.

Jiang Qing served as Mao’s personal secretary in the 1940s and was head of the Film Section of the Communist Party’s Propaganda Department in the 1950s. She served as an important emissary for Mao in the early stages of the Cultural Revolution. In 1966, she was appointed deputy director of the¬†Central Cultural Revolution Group. She collaborated with¬†Lin Biao¬†to advance Mao’s unique brand of Communist ideology as well as¬†Mao’s cult of personality. At the height of the Cultural Revolution, Jiang Qing held significant influence in the affairs of state, particularly in the realm of culture and the arts, and was idolized in propaganda posters as the “Great Flagbearer of the¬†Proletarian¬†Revolution”. In 1969, Jiang gained a seat on the¬†Politburo.

Before Mao’s death, the Gang of Four controlled many of China’s political institutions, including the media and propaganda. However, Jiang Qing, deriving most of her political legitimacy from Mao, often found herself at odds with other top leaders. Mao’s death in 1976 dealt a significant blow to Jiang Qing’s political fortunes. She was arrested in October 1976 by¬†Hua Guofeng and his allies, and was subsequently condemned by party authorities. Since then, Jiang Qing has been officially branded as having been part of the “Lin Biao and Jiang Qing Counter-Revolutionary Cliques”¬†(śěóŚĹ™śĪüťĚ팏ćťĚ©ŚĎĹťõÜŚõĘ), to which most of the blame for the damage and devastation caused by the Cultural Revolution was assigned. Though she was initially sentenced to death, her sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1983. After being released for medical treatment, Jiang Qing committed suicide in May 1991.

From July 1931 to April 1933, Jiang attended National Qingdao University (renamed¬†National Shandong University¬†in 1932) in¬†Qingdao. She met¬†Yu Qiwei, a physics student three years her senior, who was an underground member of the Communist Party Propaganda Department. By 1932, they had fallen in love and were living together. She joined the “Communist Cultural Front”, a circle of artists, writers, and actors, and performed in¬†Put Down Your Whip, a renowned popular play about a woman who escapes from Japanese-occupied north-eastern China and performs in the streets to survive. In February 1933, Jiang took the oath of the Chinese Communist Party with Yu at her side, and she was appointed member of the Chinese Communist Party youth wing. Yu was arrested in April the same year and Jiang was subsequently shunned by his family. She fled to her parents’ home and returned to the drama school in Jinan. Through friendships she had previously established, she received an introduction to attend Shanghai University for the summer where she also taught some general literacy classes. In October, she rejoined the Communist Youth League and, at the same time, began participating in an amateur drama troupe.

In September 1934, Jiang Qing was arrested and jailed for her political activities in Shanghai, but was released three months later, in December of the same year. She then traveled to Beijing where she reunited with Yu Qiwei who had just been released following his prison sentence, and the two began living together again.

Jiang Qing in a 1935 film poster

Jiang Qing returned to Shanghai in March 1935, and became a professional actress, adopting the stage name “L√°n P√≠ng” (meaning “Blue Apple”, Chinese: ŤďĚŤčĻ). She appeared in numerous films and plays, including¬†Goddess of Freedom,¬†Scenes of City Life,¬†Blood on Wolf Mountain¬†and¬†Wang Laowu. In Ibsen’s play¬†A Doll’s House, Jiang Qing played the role of Nora.

With her career established, she became involved with actor/director¬†Tang Na, with whom she appeared in¬†Scenes of City Life¬†and¬†Goddess of Freedom. They were married in¬†Hangzhou¬†in March 1936; however, he soon discovered she was continuing her relationship with Yu Qiwei. The scandal became public knowledge and he made two suicide attempts before their divorce became final. In 1937, Jiang joined the¬†Lianhua Film Company¬†and starred in the drama¬†Big Thunderstorm¬†(Ś§ßťõ∑ťõ®). She reportedly had an affair with director, Zhang Min; however, she denied it in her autobiographical writings.

In 1967, at the beginning of China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, Jiang declared eight works of performance art to be the new models for proletarian literature and art.¬†These “model operas”, or “revolutionary operas”,¬†were designed to glorify Mao Zedong, The People’s Liberation Army, and the revolutionary struggles. The ballets¬†White-Haired Girl, Red Detachment of Women, and¬†Shajiabang (“Revolutionary Symphonic Music”) were included in the list of eight, and were closely associated with Jiang Qing, because of their inclusion of elements from Chinese and Western opera, dance, and music.¬†During¬†Richard Nixon’s famous¬†visit to China¬†in February 1972, he watched¬†Red Detachment of Women, and was impressed by the opera. He famously asked Jiang who the writer, director, and composer were, to which she replied it was “created by the masses.

Following the¬†Marco Polo Bridge Incident¬†on 7 July 1937, and the¬†Japanese invasion of Shanghai, which destroyed most of its movie industry, Jiang left her celebrity life on the stage behind. She went first to¬†Xi’an, then to the Chinese Communist headquarters in¬†Yan’an¬†to “join the revolution” and the war to resist the Japanese invasion. In November, she enrolled in the “Counter-Japanese Military and Political University” (Marxist‚ÄďLeninist Institute) for study. The Lu Xun Academy of Arts was newly founded in Yan’an on 10 April 1938, and Jiang Qing became a drama department instructor, teaching and performing in college plays and¬†operas.

Shortly after arriving in Yan’an, Jiang became involved with¬†Mao Zedong. Some communist leaders were scandalized by the relationship once it became public. At 45, Mao was nearly twice Jiang’s age, and Jiang had lived a highly bourgeois lifestyle before coming to Yan’an. Mao was still married to¬†He Zizhen, a lifelong Communist who had previously completed the¬†Long March¬†with him, and with whom Mao had five children. Eventually, Mao arranged a compromise with the other leaders of the CCP: Mao was granted a divorce and permitted to marry Jiang, but she was required to stay out of public politics for twenty years. Jiang abided by this agreement. However, thirty years later, at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Jiang became active in politics.

Li Na, Jiang Qing and Mao in Yan’an in 1943

On 28 November 1938, Jiang and Mao married in a small private ceremony following approval by the Party’s Central Committee. Because Mao’s marriage to He had not yet ended, Jiang was reportedly made to sign a marital contract which stipulated that she would not appear in public with Mao as her escort. Jiang and Mao’s only child together, a daughter named¬†Li Na, was born in 1940.

On 5 September 1976, Mao’s failing health turned critical when he suffered a¬†heart attack, far more serious than his previous two earlier in the year. Upon being contacted by Hua Guofeng, Jiang Qing returned from her trip to the countryside and spent only a few minutes in the hospital’s Building 202, where Mao was being treated. Later she returned to her own residence in the Spring Lotus Chamber.

On the afternoon of 7 September, Mao’s condition took a turn for the worse. Mao had just fallen asleep and needed to rest, but Jiang Qing insisted on rubbing his back and moving his limbs, and she sprinkled white powder on his body. The medical team protested that the dust from the powder was not good for his lungs, but she instructed the nurses on duty to follow her example later.

The next morning, 8 September, she went into Mao’s room to visit him again. This time, she wanted the medical staff to change Mao’s sleeping position, claiming that he had been lying too long on his left side.¬†Li Zhisui, the lead doctor on duty objected, explaining to her that Mao could breathe only on his left side. Jiang ordered Li to move Mao nonetheless. As a result, Mao’s breathing stopped and his face turned blue. Jiang Qing left the room while Dr. Li and the rest of the medical staff put Mao on a respirator and performed an emergency¬†cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Eventually, Mao was revived and Hua Guofeng urged Jiang Qing not to interfere further with the doctors’ work. However, nearly all of Mao’s¬†organs failed¬†and he fell into a coma by the end of that day. With Mao beyond recovery and unwilling to further prolong his suffering, Jiang and other members of the Chinese government decided to disconnect Mao’s life support mechanism.

Mao’s death occurred just after midnight at 00:10 hours on 9 September 1976. Mao’s chosen successor, Hua Guofeng, became the chairman of his funeral committee. It was believed Hua was a compromise candidate between the free-marketeers and the party orthodox. Some argue this may have been due to his ambivalence and his low-key profile, particularly compared to¬†Deng Xiaoping, the preferred candidate of the market-oriented factions. The party apparatus, under orders from Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao, wrote a eulogy affirming Mao’s achievements in order to justify their claims to power.

By this time, state media was effectively under the control of the Gang of Four. State newspapers continued to denounce Deng shortly after Mao’s death. Jiang Qing was little-concerned about the weak Hua Guofeng, but she feared Deng Xiaoping greatly. In numerous documents published in the 1970s, it was claimed that Jiang Qing was conspiring to make herself the new Chairman of the Communist Party.

In 1980, the trials of the Gang of Four began. The trials were televised nationwide. By showing the way the Gang of Four was tried, Deng Xiaoping wanted the people to realize that a new era had begun.[

Portions of the 20,000-word indictment were printed in China’s press before the trial started; they accused the defendants of a host of heinous crimes that took place during the Cultural Revolution. The charges specify that 727,420 Chinese were “persecuted” during that period, and that 34,274 died, though the often vague indictment did not specify exactly how. Among the chief victims: one-time President Liu Shaoqi‚Äôs widow¬†Wang Guangmei, herself imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution for 12 years, attended the trial as an observer.

The indictment described two plots by the “Jiang Qing-Lin Biao Counter-revolutionary Clique” to seize power. Jiang Qing was not accused of conspiring with Lin Biao, or with other members of the Gang of Four who¬†allegedly¬†planned an¬†armed rebellion¬†to “usurp power” in 1976, when Mao was close to death. Instead, the charges against her focused on her systematic¬†persecution¬†of creative artists during the Cultural Revolution. Amongst other things, she was accused of hiring 40 people in Shanghai to disguise themselves as Red Guards and¬†ransack¬†the homes of writers and performers. The apparent purpose was said to find and destroy letters, photos and other¬†potentially damaging materials¬†on Jiang Qing’s early career in Shanghai, which she wanted to keep secret.

Despite the seriousness of the accusations against her, Jiang Qing appeared unrepentant. She did not¬†confess her guilt, something that the Chinese press emphasized to show her bad attitude. There had been reports that she planned to defend herself by cloaking herself in Mao’s mantle, saying that she did only what he approved. As the trial got under way, Jiang Qing dismissed her¬†assigned lawyers, deciding instead to represent herself. During her public trials at the “Special Court”, Jiang Qing was the only member of the Gang of Four who argued on her own behalf. The defense’s argument was that she obeyed the orders of Mao at all times. Jiang Qing maintained that all she had done was to defend Chairman Mao. It was at this trial that Jiang Qing made the famous quote: “I was Chairman Mao’s dog. I bit whomever he asked me to bite.” (Chinese:¬†śąĎśėĮšłĽŚł≠ÁöĄšłÄśĚ°ÁčóԾƚłĽŚł≠Ť¶ĀśąĎŚí¨ŤįĀŚįĪŚí¨ŤįĀ„Äā).

Jiang Qing was¬†sentenced to death, with a reprieve¬†of two years, in 1981. By 1983, her death sentence was¬†commuted¬†to life imprisonment. During this time, she made several requests to visit Mao Zedong’s embalmed body in Beijing, but they were turned down. When the¬†Tiananmen Square protests¬†occurred, Jiang believed that the student activists were liberals rather than Maoists, but she blamed them on Deng Xiaoping, writing that “He let in all those¬†Western ideas!”.[

While in prison, Jiang Qing was diagnosed with¬†throat cancer, but she refused an operation. She was eventually released, on medical grounds, in 1991. At the hospital, Jiang Qing used the name L«ź R√Ļnqńęng (śĚéś∂¶ťĚí). She committed suicide on 14 May 1991, at the age of 77,¬†by hanging¬†herself in a bathroom of her hospital. She penned a suicide note reading “Today the revolution has been stolen by the revisionist clique of Deng,¬†Peng Zhen, and¬†Yang Shangkun. Chairman Mao exterminated Liu Shaoqi, but not Deng, and the result of this omission is that unending evils have been unleashed on the Chinese people and nation. Chairman, your student and fighter is coming to see you!”Her suicide occurred two days before the 25th anniversary of the¬†Cultural Revolution.

She wished for her remains to be buried in her home province of Shandong, but in consideration of possible future vandalism to her tomb, the state decided to have her remains moved to a safer common cemetery in Beijing.Jiang Qing is buried in Futian Cemetery in the western¬†hills of Beijing. Her grave is marked by a tall white stone inscribed with her¬†school name, not the name by which she was famously known, which reads: “Tomb of Late Mother, Li Yunhe, 1914‚Äď1991” (ŚÖąśĮćśĚéšļĎťĻ§šĻčŚĘďԾƚłÄšĻĚšłÄŚõõŚĻīŤá≥šłÄšĻĚšĻĚšłÄŚĻī)

Florence Nightingale: 1820 – 1910Florence Nightingale (H Hering NPG x82368).jpg

Florence Nightingale (12¬†May 1820¬†‚Äď 13¬†August 1910) was an English¬†social reformer, statistician and the founder of modern¬†nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the¬†Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers at¬†Constantinople.[3]¬†She gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of¬†Victorian culture, especially in the persona of “The Lady with the Lamp” making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.

Recent commentators have asserted that Nightingale’s Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by the media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her later work in professionalising nursing roles for women.¬†In 1860, she laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her¬†nursing school¬†at¬†St Thomas’ Hospital¬†in London. It was the¬†first secular nursing school in the world, and is now part of¬†King’s College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the¬†Nightingale Pledge¬†taken by new nurses, and the¬†Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, and the annual¬†International Nurses Day¬†is celebrated on her birthday. Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to¬†abolish prostitution laws¬†that were harsh for women, and expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the¬†workforce.

Nightingale was a prodigious and versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge. Some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could easily be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was also a pioneer in data visualization with the use of infographics, effectively using graphical presentations of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously.

The Lady with the Lamp



The Lady with the Lamp. Popular lithograph reproduction of a painting of Nightingale by Henrietta Rae, 1891.

During the¬†Crimean war, Nightingale gained the nickname “The Lady with the Lamp” from a phrase in a report in¬†The Times:

She is a “ministering angel” without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow’s face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.

‚ÄĒ‚ÄČCited in Cook, E. T.¬†The Life of Florence Nightingale. (1913) Vol 1, p 237.

The phrase was further popularised by¬†Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s 1857 poem “Santa Filomena”:


Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

Nightingale’s lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession.¬†She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration. The first official nurses’ training programme, her¬†Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860 and is now called the¬†Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery¬†at¬†King’s College London.

She belongs to that select band of historical characters who are instantly recognisable: the Lady with the Lamp, ministering to the wounded and dying.

‚ÄstBBC¬†profile of Nightingale.

In 1912, the¬†International Committee of the Red Cross¬†instituted the¬†Florence Nightingale Medal, which is awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service.¬†It is the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve and is awarded to nurses or nursing aides for “exceptional courage and devotion to the wounded, sick or disabled or to civilian victims of a conflict or disaster” or “exemplary services or a creative and pioneering spirit in the areas of public health or nursing education”.Since 1965,¬†International Nurses Day has been celebrated on her birthday (12¬†May) each year.¬†The¬†President of India honours nursing professionals with the “National Florence Nightingale Award” every year on International Nurses Day.¬†The award, established in 1973, is given in recognition of meritorious services of nursing professionals characterised by devotion, sincerity, dedication and compassion.

The Nightingale Pledge

The Nightingale Pledge is a modified version of the Hippocratic Oath which nurses recite at their pinning ceremony at the end of training. Created in 1893 and named after Nightingale as the founder of modern nursing, the pledge is a statement of the ethics and principles of the nursing profession.

The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign, established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two¬†United Nations Resolutions¬†for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008. They will declare: The International Year of the Nurse‚Äď2010 (the centenary of Nightingale’s death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World ‚Äď 2011 to 2020 (the bicentenary of Nightingale’s birth). NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and¬†holistic health. As of 2016, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 25,000¬†signatories from 106¬†countries.

During the¬†Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many¬†US Army¬†nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work. Her admirers include¬†Country Joe¬†of¬†Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour. The Agostino Gemelli Medical School¬†in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale’s contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name “Bedside Florence” to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.

Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: Florence Nightingale Hospital in¬†ŇěiŇüli¬†(the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan Florence Nightingale Hospital in Gayrettepe, European Florence Nightingale Hospital in¬†Mecidiyek√∂y, and KńĪzńĪltoprak Florence Nightingale Hospital in¬†Kadik√∂y, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.

An appeal is being considered for the former Derbyshire Royal Infirmary hospital in Derby, England to be named after Nightingale. The suggested new name will be either Nightingale Community Hospital or Florence Nightingale Community Hospital. The area in which the hospital lies in Derby has recently been referred to as the “Nightingale Quarter”.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of temporary NHS Nightingale Hospitals were set up in readiness for an expected rise in the number of patients needing critical care. The first was housed in the ExCeL London ,and several others followed across England.


In 1912, a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross, starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale, was released, followed in 1915 by another silent film, Florence Nightingale, featuring Elisabeth Risdon. In 1936, Kay Francis played Nightingale in the film titled The White Angel. In 1951, The Lady with a Lamp starred Anna Neagle.In 1993, Nest Entertainment released an animated film Florence Nightingale, describing her service as a nurse in the Crimean War.


Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary ‚Äď the BBC’s 2008¬†Florence Nightingale, featuring¬†Laura Fraser,¬†emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel¬†4’s 2006¬†Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea, she is portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole’s efforts.

Other portrayals include:

  • Laura Morgan in¬†Victoria episode #3.4 “Foreign Bodies” (2018)
  • Kate Isitt¬†in the¬†Magic Grandad episode “Famous People: Florence Nightingale” (1994)
  • Jaclyn Smith¬†in the TV biopic¬†Florence Nightingale¬†(1985)
  • Emma Thompson¬†in the ITV sketch comedy series¬†Alfresco¬†episode #1.2 (1983)
  • Jayne Meadows¬†in PBS series¬†Meeting of Minds¬†(1978)
  • Janet Suzman¬†in the British theatre-style biopic¬†Miss Nightingale¬†(1974)
  • Julie Harris¬†in¬†Hallmark Hall of Fame¬†episode #14.4 “The Holy Terror” (1965)
  • Sarah Churchill¬†in¬†Hallmark Hall of Fame¬†episode #1.6 “Florence Nightingale” (1952)

Emmeline Pankhurst: 1858-1928Monochrome photo of a lady sitting in a chair

We have to free half of the human race, the women, so that they can help to free the other half.” ~ Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst¬†(born¬†Emmeline Goulden; 14 July 1858 ‚Äď 14 June 1928) was a British political activist. She is best remembered for organizing the UK¬†suffragette¬†movement and helping women win the suffering¬†right to vote. In 1999,¬†Time¬†named her as one of the¬†100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating that “she shaped an idea of objects for our time” and “shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back”.¬†She was widely criticised for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognised as a crucial element in achieving¬†women’s suffrage in the United Kingdom.

Born in the¬†Moss Side¬†district of¬†Manchester¬†to politically active parents, Pankhurst was introduced at the age of 14 to the women’s suffrage movement. She founded and became involved with the¬†Women’s Franchise League, which advocated suffrage for both married and unmarried women. When that organisation broke apart, she tried to join the left-leaning¬†Independent Labour Party¬†through her friendship with socialist¬†Keir Hardie¬†but was initially refused membership by the local branch on account of her sex. While working as a¬†Poor Law Guardian, she was shocked at the harsh conditions she encountered in Manchester’s¬†workhouses.

In 1903, Pankhurst founded the¬†Women’s Social and Political Union¬†(WSPU), an all-women suffrage advocacy organisation dedicated to “deeds, not words”.¬†The group identified as independent from¬†‚Äď and often in opposition to¬†‚Äď political parties. It became known for physical confrontations: its members smashed windows and assaulted police officers. Pankhurst, her daughters, and other WSPU activists received repeated prison sentences, where they staged¬†hunger strikes¬†to secure better conditions, and were often¬†force-fed. As Pankhurst’s eldest daughter¬†Christabel¬†took leadership of the WSPU, antagonism between the group and the government grew. Eventually the group¬†adopted arson as a tactic, and more moderate organisations spoke out against the Pankhurst family. In 1913 several prominent individuals left the WSPU, among them Pankhurst’s younger daughters,¬†Adela¬†and¬†Sylvia. Emmeline was so furious that she “gave [Adela] a ticket, ¬£20, and a letter of introduction to a suffragette in Australia, and firmly insisted that she emigrate”.¬†Adela complied and the family rift was never healed. Sylvia became a socialist.

With the advent of the¬†First World War, Emmeline and Christabel called an immediate halt to the militant terrorism in support of the¬†British government’s stand against the “German Peril”.They urged women to aid industrial production and encouraged young men to fight, becoming prominent figures in the¬†white feather¬†movement.¬†In 1918, the¬†Representation of the People Act¬†granted votes to all men over the age of 21 and women over the age of 30. This discrepancy was intended to ensure that men did not become minority voters as a consequence of the huge number of deaths suffered during the First World War.

She transformed the WSPU machinery into the¬†Women’s Party, which was dedicated to promoting women’s equality in public life. In her later years, she became concerned with what she perceived as the menace posed by¬†Bolshevism¬†and joined the¬†Conservative Party. She was selected as the Conservative candidate for¬†Whitechapel and St Georges in 1927.¬†¬†She died on 14 June 1928, only weeks before the Conservative government’s¬†Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928¬†extended the vote to all women over 21 years of age on 2 July 1928. She was commemorated two years later with a statue in¬†Victoria Tower Gardens, next to the¬†Houses of Parliament.

News of Emmeline Pankhurst’s death was announced around the country, and extensively in North America. Her funeral service on 18 June 1928 was filled with her former WSPU colleagues and those who had worked beside her in various capacities. The¬†Daily Mail described the procession as “like a dead general in the midst of a mourning army”.Women wore WSPU sashes and ribbons, and the organisation’s flag was carried alongside the¬†Union Flag. Christabel and Sylvia appeared together at the service, the latter with her child. Adela did not attend.Press coverage around the world recognised her tireless work on behalf of women’s right to vote ‚Äď even if they did not agree on the value of her contributions. The¬†New York Herald Tribune¬†called her “the most remarkable political and social agitator of the early part of the twentieth century and the supreme protagonist of the campaign for the electoral enfranchisement of women.”

Shortly after the funeral, one of Pankhurst’s bodyguards from her WSPU days,¬†Catherine Marshall, began raising funds for a memorial statue. In spring 1930 her efforts bore fruit, and on 6 March¬†her statue¬†in¬†Victoria Tower Gardens, next to and gesturing towards the¬†Houses of Parliament, was unveiled. A crowd of radicals, former suffragettes, and national dignitaries gathered as former Prime Minister¬†Stanley Baldwin presented the memorial to the public. In his address, Baldwin declared: “I say with no fear of contradiction, that whatever view posterity may take, Mrs. Pankhurst has won for herself a niche in the Temple of Fame which will last for all time.”¬†Sylvia was the only Pankhurst daughter in attendance; Christabel, touring North America, sent a telegram which was read aloud. While planning the agenda for the day, Marshall had intentionally excluded Sylvia, who in her opinion had hastened Pankhurst’s death. Historic England listed the statue as Grade II on 5 February 1970.

A proposal to move the statue of Pankhurst away from the Houses of Parliament to the private Regent’s University London in Regent’s Park was submitted to Westminster City Council planning department in July 2018 by former Conservative MP Sir Neil Thorne. This proposal was withdrawn in September 2018 after widespread anger and a public campaign against it.The planning application received 896 comments, 887 of them objections. ¬†A 38 Degrees petition against the removal of the statue attracted 180,839 signatures. The Curator’s Office at the Palace of Westminster commissioned a report into the plan to remove the statue. Published on 22 August 2018, it concluded ‘The Memorial to Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst is of high significance, which is not fully recognised through its listing at Grade II. An application has been made to Historic England to upgrade the memorial to Grade II*. This is based on it having ‘more than special interest’, in terms of its unique history, its artistic quality and the importance of its setting next to the Houses of Parliament. This proposal to move the memorial from Victoria Tower Gardens to Regent’s Park would cause substantial harm to the significance of the memorial, as well has harm to the Westminster Abbey and Parliament Square Conservation Area…The proposal to move the memorial, therefore, should not be granted planning permission or listed building consent.

During the twentieth century Emmeline Pankhurst’s value to the movement for women’s suffrage was debated passionately, and no consensus was achieved. Her daughters Sylvia and Christabel weighed in with books, scornful and laudatory respectively, about their time in the struggle. Sylvia’s 1931 book¬†The Suffrage Movement¬†describes her mother’s political shift at the start of the First World War as the beginning of a betrayal of her family (especially her father) and the movement. It set the tone for much of the socialist and activist history written about the WSPU and particularly solidified Emmeline Pankhurst’s reputation as an unreasonable autocrat. Christabel’s¬†“Unshackled: The Story of How We Won the Vote,”¬†released in 1959, paints her mother as generous and selfless to a fault, offering herself completely to the most noble causes. It provided a sympathetic counterpart to Sylvia’s attacks and continued the polarised discussion; detached and objective assessment has rarely been a part of Pankhurst scholarship.

Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in St Peter’s Square in Manchester, her hometown.

Recent biographies show that historians differ about whether Emmeline Pankhurst’s militancy helped or hurt the movement;¬†however, there is general agreement that the WSPU raised public awareness of the movement in ways that proved essential. Baldwin compared her to¬†Martin Luther¬†and¬†Jean-Jacques Rousseau: individuals who were not the sum total of the movements in which they took part, but who nevertheless played crucial roles in struggles of social and political reform. In the case of Pankhurst, this reform took place in both intentional and unintentional ways. By defying the roles of wife and mother as the docile companion, Pankhurst paved the way for feminists who would later decry her support for empire and sustainable social values.

In 1987 one of her homes in Manchester was opened as the¬†Pankhurst Centre, an¬†all-women gathering space¬†and museum. In 2002, Pankhurst was placed at number 27 in the BBC’s poll of the¬†100 Greatest Britons.In 2006, a¬†blue plaque for Pankhurst and her daughter, Christabel was placed by English Heritage at 50 Clarendon Road, Notting Hill, London W11 3AD, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, where they had lived.

In January 2016, following a public vote, it was announced that a¬†statue of Emmeline Pankhurst¬†would be unveiled in Manchester in 2019, making her the first woman to be honoured with a statue in the city since¬†Queen Victoria¬†more than 100 years ago.[142]¬†This, in fact, happened on 14 December 2018, one hundred years after British women were first able to vote in the¬†1918 United Kingdom general election.[143]¬†Her name and image and those of 58 other women’s suffrage supporters including her daughters are etched on the¬†plinth¬†of the¬†statue of Millicent Fawcett¬†in¬†Parliament Square, London that was unveiled in 2018. One of the ‘houses’ at¬†Wellacre Academy¬†in Manchester is named after her.

Helen Pankhurst, the great-granddaughter of Emmeline Pankhurst and the granddaughter of¬†Sylvia Pankhurst, works for women’s rights. Along with her daughter, she founded Olympic Suffragettes, which campaigns on a number of women’s rights issues.

Pankhurst has appeared in several works of popular culture. In the 1974 BBC television miniseries¬†Shoulder to Shoulder, Pankhurst is played by¬†Si√Ęn Phillips. In the 2015 film¬†Suffragette, Pankhurst is played by¬†Meryl Streep.


Marie Curie(7 November 1867 ‚Äď 4 July 1934), Polnische Frauen, Polnische Frau, femmes polonaises, Polish women,mujeres polacas, polskie kobiety

”You cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals. To that end, each of us must work for our own improvement.”

Marie SkŇāodowska Curie¬†born¬†Maria Salomea SkŇāodowska¬†(Polish:¬†[ňąmarja sal…Ēňąm…õa skw…Ēňąd…Ēfska]; 7 November 1867 ‚Äď 4 July 1934), was a¬†Polish and naturalized-French¬†physicist¬†and¬†chemist¬†who conducted pioneering research on¬†radioactivity. As the first of the¬†Curie family legacy¬†of five Nobel Prizes, she was the¬†first woman¬†to win a¬†Nobel Prize, the first and the only woman to¬†win the Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two scientific fields. She was the first woman to become a professor at the¬†University of Paris¬†in 1906.

She was born in¬†Warsaw, in what was then the¬†Kingdom of Poland, part of the¬†Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw’s clandestine¬†Flying University¬†and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her elder sister¬†BronisŇāawa¬†to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. In 1895 she married the French physicist¬†Pierre Curie, and she shared the 1903¬†Nobel Prize in Physics¬†with him and with the physicist¬†Henri Becquerel¬†for their pioneering work developing the theory of “radioactivity”‚ÄĒa term she coined.In 1906 Pierre Curie died in a Paris street accident. Marie won the 1911¬†Nobel Prize in Chemistry¬†for her discovery of the elements¬†polonium¬†and¬†radium, using techniques she invented for isolating radioactive¬†isotopes.

Under her direction, the world’s first studies were conducted into the treatment of¬†neoplasms¬†by the use of radioactive isotopes. In 1920 she founded the¬†Curie Institute in Paris, and in 1932 the¬†Curie Institute in Warsaw; both remain major centres of medical research. During¬†World War I¬†she developed mobile radiography units to provide¬†X-ray¬†services to¬†field hospitals. While a French citizen, Marie SkŇāodowska Curie, who used both surnames, never lost her sense of¬†Polish identity. She taught her daughters the¬†Polish language¬†and took them on visits to Poland.¬†She named the first¬†chemical element¬†she discovered¬†polonium, after her native country.

Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at the¬†Sancellemoz¬†sanatorium¬†in¬†Passy¬†(Haute-Savoie), France, of¬†aplastic anaemia¬†from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during¬†World War I.¬†In addition to her Nobel Prizes, she has received numerous other honours and tributes; in 1995 she became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in Paris’¬†Panth√©on, and Poland and France declared 2011 as the Year of Marie Curie during the¬†International Year of Chemistry. She is the subject of numerous biographical works, where she is also known as¬†Madame Curie.

The physical and societal aspects of the Curies’ work contributed to shaping the world of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Cornell University professor¬†L. Pearce¬†Williams¬†observes:

The result of the Curies’ work was epoch-making. Radium’s radioactivity was so great that it could not be ignored. It seemed to contradict the principle of the conservation of energy and therefore forced a reconsideration of the foundations of physics. On the experimental level the discovery of radium provided men like Ernest Rutherford with sources of radioactivity with which they could probe the structure of the atom. As a result of Rutherford’s experiments with alpha radiation, the nuclear atom was first postulated. In medicine, the radioactivity of radium appeared to offer a means by which cancer could be successfully attacked.

If Curie’s work helped overturn established ideas in physics and chemistry, it has had an equally profound effect in the societal sphere. To attain her scientific achievements, she had to overcome barriers, in both her native and her adoptive country, that were placed in her way because she was a woman. This aspect of her life and career is highlighted in¬†Fran√ßoise Giroud’s¬†Marie Curie: A Life, which emphasizes Curie’s role as a feminist precursor.¬†

She was known for her honesty and moderate lifestyle. Having received a small scholarship in 1893, she returned it in 1897 as soon as she began earning her keep.She gave much of her first Nobel Prize money to friends, family, students, and research associates.In an unusual decision, Curie intentionally refrained from patenting the radium-isolation process so that the scientific community could do research unhindered. She insisted that monetary gifts and awards be given to the scientific institutions she was affiliated with rather than to her. She and her husband often refused awards and medals.Albert Einstein reportedly remarked that she was probably the only person who could not be corrupted by fame.

                                               Honours and tributes

As one of the most famous scientists, Marie Curie has become an icon in the scientific world and has received tributes from across the globe, even in the realm of pop culture.

In 1995, she became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon, Paris.

In a 2009 poll carried out by¬†New Scientist, she was voted the “most inspirational woman in science”. Curie received 25.1 percent of all votes cast, nearly twice as many as second-place¬†Rosalind Franklin¬†(14.2 per cent).

On the centenary of her second Nobel Prize, Poland and France declared 2011 the Year of Marie Curie; and the¬†United Nations¬†declared that this would be the¬†International Year of Chemistry.An artistic installation celebrating “Madame Curie” filled the¬†Jacobs Gallery¬†at¬†San Diego’s¬†Museum of Contemporary Art. On 7 November,¬†Google¬†celebrated the anniversary of her birth with a special¬†Google Doodle. On 10 December, the¬†New York Academy of Sciences¬†celebrated the centenary of Marie Curie’s second¬†Nobel Prize¬†in the presence of¬†Princess Madeleine of Sweden.

Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person to win two Nobel Prizes, the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences.Awards that she received include:

  • Nobel Prize in Physics¬†(1903, with her husband Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel)
  • Davy Medal¬†(1903, with Pierre)
  • Matteucci Medal¬†(1904, with Pierre)
  • Actonian Prize¬†(1907)
  • Elliott Cresson Medal¬†(1909)
  • Nobel Prize in Chemistry¬†(1911)
  • Franklin Medal¬†of the¬†American Philosophical Society¬†(1921)

She received numerous honorary degrees from universities across the world. In Poland, she received honorary doctorates from the¬†Lw√≥w Polytechnic¬†(1912),PoznaŇĄ University¬†(1922),¬†Krak√≥w’s¬†Jagiellonian University¬†(1924), and the¬†Warsaw Polytechnic¬†(1926).¬†In 1920 she became the first female member of¬†The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.In 1921, in the U.S., she was awarded membership in the¬†Iota Sigma Pi women scientists’ society.¬†In 1924, she became an Honorary Member of the¬†Polish Chemical Society.¬†Marie Curie’s 1898 publication with her husband and their collaborator¬†Gustave B√©mont of their discovery of radium and polonium was honoured by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society presented to the ESPCI Paris in 2015.

Entities that have been named in her honour include:

  • The¬†curie¬†(symbol¬†Ci), a unit of radioactivity, is named in honour of her and Pierre Curie (although the commission which agreed on the name never clearly stated whether the standard was named after Pierre, Marie or both of them).
  • The element with atomic number 96 was named¬†curium.
  • Three radioactive minerals are also named after the Curies:¬†curite,¬†sklodowskite, and¬†cuprosklodowskite.
  • The¬†Marie SkŇāodowska-Curie Actions¬†fellowship program of the¬†European Union¬†for young scientists wishing to work in a foreign country is named after her.
  • In 2007,¬†a metro station in Paris¬†was renamed to honour both of the Curies.
  • Polish nuclear research¬†reactor Maria¬†is named after her.
  • The¬†7000 Curie¬†asteroid is also named after her.
  • A¬†KLM¬†McDonnell Douglas MD-11¬†(registration PH-KCC) is named in her honour.
  • In 2011, a new¬†Warsaw bridge¬†over the¬†Vistula River was named in her honour
  • In January 2020,¬†Satellogic, a high-resolution¬†Earth observation¬†imaging and analytics company, launched a¬†√ĎuSat¬†type¬†micro-satellite; √ĎuSat 8, also known as Marie, was named in her honour.

Several institutions presently bear her name, including the two Curie institutes which she founded: the¬†Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology¬†in Warsaw, and the¬†Institut Curie¬†in Paris. The¬†Maria Curie-SkŇāodowska University, in¬†Lublin, was founded in 1944; and the¬†Pierre and Marie Curie University¬†(also known as Paris VI) was France’s pre-eminent science university, which would later merge to form the¬†Sorbonne University. In Britain, the¬†Marie Curie charity¬†was organized in 1948 to care for the terminally ill.

Two museums are devoted to Marie Curie. In 1967, the¬†Maria SkŇāodowska-Curie Museum¬†was established in Warsaw’s “New Town”, at her birthplace on¬†ulica Freta¬†(Freta Street).Her Paris laboratory is preserved as the¬†Mus√©e Curie, open since 1992.

Curie’s likeness has appeared on banknotes, stamps and coins around the world.She was featured on the Polish late-1980s 20,000-zŇāoty¬†banknote as well as on the last French 500-franc¬†note, before the franc was replaced by the euro. Curie-themed postage stamps from¬†Mali, the¬†Republic of Togo,¬†Zambia, and the¬†Republic of Guinea¬†actually show a picture of Susan Marie Frontczak portraying Curie in a 2001 picture by Paul Schroeder.

Her likeness or name has appeared on several artistic works. In 1935, Michalina MoŇõcicka, wife of Polish President¬†Ignacy MoŇõcicki, unveiled a statue of Marie Curie before Warsaw’s Radium Institute; during the 1944¬†Second World War¬†Warsaw Uprising¬†against the¬†Nazi German¬†occupation, the monument was damaged by gunfire; after the war it was decided to leave the bullet marks on the statue and its pedestal.Her name is included on the¬†Monument to the X-ray and Radium Martyrs of All Nations, erected in¬†Hamburg, Germany in 1936.¬†In 1955¬†Jozef Mazur¬†created a stained glass panel of her, the¬†Maria SkŇāodowska-Curie Medallion, featured in the¬†University at Buffalo¬†Polish Room.¬†In 2011, on the¬†centenary¬†of Marie Curie’s second Nobel Prize, an¬†allegorical¬†mural was painted on the¬†fa√ßade¬†of her Warsaw¬†birthplace. It depicted an infant Maria SkŇāodowska holding a test tube from which emanated the elements that she would discover as an adult:¬†polonium¬†and¬†radium.

In popular culture

Numerous biographies are devoted to her, including:

  • √ąve Curie¬†(Marie Curie’s daughter),¬†Madame Curie, 1938.
  • Fran√ßoise Giroud,¬†Marie Curie: A Life, 1987.
  • Barbara Goldsmith,¬†Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie, 2005.
  • Lauren Redniss,¬†Radioactive: Marie and Pierre Curie, a Tale of Love and Fallout, 2011, ¬†adapted into the 2019 British film,¬†Radioactive, starring¬†Rosamund Pike.

Marie Curie has been the subject of a number of films:

  • 1943:¬†Madame Curie, a U.S. Oscar-nominated film starring¬†Greer Garson¬†and¬†Walter Pidgeon.
  • 1997:¬†Les Palmes de M. Schutz, a French film adapted from a play of the same title. Marie Curie is played by¬†Isabelle Huppert.
  • 2016:¬†Marie Curie: The Courage of Knowledge, produced internationally in Europe.
  • 2019:¬†Radioactive, a British film starring¬†Rosamund Pike.

Curie is the subject of the 2013 play, False Assumptions, by Lawrence Aronovitch, in which the ghosts of three other women scientists observe events in her life. Curie has also been portrayed by Susan Marie Frontczak in her play, Manya: The Living History of Marie Curie, a one-woman show which by 2014 had been performed in 30 U.S. states and nine countries.


Coco Chanel: 1883 – 1971Coco Chanel (1883 - 1971) | 100 funny jokes & quotes about love, sex &  marriage - Comedy

‚ÄúThe most courageous act is still to think for yourself. Aloud.‚ÄĚ ‚Äď Coco Chanel

Gabrielle Bonheur¬†“Coco”¬†Chanel¬†(19 August 1883 ‚Äď 10 January 1971) was a¬†French fashion¬†designer and businesswoman. The founder and namesake of the¬†Chanel¬†brand, she was credited in the post-World War I¬†era with popularizing a sporty, casual chic as the feminine standard of style, replacing the “corseted¬†silhouette” that was dominant beforehand. A prolific fashion creator, Chanel extended her influence beyond¬†couture clothing, realizing her design aesthetic in jewellery, handbags, and fragrance. Her signature scent,¬†Chanel No. 5, has become an iconic product. She is the only fashion designer listed on¬†Time¬†magazine’s¬†list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Chanel herself designed her famed interlocked-CC monogram, which has been in use since the 1920s.

Rumors arose about Chanel’s activities during the¬†German occupation of France during World War II, and she was criticized for being too close to the German occupiers to boost her professional career: One of Chanel’s liaisons was with a German diplomat, Baron (Freiherr) Hans G√ľnther von Dincklage.After the war, Chanel was interrogated about her relationship with von Dincklage, but she was not charged as a¬†collaborator¬†due to intervention by Churchill.¬†After several post-war years in Switzerland, she returned to Paris and revived her fashion house. In 2011,¬†Hal Vaughan¬†published a book about Chanel based on newly declassified documents, revealing that she had collaborated directly with the Nazi intelligence service, the¬†Sicherheitsdienst. One plan in late 1943 was for her to carry an¬†SS¬†peace overture to British Prime Minister¬†Winston Churchill¬†to end the war.

Sleeping with the Enemy, Coco Chanel and the Secret War¬†written by Hal Vaughan further solidifies the consistencies of the French intelligence documents released by describing Coco as a “vicious anti-Semite” who praised Hitler.

World War II, specifically the Nazi seizure of all Jewish-owned property and business enterprises, provided Chanel with the opportunity to gain the full monetary fortune generated by¬†Parfums Chanel¬†and its most profitable product, Chanel No. 5. The directors of¬†Parfums Chanel, the Wertheimers, were Jewish. Chanel used her position as an “Aryan” to petition German officials to legalize her claim to sole ownership.

On 5 May 1941, she wrote to the government administrator charged with ruling on the disposition of Jewish financial assets. Her grounds for proprietary ownership were based on the claim that¬†Parfums Chanel¬†“is still the property of Jews” and had been legally “abandoned” by the owners.[23]:150[39]

She wrote:

I have an indisputable right of priority … the profits that I have received from my creations since the foundation of this business¬†… are disproportionate¬†… [and] you can help to repair in part the prejudices I have suffered in the course of these seventeen years.:152‚Äď53

Around the age of 20, Chanel became involved with Etienne Balsan, who offered to help her start a millinery business in Paris. She soon left him for one of his wealthier friends, Arthur ‚ÄúBoy‚ÄĚ Capel. Both men were instrumental in Chanel‚Äôs first fashion venture.

Opening her first shop on Paris’s Rue Cambon in 1910, Chanel started out selling hats. She later added stores in Deauville and Biarritz and began making clothes. 

Her first taste of clothing success came from a dress she fashioned out of an old jersey on a chilly day.¬†In response to the many people who asked about where she got the dress, she offered to make one for them. ‚ÄúMy fortune is built on that old jersey that I‚Äôd put on because it was cold in Deauville,‚ÄĚ she once told author Paul Morand.

Chanel became a popular figure in Parisian literary and artistic worlds. She designed costumes for the Ballets Russes and Jean Cocteau’s play Orphée, and counted Cocteau and artist Pablo Picasso among her friends.

In the 1920s, Chanel took her thriving business to new heights. She launched her first perfume, Chanel No. 5, which was the first to feature a designer‚Äôs name. Perfume ‚Äúis the unseen, unforgettable, ultimate accessory of fashion. . . . that heralds your arrival and prolongs your departure,‚ÄĚ Chanel once explained.¬†

The fragrance was in fact also backed by department store owner Théophile Bader and businessmen Pierre and Paul Wertheimer, with Chanel developing a close friendship with Pierre. 

A deal was ultimately negotiated where the Wertheimer business would take in 70 percent of Chanel No. 5 profits for producing the perfume at their factories, with Bader receiving 20 percent and Chanel herself only receiving 10 percent. Over the years, with No. 5 being a massive source of revenue, she repeatedly sued to have the terms of the deal renegotiated. 

Iconic Designs: Chanel Suit & Little Black Dress

In 1925, Chanel introduced the now legendary Chanel suit with collarless jacket and well-fitted skirt. Her designs were revolutionary for the time‚ÄĒborrowing elements of men‚Äôs wear and emphasizing comfort over the constraints of then-popular fashions. She helped women say goodbye to the days of corsets and other confining garments.

Another 1920s revolutionary design was Chanel’s little black dress. She took a color once associated with mourning and showed just how chic it could be for evening wear. 

The international economic depression of the 1930s had a negative impact on Chanel’s company, but it was the outbreak of¬†World War II¬†that led her to close her business. She fired her workers and shut down her shops.

After the war, Chanel left Paris, spending some years in Switzerland in a sort of exile. She also lived at her country house in Roquebrune for a time.

At the age of 70, in the early 1950s, Chanel made a triumphant return to the fashion world. She first received scathing reviews from critics, but her feminine and easy-fitting designs soon won over shoppers around the world.

Chanel died on January 10, 1971, at her apartment in the Hotel Ritz. She never married, having once said ‚ÄúI never wanted to weigh more heavily on a man than a bird.‚ÄĚ Hundreds crowded together at the Church of the Madeleine to bid farewell to the fashion icon. In tribute, many of the mourners wore Chanel suits.

A little more than a decade after her death, designer Karl Lagerfeld took the reins at her company to continue the Chanel legacy. Today her namesake company is held privately by the Wertheimer family and continues to thrive, believed to generate hundreds of millions in sales each year.

Movies, Books and Plays on Chanel

In 1969, Chanel’s fascinating life story became the basis for the Broadway musical Coco, starring Katharine Hepburn as the legendary designer. Alan Jay Lerner wrote the book and lyrics for the show’s song while Andre Prévin composed the music. Cecil Beaton handled the set and costume design for the production. The show received seven Tony Award nominations, and Beaton won for Best Costume Design and René Auberjonois for Best Featured Actor.

Several biographies of the fashion revolutionary have also been written, including¬†Chanel and Her World¬†(2005), written by Chanel’s friend Edmonde Charles-Roux.

In the¬†2008¬†television movie¬†Coco Chanel,¬†Shirley MacLaine¬†starred as the famous designer around the time of her 1954 career resurrection. The actress told¬†WWD¬†that she had long been interested in playing Chanel. ‚ÄúWhat‚Äôs wonderful about her is she‚Äôs not a straightforward, easy woman to understand.‚ÄĚ

In the 2008 film¬†Coco Before Chanel,¬†French actress Audrey Tautou played Chanel in her early years, from childhood to the founding of her fashion house. In 2009,¬†Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky¬†detailed Chanel’s relationship with the composer.

Katharine Hepburn: 1907 – 2003

Katharine Houghton Hepburn¬†(May 12, 1907¬†‚Äď June 29, 2003) was an American actress of film, stage, and television. Known for her headstrong independence and spirited personality, Hepburn’s career as a¬†Hollywood¬†leading lady spanned more than 60 years. She cultivated a screen persona that matched this public image, and regularly played strong-willed, sophisticated women. Her work came in a range of genres, from¬†screwball comedy¬†to literary drama, and she received four¬†Academy Awards¬†for¬†Best Actress‚ÄĒa record for any performer. In 1999, Hepburn was named by the¬†American Film Institute¬†the¬†greatest female star¬†of¬†classic Hollywood cinema.

Raised in Connecticut by wealthy, progressive parents, Hepburn began to act while studying at Bryn Mawr College. Favorable reviews of her work on Broadway brought her to the attention of Hollywood. Her early years in film were marked with success, including an Academy Award for Best Actress for her third picture, Morning Glory (1933), but this was followed by a series of commercial failures culminating in the critically lauded but commercially unsuccessful comedy Bringing Up Baby (1938). Hepburn masterminded her own comeback, buying out her contract with RKO Radio Pictures and acquiring the film rights to The Philadelphia Story, which she sold on the condition that she be the star. That comedy film was a box office success and landed her a third Academy Award nomination. In the 1940s, she was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where her career focused on an alliance with Spencer Tracy, which spanned 26 years and nine movies and extended to an unacknowledged off-screen affair.

Hepburn challenged herself in the latter half of her life, as she tackled¬†Shakespearean¬†stage productions and a range of literary roles. She found a niche playing middle-aged spinsters, such as in¬†The African Queen¬†(1951), a persona the public embraced. Hepburn earned three more Oscars for her work in¬†Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner¬†(1967),¬†The Lion in Winter¬†(1968), and¬†On Golden Pond¬†(1981). In the 1970s, she began appearing in television films, which later became the focus of her career. She made her final screen appearance at the age of 87. After a period of inactivity and ill health, Hepburn died in 2003 at the age of 96.

Hepburn famously shunned the Hollywood publicity machine, and refused to conform to society’s expectations of women. She was outspoken, assertive, and athletic, and wore trousers before they were fashionable for women. She was briefly married as a young woman, but thereafter lived independently. With her unconventional lifestyle and the independent characters she brought to the screen, Hepburn epitomized the “modern woman” in the 20th-century United States, and is remembered as an important cultural figure.

Hepburn was known for being fiercely private,and would not give interviews or talk to fans for much of her career.¬†She distanced herself from the celebrity lifestyle, uninterested in a social scene she saw as tedious and superficial,and she wore casual clothes that went strongly against convention in an era of glamour.She rarely appeared in public, even avoiding restaurants,¬†and once wrestled a camera out of a photographer’s hand when he took a picture without asking.Despite her zeal for privacy, she enjoyed her fame, and later confessed that she would not have liked the press to ignore her completely.The protective attitude toward her private life thawed as she aged; beginning with a two-hour-long interview on¬†The Dick Cavett Show¬†in 1973, Hepburn became more open with the public.

“I strike people as peculiar in some way, although I don’t quite understand why. Of course, I have an angular face, an angular body, and, I suppose, an angular personality, which jabs into people.”



“I’m a personality as well as an actress. Show me an actress who isn’t a personality, and you’ll show me a woman who isn’t a star.”

‚ÄĒ Hepburn commenting on her personality.

Hepburn’s relentless energy and enthusiasm for life are often cited in biographies, while a headstrong independence became key to her celebrity status.This self-assuredness meant she could be controlling and difficult; her friend¬†Garson Kanin¬†likened her to a schoolmistress,¬†and she was famously blunt and outspoken.¬†Katharine Houghton¬†commented that her aunt could be “maddeningly self-righteous and bossy”.Hepburn confessed to being, especially early in life, “a¬†me me me¬†person”.She saw herself as having a happy nature, reasoning “I like life and I’ve been so lucky, why shouldn’t I be happy?”¬†A. Scott Berg¬†knew Hepburn well in her later years, and said that while she was demanding, she retained a sense of humility and humanity.

The actress led an active life, reportedly swimming and playing tennis every morning.In her eighties she was still playing tennis regularly, as indicated in her 1993 documentary¬†All About Me.She also enjoyed painting, which became a passion later in life.¬†When questioned about politics, Hepburn told an interviewer, “I always just say be on the affirmative and liberal side. Don’t be a ‘no’ person.”¬†The¬†anti-Communist attitude in 1940s Hollywood¬†prompted her to political activity, as she joined the¬†Committee for the First Amendment. Her name was mentioned at the hearings of the¬†House Un-American Activities Committee, but Hepburn denied being a Communist sympathizer.Later in life, she openly promoted¬†birth control¬†and supported the legal right to¬†abortion. She described herself as a “dedicated¬†Democrat”.¬†She practiced¬†Albert Schweitzer’s theory of “Reverence for Life”,¬†but did not believe in religion or the afterlife.In 1991, Hepburn told a journalist, “I’m an atheist, and that’s it. I believe there’s nothing we can know, except that we should be kind to each other and do what we can for other people.”¬†Her public declarations of these beliefs led the¬†American Humanist Association¬†to award her the Humanist Arts Award in 1985.

Hepburn liked to go¬†barefoot,¬†and for her first acting role in the play¬†The Woman in the Moon¬†she insisted that her character Pandora should not wear shoes.¬†Offscreen, she usually dressed in slacks and¬†sandals, even for formal occasions like TV interviews.¬†In her own words, “the thing that drove me out of skirts was the stocking situation… That’s why I’ve always worn pants…that way you can always go barefoot”.

Hepburn’s Relationships

Hepburn’s only marriage was to Ludlow Ogden Smith, a socialite-businessman from Philadelphia whom she met while a student at Bryn Mawr. The couple wed on December 12, 1928, when she was 21 and he was 29.Smith changed his name to S. Ogden Ludlow at her behest so that she would not be “Kate Smith”, which she considered too plain.She never fully committed to the marriage and prioritized her career. The move to Hollywood in 1932 cemented the couple’s estrangement,¬†and in 1934, she traveled to Mexico to get a¬†quick divorce. Hepburn often expressed her gratitude toward Smith for his financial and moral support in the early days of her career, and in her autobiography called herself “a terrible pig” for exploiting his love.The pair remained friends until his death in 1979.

Soon after moving to California, Hepburn began a relationship with her agent,¬†Leland Hayward, although they were both married.Hayward proposed to the actress after they had both divorced, but she declined, later explaining, “I liked the idea of being my own single self.”¬†The affair lasted four years.¬†In 1936, while she was touring¬†Jane Eyre, Hepburn began a relationship with entrepreneur¬†Howard Hughes. She had been introduced to him a year earlier by their mutual friend Cary Grant.Hughes wished to marry her, and the tabloids reported their impending nuptials, but Hepburn stayed focused on resurrecting her failing career.¬†They separated in 1938, when Hepburn left Hollywood after being labeled “box office poison”.